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Stars lose mass and angular momentum during their lifetimes. Observations of H-alpha absorption of a number of low mass stars, show prominences transiting the stellar disc and being ejected into the extended stellar wind. Analytic modelling have shown these M-dwarf coronal structures growing to be orders of magnitude larger than their solar counterparts. This makes prominences responsible for mass and angular momentum loss comparable to that due to the stellar wind. We present results from a numerical study which used magnetohydrodynamic simulations to model the balance between gravity, magnetic confinement, and rotational acceleration. This allows us to study the time dependent nature of prominence formation. We demonstrate that a prominence, formed beyond the co-rotation radius, is ejected into the extended stellar wind in the slingshot prominence paradigm. Mass, angular momentum flux and ejection frequency have been calculated for a representative cool star, in the so-called Thermal Non-Equilibrium (TNE) regime.
V530 Per is a solar-like member of the young open cluster α Persei, with an ultra-short rotation period (P∼0.32d). We report on two spectropolarimetric campaigns using ESPaDOnS, aimed at characterizing the short-term variability of its magnetic activity and large-scale magnetic field. We used time-resolved spectropolarimetric observations obtained in 2006 and 2018 and reconstructed the brightness distribution and large-scale magnetic field geometry of V530 Per through Zeeman-Doppler imaging. Using the same data sets, we also mapped the spatial distribution of prominences through tomography of Hα emission. We reconstruct, at both epochs, a large, dark spot occupying the polar region of V530 Per while smaller (dark and bright) spots were reconstructed at lower latitudes. The maximal field strength reached ∼1 kG. The prominence pattern displayed a stable component that was confined close to the corotation radius. In 2018, we also observed rapidly evolving Hα emitting structures, over timescales ranging from minutes to days. The fast Hα evolution was not linked to any detected photospheric changes in the spot or magnetic coverage.
Stars interact with their planets through gravitation, radiation, and magnetic fields. Although magnetic activity decreases with time, reducing associated high-energy (e.g., coronal XUV emission, flares), stellar winds persist throughout the entire evolution of the system. Their cumulative effect will be dominant for both the star and for possible orbiting exoplanets, affecting in this way the expected habitability conditions. However, observations of stellar winds in low-mass main sequence stars are limited, which motivates the usage of models as a pathway to explore how these winds look like and how they behave. Here we present the results from a grid of 3D state-of-the-art stellar wind models for cool stars (spectral types F to M). We explore the role played by the different stellar properties (mass, radius, rotation, magnetic field) on the characteristics of the resulting magnetized winds (mass and angular momentum losses, terminal speeds, wind topology) and isolate the most important dependencies between the parameters involved. These results will be used to establish scaling laws that will complement the lack of stellar wind observational constraints.
Astrophysical outflows treated initially as spherically symmetric often show evidence for asymmetry once seen at higher resolution. The preponderance of aspherical and multipolar planetary nebulae (PN) and pre-planetary nebulae (PPN) was evident after many observations from the Hubble Space Telescope. Binary interactions have long been thought to be essential for shaping asymmetric PN/PPN, but how? PPN are the more kinematically demanding of the two, and warrant particular focus. I address how progress from observation and theory suggests two broad classes of accretion driven PPN jets: one for wider binaries (PPN-W) where the companion is outside the outer radius of the giant and accretes via Roche lobe overflow, and the other which occurs in the later stages of CE for close binaries (PPN-C). The physics within these scenarios connects to progress and open questions about the role and origin of magnetic fields in the engines and in astrophysical jets more generally.
The magnetar SGR J1830–0645 was discovered in outburst in October 2020. We studied its X-ray properties during the first month of the outburst using XMM–Newton, NuSTAR and Swift observations. The shape and amplitude of the pulse profile varied significantly with energy. The broadband spectrum was well described using two absorbed blackbody components plus a faint power law component at high energies. Phase-resolved spectral analysis of the data suggests that the emission could be attributed to thermal photons from a single heated region with a complex shape on the star surface undergoing resonant Compton scattering on charged particles located in the magnetosphere. Modelling the evolutionary path of the magnetar with our magneto-thermal evolutionary codes indicates that SGR J1830 was born ≈23 kyr ago with a dipolar magnetic field of ∼1015 G, slightly larger than the current value.
