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Spectral observations in the Ly-α line have shown that atmospheric escape is variable and for the exoplanet HD189733b, the atmospheric evaporation goes from undetected to enhanced evaporation in a 1.5 years interval. To understand the temporal variation in the atmospheric escape, we investigate the effect of flares, winds, and CMEs on the atmosphere of hot Jupiter HD189733b using 3D self-consistent radiation hydrodynamic simulations. We consider four cases: first, the quiescent phase including stellar wind; secondly, a flare; thirdly, a CME; and fourthly, a flare followed by a CME. We find that the flare alone increases the atmospheric escape rate by only 25%, while the CME leads to a factor of 4 increments, in comparison to the quiescent case. We also find that the flare alone cannot explain the observed high blue-shifted velocities seen in the Ly-α. The CME, however, leads to an increase in the velocity of escaping atmospheres, enhancing the blue-shifted transit depth.
Magnetic confinement of material is observed on both high and low mass stars. On low mass stars, this confinement can be seen as slingshot prominences, in which condensations are supported several stellar radii above the surface by strong magnetic fields. We present a model for generating cooled field lines in equilibrium with the background corona, which we use to populate a model corona. We find prominence masses on the order of observationally derived values. We find two types of solutions: footpoint heavy “solar-like prominences” and summit heavy “slingshot prominences” which are centrifugally supported. These can form within the open field region i.e. embedded in the wind. We generate Hα spectra from different field structures and show that all display behaviour that is consistent with observations. This implies that the features seen in observations could be supported by a range of conditions, suggesting they would be common across rapidly rotating stars.
We investigate magnetic activity properties of 21 stars via medium resolution optical spectra and long-term photometry. Applying synthetic spectrum fitting method, we find that all targets are cool giant or sub-giant stars possessing overall [M/H] abundances between 0 and
. We find that six of these targets exhibit only linear trend in mean brightness, while eight of them clearly shows cyclic mean brightness variation. Remaining seven target appear to exhibit cyclic mean brightness variation, but this cannot be confirmed due to the long timescales of the predicted cycle compared to the current time range of the photometric data. We further determine seasonal photometric periods and compute average photometric period of each target. Analysed sample in this study provides a quantitative representation of a positive linear correlation between the inverse of the rotation period and the cycle period normalised to the rotation period, on the log-log scale. We also observe no correlation between the activity cycle length and the relative surface shear, indicating that the activity cycle must be driven by a parameter rather than the differential rotation. Our analyses show that the relative surface shear is positively correlated with the rotation period and there is a noticeable separation between main sequence stars and our sample. Compared to our sample, the relative surface shear of a main sequence star is larger for a given rotation period. However, dependence of the relative surface shear on the rotation period appears stronger for our sample. Analysis of the current photometric data indicates that the photometric properties of the observed activity cycles in eight targets seem dissimilar to the sunspot cycle.
It is well established that late-type main-sequence (MS) stars display a relationship between X-ray activity and the Rossby number, Ro, the ratio of rotation period to the convective turnover time. This manifests itself as a saturated regime (where X-ray activity is constant) and an unsaturated regime (where X-ray activity anti-correlates with Rossby number). However, this relationship breaks down for the fastest rotators. We cross-correlated SuperWASP visually classified photometric light curves and All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae automatically classified photometric light curves with XMM-Newton X-ray observations to identify 3 178 stars displaying a photometrically defined rotational modulation in their light curve and corresponding X-ray observations. We fitted a power-law to characterise the rotation–activity relation of 900 MS stars. We identified that automatically classified rotationally modulated light curves are not as reliable as visually classified light curves for this work. We found a power-law index in the unsaturated regime of G- to M-type stars of
for the SuperWASP catalogue, in line with the canonical value of
. We find evidence of supersaturation in the fastest rotating K-type stars, with a power-law index of
We present an analysis of colour excess (CE) observations for 13 chromospherically active binary systems, together with 27 inactive reference stars of similar spectral types and luminosity classes of the components of these 13 binaries. We used the observations which were made by Johnson-Cousins
, 2MASS, and WISE photometric systems. Our new photometric
observations were obtained by means of 1 m telescope at TÜBİTAK National Observatory and 40 cm telescope at Ankara University Kreiken Observatory. To check the existence of extended matter around an active binary component(s) of these 13 binary systems, we examined the CE values at around primary/secondary minima and outside eclipses. The comparison of these CEs, obtained relative to those of reference stars of the same
colours, especially during primary minima with those of secondary minima and outside eclipses, showed that these systems have greater excess radiation in primary minima than in both secondary minima and outside eclipses. We observed that the colour excesses, in general, most likely arise from the extended matter around the cooler component of a binary system. The comparison of CE values also showed that the extended matter of some of these systems was most likely covered or affected both of their components. Since no observational data were obtained during primary minimum of RW UMa, by excluding this binary system, an examination of the locations of cool and active components of the remaining 12 systems of this study on Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, together with corresponding evolutionary tracks, showed that most of the active binary systems have an extended matter not only caused from stellar activity but also more likely caused from evolutionary processes.
