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The term trauma comes from the ancient Greek word “titrosko” than means perforate. Sexual harassment and abuse of a person during childhood is an important risk factor for mental trauma.
Present the impact of sexual harassment and abuse in the mental health of adolescents and the imprortance of therapeutic relationship.
From the literature review the child needs love which is demostrated with tenderness. The adult (perpetrator) with a disorder responds to the child’s tenderness with the language of passion. The immature Ego of the child is not strong enough to deal with the adult behavior and this causes anxiety, helplessness, confusion and guilt about the relationship with the adult. During the psychotherapeutic process, 4 main protagonists emerge : the victim, the perpetrator, an absent mother and an omnipotent savior.
Mental trauma can adversely affect the development of the neurobiological system resulting in difficulty coping with stressful events. Untreated trauma can lead to serious psychopathology such as anxiety disorders , depressive disorder, personality disorders, addictions. The creation of a therapeutic relationship, understanding the adolescent and his family potential, the recognition and treatment of transference-countertransference phenomena and the existence of a clinical setting that acts as a restraint mechanism could contribute to the therapy of mental trauma.
The Therapeutic Department for Adolescents could be an environment to contain, process and transform the painful into pleasant emotions, as well as aiming the authenticity of the person with a history of sexual harassment and abuse.
The spectrum of adverse mental health trajectories caused by sexual abuse, broadly defined as exposure to rape and unwanted physical sexual contact, is well-known. Few studies have systematically appraised the epidemiology and impact of sexual abuse among boys and men. New meta-analytic insights (k = 44; n = 45 172) reported by Zarchev and colleagues challenge assumptions that men experiencing mental ill health rarely report sexual abuse exposure. Adult-onset sexual abuse rates of 1–7% are observed in the general population, but for men experiencing mental ill health, adult lifetime prevalence was 14.1% (95% CI 7.3–22.4%), with past-year exposure 5.3% (95% CI 1.6–12.8%). We note that these rates are certainly underestimates, as childhood sexual abuse exposures were excluded. Boys and men with a sexual abuse history experience substantial disclosure and treatment barriers. We draw attention to population health gains that could be achieved via implementation of gender-sensitive assessment and intervention approaches for this at-risk population.
Sexual abuse is a broad category of traumatic experiences that includes rape and any unwanted sexual contact with a body part or foreign object, whether penetrative, oral or otherwise. Although patients with mental illness have a higher risk of becoming victims of sexual abuse in adulthood, few studies investigate the proportion of male victims in this population. Their underrepresentation in research is a barrier to understanding the negative outcomes associated with sexual abuse in men.
We estimated the prevalence of recent (past year) and adulthood sexual abuse perpetrated by any perpetrator and separately by intimate partners in males diagnosed with a mental illness.
To model the prevalences and heterogeneity arising from reports, we used Bayesian multilevel models. Prevalences were estimated for mixed-diagnosis, substance misuse, intellectual disability and post-traumatic stress disorder samples, and studies reporting specifically on intimate partner violence. This review was registered through PROSPERO (CRD42020169299)
Estimated adult sexual abuse was 5.3% (95% Credibility Interval 1.6–12.8%) for past-year abuse and 14.1% (95% Credibility Interval 7.3–22.4%) for abuse in adulthood. There was considerable heterogeneity of prevalence between studies and diagnosis groups.
Our analyses show that the prevalence of sexual abuse of males diagnosed with a mental illness was much higher than for men in the general population. This has important implications regarding the proportion of undetected or untreated sexually abused men in clinical practice.
Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse (CSA) is a risk factor for psychological trauma and a strong predictor of lifetime psychopathology, including depression, anxiety, inappropriate sexual behavior, anger, guilt, shame and other emotional and relationship problems.
Describe a clinical case of a sexually abused adolescent admitted in a psychiatric unit for young adults and to correlate sexual abuse with trauma and sexual risk behaviors.
The data was collected through clinical and family interviews. The revision was made with the search terms “trauma”, “child and adolescence sexual abuse”, “sexual risk behaviors” in scientific databases.
16 year-old girl, high-school student, living with her nuclear family, was admitted in a psychiatric hospital with feelings of sadness and anxiety since the previous month, that lead to a voluntary medicine ingestion. She has been continuously sexually abused from the age of 12 to 16 by an older man, and once by her cousin and his friends. Since than, she refers feelings of anger, sadness, dissociative symptoms and intrusive images and nightmares related to the abuses, and continues to seek attention from older men. With medication and individual and family psychotherapeutic interventions, depressive, anxiety and dissociative symptoms have improved.
Literature concludes that there’s a strong correlation between CSA, trauma and sexual risk behaviors throughout adulthood. In fact, our patient met criteria for Pos-traumatic Stress Disorder and has sexual risk behaviors that must be worked through therapy. Due to it’s complexity, treatment of the adolescent and familial system after sexual abuse is multifaceted and requires a biopsychosocial approach.