We study the long-term heating due to magnetic field decay in the core of neutron star. Two cases for the nucleonic core are considered: normal and strongly superconducting. We give simple scaling relations (depending on the internal stellar temperature and the averaged magnetic field in the core) to estimate the magnetic field decay rate for the most important dissipation processes. Comparison to properties of observed neutron stars suggests that heating due to the magnetic field decay is (at least partially) responsible for the thermal states of middle-aged magnetars and highly-magnetized isolated neutron stars with ages of 1 — 10 Myr.
The decay of the magnetic field in the interior of a magnetar may trigger electron captures by nuclei in the stellar crust, thus providing an internal source of heating. In turn, the onset of electron captures and the heat released are altered by the magnetic field due to the Landau–Rabi quantization of electron motion. The loss of magnetic pressure might also lead to pycnonuclear fusions of the lightest elements. The maximum amount of heat that can be possibly released by each reaction and their location are calculated using nuclear data from both experiments and theoretical predictions of the Brussels-Montreal models based on self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations. Results are found to be consistent with those inferred empirically by comparing neutron-star cooling simulations with observed thermal luminosity of soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars.
A significant fraction of white dwarfs possess a magnetic field with strengths ranging from a few kG up to about 1000 MG. However, the incidence of magnetism varies when the white dwarf population is broken down into different spectral types providing clues on the formation of magnetic fields in white dwarfs. Several scenarios for the origin of magnetic fields have been proposed from a fossil field origin to dynamo generation at various stages of evolution. Offset dipoles are often assumed sufficient to model the field structure, however time-resolved spectropolarimetric observations have revealed more complex structures such as magnetic spots or multipoles. Surface mapping of these field structures combined with measured rotation rates help distinguish scenarios involving single star evolution from other scenarios involving binary interactions. I describe key observational properties of magnetic white dwarfs such as age, mass, and field strength, and confront proposed formation scenarios with these properties.
Recent evidence of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs (WDs), from the observations of over-luminous type Ia supernovae (SNeIa), has been a great astrophysical discovery. However, no such massive WDs have so far been observed directly as their luminosities are generally quite low. Hence it immediately raises the question of whether there is any possibility of detecting them directly. The search for super-Chandrasekhar WDs is very important as SNeIa are used as standard candles in cosmology. In this article, we show that continuous gravitational wave can allow us to detect such super-Chandrasekhar WDs directly.
We discuss selected aspects regarding the magnetic field evolution of solar-type stars. Most of the stars with activity cycles are in the range where the normalized chromospheric Calcium emission increases linearly with the inverse Rossby number. For Rossby numbers below about a quarter of the solar value, the activity saturates and no cycles have been found. For Rossby numbers above the solar value, again no activity cycles have been found, but now the activity goes up again for a major fraction of the stars. Rapidly rotating stars show nonaxisymmetric large-scale magnetic fields, but there is disagreement between models and observations regarding the actual value of the Rossby number where this happens. We also discuss the prospects of detecting the sign of magnetic helicity using various linear polarization techniques both at the stellar surface using the parity-odd contribution to linear polarization and above the surface using Faraday rotation.
The hot Jupiter HD189733b is expected to be a source of strong radio emission, due to its close proximity to its magnetically active host star. Here, we model the stellar wind of its host star, based on reconstructed surface stellar magnetic field maps. We use the local stellar wind properties at the planetary orbit obtained from our models to compute the expected radio emission from the planet. Our findings show that the planet emits with a peak flux density within the detection capabilities of LOFAR. However, due to absorption by the stellar wind itself, this emission may be attenuated significantly. We show that the best time to observe the system is when the planet is near primary transit of the host star, as the attenuation from the stellar wind is lowest in this region.
The stellar magnetic field is the driver of activity in the star and can trigger energetic flares, CMEs and ionized wind. These phenomena, specially CMEs, may have an important impact on the magnetosphere and atmosphere of the orbiting planets. To predict whether a CME will impact a planet, the effects of the background on the CME's trajectory must be taken into account. We used the MHD code ForeCAT – a model for CME deflection due to magnetic forces – to perform numerical simulations of CMEs being launched from both the Sun and Kepler-63, which is a young, solar-like star with high activity. Comparing results from Kepler-63 and the Sun gives us a panorama of the distinct activity level and star-planet interactions of these systems due to the difference of stellar ages and star-planet distances.
