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This chapter shows that the book’s core transactional techniques are viable under existing law, and it defends the book’s analysis as a matter of statutory interpretation. It also provides various alternative transactional means to achieve similar goals, both as practical alternatives and to show the conceptual robustness of the book’s main proposed transactional technique.
Concluding the set of general background chapters that introduce theoretical foundations, Chapter 3 summarises relevant insights from three fairly unrelated fields: cognitive linguistics, discourse analysis, and functional grammar. In cognitive linguistics, prominent insights include the relationship between words, concepts, and meanings, along with their structures in terms of semantics and syntax, general patterns concerning how language is used, and the fact that meanings are embedded in physical experience and transferred to more abstract domains (often referred to as metaphor). Discourse analysis is a generic label encompassing many ways of analysing actual language used in different contexts; this section looks at prominent methods adopted in well-known approaches such as Critical Discourse Analysis and Conversation Analysis, and then addresses a range of discourse-specific phenomena to illustrate pertinent insights in the field. Finally, Functional Grammar with its three levels of analysis (interpersonal, ideational, and textual) offers specific analysis perspectives and insights that are highly relevant and useful for understanding discourse in a cognitive context.
Since the late nineties, composition projects inviting artists and contemporary composers into schools and communities became more established and written about in German speaking countries (see for instance Henze, 1998; Schneider, Bösze & Stangl, 2000; Schneider, 2000; Schatt, 2009; Schlothfeldt, 2009; Schneider, 2012). Additionally, music education researchers have provided theoretical and didactical analysis of contemporary music teaching and learning in schools (Winkler, 2002; Weber, 2003). In this qualitative study, expert interviews were analysed using Grounded Theory Methodology to investigate structures and processes of current practises in collaborative composition projects. Apart from illustrating the seven structural factors and three main project sections that emerged, the article also discusses the main category fostering creative processes.
The second edition of Government Accountability: Australian Administrative Law offers an accessible and practical introduction to administrative law in Australia. The text introduces the legal principles that regulate the exercise of power by public authorities and explains the legal mechanisms that exist to remedy failures, with an emphasis on the overarching principle of accountability.Thoroughly revised and updated to incorporate recent changes to case law and legislation, this edition offers expanded, contemporary material on public investigatory bodies, information disclosure, administrative review tribunals, the limits on juridical review, and procedural fairness. Updated case examples throughout illustrate the practical operation of these principles and assist readers to connect theory with practice. Government Accountability provides readers with a concise introduction to the contexts, theory and application of administrative law and arms students with the knowledge and skills to successfully analyse and assess the decisions and actions of public authorities.
Sourdough fermentation is considered to have beneficial effects on postprandial satiety and metabolic responses, but studies demonstrating effects at physiological conditions are lacking. The aim of this acute breakfast intervention study was to determine the effect of consumption of sourdough-fermented and unfermented rye crispbread on self-rated appetite, postprandial glucose and insulin response in healthy subjects. In all, twenty-four Swedish adults were included in a single-blinded, randomised cross-over trial. Three crispbreads (sourdough-fermented and unfermented whole grain rye and yeast-fermented refined wheat as control) were consumed as part of a standardised breakfast. Subjective appetite score, assessed using visual analogue scale, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and postprandially until 360 and 240 min, respectively. Structural changes and viscosity during mastication and gastric digestion were investigated using in vitro methods. Hunger and desire to eat were lower (P<0·05) based on AUC measurements after intake of sourdough-fermented rye crispbread compared with after intake of yeast-fermented refined wheat crispbread. On the basis of AUC (0–230 min), insulin response was lowest after intake of unfermented rye crispbread compared with sourdough-fermented rye and yeast-fermented refined wheat crispbread. Degradation of viscous fibres and faster bolus disintegration for the sourdough-fermented bread may partly explain the less favourable metabolic responses compared with unfermented bread. Our results showed that food processing affects the composition and structural characteristics of rye bread, which has implications for appetite and metabolic responses.
The modification of aerofoils with structural morphing in order to enhance aerodynamic efficiency is an active field of research. The required forced and induced displacements are, usually, out the current developments on shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators or multi-stable structures for commercial transport aircraft applications. This work aims to present studies for obtaining an optimum rudder structure which morphs to a pre-defined curvature that can sustain aerodynamic and internal loads in a critical certification load case for a commercial transport aircraft. It also includes the feasibility of a morphing rudder based on a zero Poisson skeleton, or close to a zero Poisson ratio panel geometrical configuration that has no transverse deformation when perpendicularly loaded and which is produced with an additive layer manufacturing process.
