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Economic growth is not the underpinning purpose of schools, thriving is. There already exist some possible accounts of what thriving as a purpose might mean. Jacques Delors for UNESCO developed a humanistic account of education's purpose as including learning to be and learning to live together. Others advance 'twenty-first-century skills' as key outcomes. The OECD has taken a competency-based approach, defining competence as knowledge plus skills plus attitudes plus values. In this model, competence aims towards individual and societal well-being. However, in a time of climate risks and biodiversity loss we have to think beyond the individual human or even society. Humans are a part of a bigger ecology of which we are a part; and we must attend to this planetery thriving as much as to our own.
Learning science through an inquiry approach involves children asking questions, exploring and investigating phenomena through the manipulation of materials, gaining experiences and making observations, and developing explanations for those experiences. This approach has many advantages, including engagement in science, enhancing scientific concepts and skills, supporting the use of evidence and allowing children to experience working like scientists. This chapter describes inquiry-based science learning and the components of the scientific inquiry process. Various practical activities that can be used to enhance children’s scientific inquiry skills are also presented.
The 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR) is having, and promises to have, profound impacts on the world. While the 4IR could help to resolve key development issues Africa currently faces, there is lack of understanding of the opportunities and challenges 4IR presents, but also policies that could help African economies benefit from 4IR technologies. This chapter contributes to the literature from this vein.
Factors that facilitate transfer of training in paediatric echocardiography remain poorly understood. This study assessed whether high-variation training facilitated successful transfer in paediatric echocardiography.
A mixed-methods study of transfer of technical and interpretive skill application amongst postgraduate trainees. Trainees were randomised to a low or high-variation training group. After a period of 8 weeks intensive echocardiography training, we video-recorded how trainees completed an echocardiogram in a complex cardiac lesion not previously encountered. Blinded quantitative analysis and scoring of trainee performance (echocardiogram performance, report, and technical proficiency) were performed using a validated assessment tool by a blinded cardiologist and senior cardiac physiologist. Qualitative interviews of the trainees were recorded to ascertain trainee experiences during the training and transfer process.
Sixteen trainees were enrolled in the study. For the cumulative score for all three components tested (echocardiogram performance, report, and technical proficiency), χ2 = 8.223, p = .016, which showed the high-variation group outperformed the low-variation group. Two common themes which assisted in the transfer emerged from interviews are as follows: (1) use of strategies described in variation theory to describe abnormal hearts, (2) the use of formative live feedback from trainers during hands-on training.
Training strategies exposing trainees to high-variation training may aid transfer of paediatric echocardiography skills.
Case management is one model of care that aims to address complex health needs through a structured approach to health care delivery, promoting self-management and the integration of health services (Gage et al., 2013; Hudon et al., 2015; Swan & Conway-Phillips, 2019). The case management model is typically comprised of assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, termination and post-transition (Taube et al., 2018). These steps are undertaken as a collaborative partnership process between health professionals, clients and, where appropriate, carers/families/significant others. Partnership in health care refers to the concept of shared responsibility for the treatment outcome, placing the individual at the centre of the care delivery rather than simply being a passive recipient of care. This chapter describes why case management is used, identifies its phases and discusses its benefits and outcomes.
This chapter analyzes Brazil’s 500 largest firms and financial institutions in the mid-2010s to evaluate how well corporate life fit into a Latin American variety of capitalism that Schneider (2013) termed “hierarchical market capitalism.” While Brazil adhered to the general characteristics of the hierarchical market economy (HME), Brazilian firm life differed from other HMEs in the region due to significant state activity, the presence of large but relatively undiversified business groups, and credit and equity markets with a large dose of state participation that enabled firms to behave and organize in ways that differed from their regional peers. Five characteristics of Brazilian firm life stood out: the segmented firm structure; the muscular influence of developmentalist policy tools on firms; the segmentation of labor markets; the segmentation of skills; and the segmentation of social policy provision. This segmentation had a variety of implications for firms’ incentives to participate in politics.
Language teaching changed significantly over the past century, shifting from the grammar translation method to the communicative approach and beyond. These changes reflected our evolving understanding of how languages are learned, influenced by behavioral, cognitive, sociocutural, and sociocognitive theories. Following this review, the chapter discusses in detail the role of communicative competence and intercultural communicative competence in language pedagogy, presenting research by Byram (1997), Kramsch (2009), Liddicoat and Scarino (2013), and Hua (2014). These discussions outline key components of intercultural communicative competence – such as knowledge, skills, attitudes, and linguistic knowledge - that lay the foundation for the pedagogical chapters in this volume.
The article investigates the causes and consequences of the increased engagement of British universities with employability and skills initiatives. By employing case studies of six universities based in England, it asks whether the increased engagement between higher education and the labour market is driven by universities or business and whether such engagement has increased the diversity of the higher education sector. Findings suggest that the alignment between labour market needs and educational provision in universities is strongly mediated by the competitive environment within which higher education institutions have been operating since the late 1990s: the higher education market – not the labour market – is the key driver for universities to engage in employability and skills initiatives. The article also questions the assumption that ‘competition’ leads to ‘differentiation’ in higher education. Rather, isomorphic tendencies seem to prevail over differentiation in the context of a highly competitive higher education market.