For the shortest period exoplanets, star-planet tidal interactions are likely to have played a major role in the ultimate orbital evolution of the planets and on the spin evolution of the host stars. Although low-mass stars are magnetically active objects, the question of how the star’s magnetic field impacts the excitation, propagation and dissipation of tidal waves remains open. We have derived the magnetic contribution to the tidal interaction and estimated its amplitude throughout the structural and rotational evolution of low-mass stars (from K to F-type). We find that the star’s magnetic field has little influence on the excitation of tidal waves in nearly circular and coplanar Hot-Jupiter systems, but that it has a major impact on the way waves are dissipated.
We report the results of three VLBI observations of the pre-main-sequence star AB Doradus A at 8.4 GHz. With almost three years between consecutive observations, we found a complex structure at the expected position of this star for all epochs. Maps at epochs 2007 and 2010 show a double core-halo morphology while the 2013 map reveals three emission peaks with separations between 5 and 18 stellar radii. Furthermore, all maps show a clear variation of the source structure within the observing time. We consider a number of hypothesis in order to explain such observations, mainly: magnetic reconnection in loops on the polar cap, a more general loop scenario and a close companion to AB Dor A.
Signs of stellar activity such as large surface spots and radio flares are often related to binarity. UX Arietis is one of the most active members of the RS CVn class of binaries in which spin-up of a sub-giant/giant star by a close companion leads to the creation of magnetic fields. UX Arietis exhibits these signs of activity, originating mostly on the K0 sub-giant primary component. We measured the orbit with the CHARA interferometer and made images of a single large spot rotating in and out of view over a month in 2012. The rotation of the stars is synchronous with the orbit, and long-term photometric observations show that the spot or spots do not move much during intervals of a year. Our aim is to relate the positions of the stars and the spots on the primary to astrometry of the radio components observed during outbursts.
The dynamo mechanism, responsible for the solar magnetic activity, is still an open problem in astrophysics. Different theories proposed to explain such phenomena have failed in reproducing the observational properties of the solar magnetism. Thus, ab-initio computational modeling of the convective dynamo in a spherical shell turns out as the best alternative to tackle this problem. In this work we review the efforts performed in global simulations over the past decades. Regarding the development and sustain of mean-flows, as well as mean magnetic field, we discuss the points of agreement and divergence between the different modeling strategies. Special attention is given to the implicit large-eddy simulations performed with the EULAG-MHD code.
Stars and their exoplanets evolve together. Depending on the physical characteristics of these systems, such as age, orbital distance and activity of the host stars, certain types of star-exoplanet interactions can dominate during given phases of the evolution. Identifying observable signatures of such interactions can provide additional avenues for characterising exoplanetary systems. Here, I review some recent works on star-planet interactions and discuss their observability at different wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum.
Bipolar and more complex morphologies observed in planetary nebulae have been explained by two principal hypotheses: by the existence of a companion producing a circumstellar disk, by the effects of a magnetic field, or by a combination of both. The polarimetric analysis of these objects could give information about the presence of dust grains aligned with any preferential direction, due to a magnetic field or to the action of radiative torques (RAT). We performed polarimetric observations of some planetary nebulae in order to detect linear polarization and (in the best scenario) to detect the signature of an accretion disk in these objects. We observed in the visual region with POLIMA at the San Pedro Mártir observatory, and with POLICAN the NIR polarimeter in the Guillermo Haro observatory. We present the result of these observations in one of these objects: the PN M2-9.
We obtained equations for a thin magnetic accretion disk, using the method of asymptotic approximation. They cannot be solved analytically-without solutions for a magnetic field in the magnetosphere between the star and the disk, only a set of general conditions on the solutions can be derived. To compare the analytical results with numerical solutions, we find expressions for physical quantities in the disk, using our results from resistive and viscous star-disk magnetospheric interaction simulations.
We propose induction heating of planetary interiors as an energy source in the planetary mantles. Induction heating arises when a changing magnetic field induces currents in a conducting planetary mantle which then dissipate to heat the planet, mostly within an upper layer called the skin depth. This physical process can play a role in planetary interiors around strongly magnetized stars such as low mass M dwarfs with kG magnetic fields, which are common among these stars.