The stellar magnetic field completely dominates the environment around late-type stars. It is responsible for driving the coronal high-energy radiation (e.g. EUV/X-rays), the development of stellar winds, and the generation transient events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While progress has been made for the first two processes, our understanding of the eruptive behavior in late-type stars is still very limited. One example of this is the fact that despite the frequent and highly energetic flaring observed in active stars, direct evidence for stellar CMEs is almost non-existent. Here we discuss realistic 3D simulations of stellar CMEs, analyzing their resulting properties in contrast with solar eruptions, and use them to provide a common framework to interpret the available stellar observations. Additionally, we present results from the first 3D CME simulations in M-dwarf stars, with emphasis on possible observable signatures imprinted in the stellar corona.
The stellar magnetic field is the driver of activity in the star and can trigger energetic flares, CMEs and ionized wind. These phenomena, specially CMEs, may have an important impact on the magnetosphere and atmosphere of the orbiting planets. To predict whether a CME will impact a planet, the effects of the background on the CME's trajectory must be taken into account. We used the MHD code ForeCAT – a model for CME deflection due to magnetic forces – to perform numerical simulations of CMEs being launched from both the Sun and Kepler-63, which is a young, solar-like star with high activity. Comparing results from Kepler-63 and the Sun gives us a panorama of the distinct activity level and star-planet interactions of these systems due to the difference of stellar ages and star-planet distances.
Solar simulations and observations showed that the detection of Earth twins around Sun-like stars is difficult in radial velocities with current methods techniques. The Sun has proved to be very useful to test processes, models, and analysis methods. The convective blueshift effect, dominating for the Sun, decreases towards lower mass stars, providing more suitable conditions to detect low mass planets. We describe the basic processes at work and how we extended a realistic solar model of radial velocity, photometry, astrometry and LogR′HK variability, using a coherent grid of stellar parameters covering a large range in mass and average activity levels. We present selected results concerning the impact of magnetic activity on Earth-mass planet detectability as a function of stellar type. We show how such realistic simulations can help characterizing the effect of stellar activity on RV and astrometric exoplanet detection.
The high energy X-ray and UV radiation fields of host stars play a crucial role in determining the atmospheric conditions and habitability of potentially-habitable exoplanets. This paper focuses on the major surveys of the UV/X-ray emissions of M- and K-type exoplanet hosts that have been undertaken by the MUSCLES and MegaMUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury programs and associated contemporaneous X-ray and ground-based observations. The quiescent and flaring radiation (both photons and implied particles) were observed from this extensive sample of relatively old, low mass, exoplanet host stars and show that, from the viewpoint of a habitable-zone exoplanet, there is no such thing as an “inactive” M dwarf star. The resulting implications are significant for planetary habitability. Extensive monitoring of the X-ray/UV emission from a representative younger M dwarf is also presented and the direct stellar effects that influence exoplanets during the earlier phases of their formation and evolution discussed.
Observations of early-type M stars suggest that there are two characteristic cycle times, one of order one year for fast rotators (Prot < 1 day) and another of order four years for slower rotators. For a sample of fast-rotating stars, the equator-to-pole differences of the rotation rates up to 0.03 rad d−1 are also known from Kepler data. These findings are well-reproduced by mean field models. These models predict amplitudes of the meridional flow, from which the travel time from pole to equator at the base of the convection zone of early-type M stars can be calculated. As these travel times always exceed the observed cycle times, our findings do not support the flux transport dynamo.
We present high-precision light curves of several M- and K-type, active detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs), recorded with 2-minute cadence by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Analysis of these curves, combined with new and literature radial velocity (RV) data, allows to vastly improve the accuracy and precision of stellar parameters with respect to previous studies of these systems. Results for one previously unpublished DEB are also presented.
While most of the exoplanets have been found orbiting around solar-type stars, low-mass stars have recently been recognized as ideal exo-life laboratory. Currently, stellar activity is one of the limiting factors for the characterization of Earth-twins and for assessing their habitability: understanding the activity of M dwarfs is thus crucial. In this contribution I present the spectroscopic analysis of the quiet early-M dwarfs monitored within the HADES (HArps-n red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey) radial velocity survey. The spectra allow us to analyze simultaneously the Ca ii H&K doublet and the Hydrogen Balmer series, while the intensive follow up gives us a large number of spectra ( 100) for each target. We complement this dataset with ground-based follow-up photometry and archival X-ray data. I present our results on the activity-rotation-stellar parameters and flux-flux relationships, and discuss the correlation of emission fluxes at low activity levels and the evolution timescales of active regions.
Signs of stellar activity such as large surface spots and radio flares are often related to binarity. UX Arietis is one of the most active members of the RS CVn class of binaries in which spin-up of a sub-giant/giant star by a close companion leads to the creation of magnetic fields. UX Arietis exhibits these signs of activity, originating mostly on the K0 sub-giant primary component. We measured the orbit with the CHARA interferometer and made images of a single large spot rotating in and out of view over a month in 2012. The rotation of the stars is synchronous with the orbit, and long-term photometric observations show that the spot or spots do not move much during intervals of a year. Our aim is to relate the positions of the stars and the spots on the primary to astrometry of the radio components observed during outbursts.