Research on the determinants of government performance has identified numerous factors bearing on effective governance and government's role in it. However, understanding of how these factors are causally inter-related is limited. We take as our point of departure a multi-level analytic framework termed a logic of governance (LOG), previously used to reveal patterns of causality in governance based on hundreds of published research publications. Using a revised LOG, we reinterpret the earlier analysis in terms of organisational effectiveness indicators, and identify patterns of causal interaction in 300 more recent research articles. We formulate a multi-level model of governance that postulates how public policy and management interact to affect government outputs and outcomes. We hypothesise that the exercise of hierarchical authority is more fundamental to performance than has been acknowledged by governance scholars. We challenge the argument that advanced democracies are moving towards “governance without government”.
The article attempts to examine the structures of the EFTA Court in order to gain insights into its effectiveness. For this purpose the article relies on a rational system approach developed within social sciences to improve understanding the performance of public organisations and calibrated to examine international courts by the ERC Project Researching Conditions for Effective International Adjudication. Under the conceptual and analytical framework advanced by the Effectiveness Project the article, therefore, examines the main structures of the EFTA Court: for example, the Court's budget, jurisdictional rules, judicial independence and main legal doctrines. The article will also, in relation to some aspects, attempt to conduct a qualitative assessment of how some of these features relate to the effectiveness of the Court.
Analyses of structures in the western part of the North Patagonian Massif (southern Argentina) suggest a polyphase evolution, accompanied by continuous intrusive activity. The first two deformations (D1, D2) and metamorphism affected the upper Palaeozoic, partly possibly older Cushamen Formation clastic succession and different intrusive rocks. A second group of intrusions, emplaced after the second deformational episode (D2), in many places contain angular xenoliths of the foliated country rocks, indicating high intrusive levels with brittle fracturing of the crust. Deformation of these magmatic rocks presumably began during (the final stage of) cooling and continued under solid-state conditions. It probably coincided with the third deformational event (D3) in the country rocks. Based on published U–Pb zircon ages of deformed granitoids, the D2-deformation and younger event along with the regional metamorphism are likely to be Permian in age. An onset of the deformational and magmatic history during Carboniferous times, however, cannot be excluded. The estimated ~W–E to NE–SW compression during the D2-deformation, also affecting the first group of intrusive rocks, can be related to subduction beneath the western Patagonia margin or an advanced stage of collisional tectonics within extra-Andean Patagonia. The younger ~N–S to NE–SW compression might have been an effect of oblique subduction in the west and/or continuing collision-related deformation. As a cause for its deviating orientation, younger block rotations during strike-slip faulting cannot be excluded. The previous D2-event presumably also had an effect on compression at the northern Patagonia margin that was interpreted as result of Patagonia's late Palaeozoic collision with the southwestern Gondwana margin. With the recently proposed Carboniferous subduction and collision south of the North Patagonian Massif, the entire scenario might suggest that Patagonia consists of two different pieces that were amalgamated with southwestern Gondwana during Late Palaeozoic times.
Des Extensomètres souples et de Longue Base (ELB) de mesure sont maintenant disponibles commercialement.
Ils sont réalisés avec des fibres optiques interrogées par interférométrie faible cohérence,
conditionnées de manière à adhérer continûment à l'ouvrage.
Ils sont intéressants pour la surveillance dynamique d'ouvrages d'art car leur longueur significative, vis-à-vis de l'ouvrage étudié, permet d'observer son comportement structurel.
L'article s'attache à formuler, de manière analytique, la mesure réalisée par les ELB-CA afin d'anticiper leur réponse.
On s'intéresse premièrement au cas du comportement vibratoire linéaire d'une poutre et deuxièmement au cas plus général d'une poutre en grands déplacements.
Dans ce deuxième cas, la mesure des ELB, prenant en compte les non-linéarités géométriques, est calculée numériquement.
Le calcul analytique des ELB permet alors de montrer les limites de l'hypothèse de linéarité.
Des simulations numériques sont présentées pour ces deux cas lors de l'étude dynamique d'une poutre bi-encastrée de type Euler-Bernoulli.
Il ressort que la mesure des ELB dépend des non-linéarités géométriques de la structure.
En effet, si celles-ci ne sont plus négligeables, les transformées de Fourier des signaux de mesure des ELB contiennent les fréquences propres de la poutre, mais aussi des fréquences supplémentaires, combinaisons de ces fréquences propres.