Research on the politics of skills formation in Latin America is severely underdeveloped. This article offers a novel characterisation of the supply of skills in the region or ‘skills supply profiles’, taking inspiration from the comparative capitalisms literature. We identify four configurations of skills supply profiles – universalising, dual academic-oriented, dual VET-oriented and exclusionary – and analyse their historical dynamics. By doing this, we challenge general assessments of Latin America's skills formation systems as pertaining to one overarching type. This sets the stage for a deeper understanding of the politics of skills in the region and their connection with different development alternatives.
“Autism” refers to a wide variety of disabilities, with numerous possible clinical signs and heterogeneous origins. Nevertheless, beyond those diverse clinical signs, a consensus exists concerning the necessity of interventions, particularly educational interventions, for people with autism . In a society such as ours, turned towards digital technologies and tactile devices, (e.g. ), it is important to question the use of these technologies with people with developmental disabilities. Especially as some authors pointed the utility of these devices for teaching skills . Various theoretical corpuses and elements of the scientific literature were taken into account and integrated to develop the LearnEnjoy applications, created initially for children with autism. These facts and knowledge, linked to the peculiarities of people with autism, to the functional approach of language, to the fundamental principles of learning, to an ABA approach, were integrated from the first stages of the development of the applications, to create tools having solid scientific foundations. This way, the LearnEnjoy apps give the users (i.e. the “teachers”) the possibilities of teaching in a progressive and coherent way, different skills such as language (receptive, expressive), imitation, play and motricity, cognitive, academic skills or even independence skills. They also allow the progress in each area to be shared with the parents and the whole team, a necessary feature for the implementation of global and coordinated interventions. Finally, and maybe more importantly, these applications were created so as to specifically foster the contact between the person with autism and the “teacher”. This way the apps, at the same time, reduce the risk of pervasiveness of the tactile tablet, while favouring, just as much for the person with autism than for the accompanying person, the development of a positive, structured and structuring social relationship.
This chapter teaches readers to think about training both as a form of current compensation and as an investment in future pay (because training makes workers more productive, allowing them to earn more in the future). Training is a form of current pay because workers value training (precisely because it increases their future expected compensation) and, for that reason, they are willing to accept lower current compensation than they would receive in an alternative job that is otherwise the same but that does not offer training. This evokes compensating differentials (Chapter 3). The portability of training across firms is covered, as well as whether employees or employers should pay for training and whether the skills imparted by training are general (i.e., useful across many employers) or specific to the current employer. The internal rate of return (or breakeven interest rate) is covered in the context of whether it is profitable to train workers. Section 8.5, on practical applications, gives tips for how managers can obtain information on the key components of the training decision, i.e., employee productivity and expected tenure after training, costs, and the interest rate.
This chapter investigates structural labour market reforms in Hungary from 1986 to 2016, a period encompassing the fall of communism, EU accession in 2004 and the global financial crisis. Using the narrative approach, we identify three main labour reforms: in 1992 and 2002 aimed at increasing and in 2012 aimed at decreasing employment protection. We study their effects using a unique data set of about 6 million Hungarian wage earners. We find that (1) the skill premium almost doubled from 6.4 per cent in 1986 to 12.3 per cent in 2016, but peaking in 2004; (2) the gender wage gap decreased to a third with the difference in log wages declining from 0.31 in 1986 to 0.13 in 2004, with no changes thereafter; and (3) gender discrimination practically halved as the unexplained component from the Oaxaca decomposition of the difference in log wages decreased from 0.27 in 1989 to 0.15 after 2004.
In this chapter, we review how economists and linguists have problematized the relationship between economy and language, focusing on their methodologies, theoretical toolboxes, and ideologies. One of the striking differences lies in the ways they conceptualize languages, viz., as strictly denotational for economists but both denotational and indexical for linguists. We show that by approaching them as abstract, asocial, ahistorical, and statistically measurable entities, economists treat languages as resources whose economic consequences for individuals or societies can simply be derived from their intrinsic nature. By contrast, examining languages as practices grounded in their sociohistorical ecologies, linguists have been more interested in the valuation of some languages as capitals that can outweigh others economically or symbolically. Overall, we highlight the interdisciplinary nature of “economy and language” as a research area, showing how complex it is and how productive it should be to build an intellectual bridge between the two disciplines.
If negotiators work their way through the tasks that we have explored in Chapters 5–7, then they should be confident about managing the process effectively and so achieve a good outcome. However, negotiations are both messy and complex, so they doesn’t always go according to plan. As we saw in Chapter 8, negotiations can get stuck or reach a deadlock. That chapter suggested some ways to handle a deadlock effectively and move the negotiations on towards an outcome. Another way to overcome a deadlock is to involve a mediator. It is unlikely that the reader will become a mediator, but a negotiator should nevertheless understand the nature and effectiveness of the mediation process. Therefore, this chapter examines the nature of the mediation process and the role of the mediator in helping the parties resolve their differences. The parallels between mediation and negotiation should become obvious so negotiators can improve their own skills by learning from the approach taken by good mediators.
In all countries, the organic sector of the agricultural industry is increasing, with Europe traditionally leading this trend. A survey of different stakeholders (employers) was carried out in 2015 in seven European countries to evaluate the employment market for the organic agricultural industry in Europe. Results indicate the willingness to employ qualified graduates. From the employers' perspective, the most desirable knowledge skills among the graduates of organic agricultural studies include plant production, food quality and plant protection. Further, the study revealed the work skills most desired by the employers are practical expertise, teamwork and problem-solving, and the most important method of learning is cooperation with enterprises (internships/training) in the organic agricultural sector.