Prediction of solar activity cycles is challenging because physical processes inside the Sun involve a broad range of multiscale dynamics that no model can reproduce and because the available observations are highly limited and cover mostly surface layers. Helioseismology makes it possible to probe solar dynamics in the convective zone, but variations in differential rotation and meridional circulation are currently available for only two solar activity cycles. It has been demonstrated that sunspot observations, which cover over 400 years, can be used to calibrate the Parker-Kleeorin-Ruzmaikin dynamo model, and that the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) method can be used to link the modeled magnetic fields to sunspot observations and make reliable predictions of a following activity cycle. However, for more accurate predictions, it is necessary to use actual observations of the solar magnetic fields, which are available only for the last four solar cycles. In this paper I briefly discuss the influence of the limited number of available observations on the accuracy of EnKF estimates of solar cycle parameters, the criteria to evaluate the predictions, and application of synoptic magnetograms to the prediction of solar activity.
It is shown that upon combining GALEX far-ultraviolet and Johnson B magnitudes a resultant FUV–B colour can be obtained that for red giant stars of luminosity classes III and II correlates well with chromospheric emission in the cores of the Mg iih and k lines. Giant stars throughout the colour range 0.8 ≤ B – V ≤ 1.6 exhibit such a phenomenon. The main result of this paper is to show that GALEX far-ultraviolet photometry can provide information about the degree of chromospheric activity among red giant stars, and as such may offer a tool for surveying the evolution of chromospheric activity from the main sequence into the red giant phases of stellar evolution.
Anomalies in the abundance measurements of short lived radionuclides in meteorites indicate that the protosolar nebulae was irradiated by a large number of energetic particles (E≳ 10 MeV), often called solar cosmic rays. The particle flux of the contemporary Sun cannot explain these anomalies, but, similar to T Tauri stars, the young Sun was more active and probably produced enough high energy particles. However, the stellar particle (SP) flux of young stars is essentially unknown. We model the impact of high-energy ionization sources on the chemistry of the circumstellar environment (disks and envelopes). The model includes X-ray radiative transfer and makes use of particle transport models to calculate the individual molecular hydrogen ionization rates. We study the impact on the chemistry via the ionization tracers HCO+ and N2H+. We argue that spatially resolved observations of those molecules combined with detailed models allow for disentangling the contribution of the individual high-energy ionization sources and to put constraints on the SP flux in young stars.
The primary objectives of the ExoplANETS-A project are to: establish new knowledge on exoplanet atmospheres; establish new insight on influence of the host star on the planet atmosphere; disseminate knowledge, using online, web-based platforms. The project, funded under the EU’s Horizon-2020 programme, started in January 2018 and has a duration ∼3 years. We present an overview of the project, the activities concerning the host stars and some early results on the host stars.
The present-day Earth with its innumerable life forms is a product of cosmic evolution starting with the formation of our galaxy and the dense gas clouds within it, and proceeding through the contraction of one of those clouds about 4.6 Gyr ago, first into filaments and then one or more protostellar disks, planets, and central stars, one of which was our Sun. Radioactive debris from a massive nearby star was included. The planets themselves formed through coagulation, accretion, and fragmentation of solid bodies. Habitability depends on a delicate balance between disk accretion by gravity and dispersal by the central star, which determine the size of the planet and its gaseous envelope, combined with a long period of stellar radiation, which has to disperse this envelope but leave a hospitable secondary atmosphere. The final step toward life involves even more complexity as self-replicating bio-molecules form with ever increasing stability.
The stellar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been studied in the last decade and has been found to be an important factor to determine the habitability of planetary surfaces. It is known that UVR can be a constraint for life. However, most of the studies of UVR and habitability have missed some fundamental aspects: i) Accurate estimation of the planetary atmospheric attenuation, ii) The biological inferences used to represent the impact of the stellar UVR on life are theoretical and based on the action spectrum (for DNA or microorganisms) or considering parameters as the “lethal dose” obtained from non-astrobiological experiments. Therefore, the conclusions reached by previous studies about the UVR habitability of planetary bodies may be inaccurate. In this work, we propose how to address these studies in a more accurate way through an interdisciplinary approach that combines astrophysics, microbiology, and photobiology and by the use of specially designed laboratory experiments.
Stellar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may play an important role in stellar and planetary evolution, therefore the knowledge on parameter distributions of this energetic activity phenomenon is highly relevant. During the last years several attempts have been made to detect stellar CMEs of late-type main-sequence and pre main-sequence stars from dedicated optical spectroscopic observations. Up to now only a handful of distinct stellar CME detections are known which contradicts the results from stellar CME modelling, which predict higher CME rates. We report on dedicated ongoing and future observational attempts to detect stellar CMEs and discuss the observational results with respect to the results from stellar CME modelling.