Structural optimization is usually handled by iterative methods requiring repeated samples of a physics-based model, but this process can be computationally demanding. Given a set of previously optimized structures of the same topology, this paper uses inductive learning to replace this optimization process entirely by deriving a function that directly maps any given load to an optimal geometry. A support vector machine is trained to determine the optimal geometry of individual modules of a space frame structure given a specified load condition. Structures produced by learning are compared against those found by a standard gradient descent optimization, both as individual modules and then as a composite structure. The primary motivation for this is speed, and results show the process is highly efficient for cases in which similar optimizations must be performed repeatedly. The function learned by the algorithm can approximate the result of optimization very closely after sufficient training, and has also been found effective at generalizing the underlying optima to produce structures that perform better than those found by standard iterative methods.
Ce travail porte sur l'utilisation du verre
comme véritable matériau de structure et concerne plus
particulièrement le calcul des contraintes résiduelles de trempe
autour des zones d'assemblage par insertion d'un connecteur métallique
au sein de plaques trouées et chanfreinées pour la prédiction de
la résistance de tels assemblages.
Des simulations numériques par la méthode des éléments finis
du procédé de trempe sont menées pour le calcul des contraintes
transitoires et résiduelles près des bords de plaques de verre
(calculs 2D) et près de trous chanfreinés (calculs 3D). Le verre est
considéré comme un matériau viscoélastique, le modèle de
Narayanaswamy est utilisé, il prend en compte les phénomènes de
relaxation de contraintes d'origine visqueuse et structurale. Une
difficulté provient de la description correcte des transferts de chaleur
pendant la trempe qui est d'importance majeure pour la prédiction des
contraintes résiduelles. La convection forcée due au soufflage de
l'air et le rayonnement sont modélisés, le caractère
semi-transparent du verre est pris en compte. Les coefficients de convection
forcée dans les zones bords sont identifiés expérimentalement.
Les résultats de prédiction des contraintes résiduelles de
trempe sont comparés à des résultats de mesures
photo-élastiques. Ce travail permet l'optimisation de la
géométrie de la plaque de verre pour un renforcement maximal dans la
Ce travail porte sur l'utilisation du verre comme véritable matériau de structure et concerne plus particulièrement la proposition d'une méthode de contrôle in situ non destructif des structures en verre trempé thermiquement, notamment dans les zones d'assemblage. Une méthode de dimensionnement de la structure est proposée. Elle est fondée d'une part, sur un état limite ultime garantissant la pérennité de la structure sur une longue durée de chargement, et d'autre part, sur une prédiction, par la méthode des éléments finis, en tout point de la structure, de l'état de contraintes résiduelles dues au procédé de trempe thermique ainsi que celles dues au chargement mécanique extérieur. La méthode de contrôle consiste à comparer, durant la vie de la structure, des images issues d'analyses photoélastiques sur la structure chargée, à des images obtenues par calcul aux éléments finis pour l'état limite ultime ayant servi au dimensionnement.
The structural evolution in amorphous silicon and germanium
thin films has been investigated by high-resolution transmission
electron microscopy (HRTEM) in conjunction with autocorrelation
function (ACF) analysis. The results established that the structure
of as-deposited semiconductor films is of a high density of
nanocrystallites embedded in the amorphous matrix. In addition,
from ACF analysis, the structure of a-Ge is more ordered than
that of a-Si. The density of embedded nanocrystallites in amorphous
films was found to diminish with annealing temperature first,
then to increase. The conclusions also corroborate well with
the results of diminished medium-range order in annealed amorphous
films determined previously by a variable coherence microscopy
The technique of energy selected electron diffraction gives information about amorphous structures which can be used to characterize amorphous materials in terms of their structure. The diffraction data can be used to refine models obtained using molecular dynamics, resulting in physically reasonable models consistent with the diffraction data.
The luminescent properties of AlGaN epitaxial layers with AlN mole fractions up to 30% and various types of AlGaN/GaN-based heterostructures have been studied. The structures were grown on 6H-SiC substrates by MOCVD. The structures' cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence were measured. A “blue” shift of the edge luminescent peak position for AlGaN alloys was measured to be a non-linear function on the AlN mole fraction. For p-AlGaN/n-GaN double heterostructures (DH), the edge peak position was detected at 365 nm (300K). For a p-Al0.05Ga0.95N/n-Al0.03Ga0.97N heterostructure, the electroluminescent edge peak was observed at 355 nm (300K). The effects of temperature and forward current on the edge electroluminescence of theAlGaN/GaN DH's were investigated.