The sexual abuse of children is well documented in literature. Data on it from Nigeria is rather sparse. The current study examines the prevalence and pattern of sexual abuse with a view to increasing our understanding of it.
To determine the prevalence and pattern of sexual abuse of children at home in Ilorin Nigeria.
A cross sectional survey of secondary school students aged 11-18 years in Ilorin Nigeria using multistage random sampling technique with proportional allocation was done. Respondents completed the ICAST-CH questionnaire which covers child abuse in its several forms including sexual abuse. Prevalence of sexual abuse was computed.
Over a third (586) of participants experienced some form of sexual abuse in the last year. Table 1: prevalence and pattern of sexual abuse at home
Sexual Abuse* (n=586)
Talked to you in a sexual way
Touched private parts
Made you look at private parts
Tried to have sex with you (unwilling)
Made a sex video of you
Sexual abuse of children occurs commonly in Ilorin Nigeria. There is a need for further research towards understnding it determinants towards strengthening systems of safeguarding children against it.
Child sexual abuse is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka, with prevalence rates ranging from 14-44%.
We aimed to describe the victim and perpetrator characteristics, pattern of disclosure and psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka.
This was a retrospective file review study of 164 victims who presented to a Teaching Hospital in Colombo, Sri Lanka, with alleged sexual abuse over a period of 5 years from 2015-2019.
Majority of the victims were female and older than 12 years. Majority (73.6%) have been subjected to penetrative sexual abuse with 58.5% of victims reporting more than one incident of abuse. Almost all (99.9%) of the perpetrators were male, with 94.5% being known to the child. Only 42.7% (n=70) of the children revealed about the incident within the first week. Delayed disclosure (i.e. more than 1 week since the incident) was significantly higher in penetrative abuse (p<0.01), multiple incidents of abuse (p<0.01) and in abuse by a known person (p<0.05). Children who disclosed after one week were significantly less likely to disclose about the incident spontaneously (p<0.01). Psychological sequel was seen in 28.7%, with depression being the commonest diagnosis (8.5%). Psychological consequences were significantly in higher those who had physical evidence of abuse (p<0.01), delayed (after 1 week) disclosure (p<0.05) and in those who did not disclose spontaneously (p<0.01).
The victim and perpetrator characteristics, pattern of disclosure is comparable with previous literature.
Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with an increased risk of mental health disorders; however, it is unknown whether this represents a diagnosis-specific risk factor for specific psychopathology mediated by structural brain changes. Our aim was to explore whether (i) a predictive CT pattern for transdiagnostic psychopathology exists, and whether (ii) CT can differentiate between distinct diagnosis-dependent psychopathology. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the association between CT, psychopathology and brain structure.
We used multivariate pattern analysis in data from 643 participants of the Personalised Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management study (PRONIA), including healthy controls (HC), recent onset psychosis (ROP), recent onset depression (ROD), and patients clinically at high-risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants completed structured interviews and self-report measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, SCID diagnostic interview, BDI-II, PANSS, Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms and structural MRI, analyzed by voxel-based morphometry.
(i) Patients and HC could be distinguished by their CT pattern with a reasonable precision [balanced accuracy of 71.2% (sensitivity = 72.1%, specificity = 70.4%, p ≤ 0.001]. (ii) Subdomains ‘emotional neglect’ and ‘emotional abuse’ were most predictive for CHR and ROP, while in ROD ‘physical abuse’ and ‘sexual abuse’ were most important. The CT pattern was significantly associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in ROD, ROP, and CHR, as well as with the PANSS total and negative domain scores in the CHR patients. No associations between group-separating CT patterns and brain structure were found.
These results indicate that CT poses a transdiagnostic risk factor for mental health disorders, possibly related to depressive symptoms. While differences in the quality of CT exposure exist, diagnostic differentiation was not possible suggesting a multi-factorial pathogenesis.
While many children are born into families where parents generally care for their health and education and strive to provide them with safe and happy home lives, other children are not as fortunate and are subject to maltreatment such as abuse or neglect (Australian Government, Department of Social Services, ). Most parents have the capacity to provide love, care and support for their children while others need extra help along the way. There are parents who may appear to neglect their child; however, they may be struggling with a disability and poverty through a work or health situation (Australian Institute of Family Studies, ). Responding to the children in such vulnerable families is an integral focus of Australia’s welfare system (Fernandez, ).
Following the format change to single best answer questions (SBAs) for the Diploma of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, this excellent resource is fully aligned with the new syllabus and exam style. Topics covered include basic clinical and surgical skills, all stages of pregnancy from antenatal care to postpartum problems, and general gynaecological and fertility concerns. Containing 310 single best answer (SBA) style questions, detailed explanations ensure candidates understand the reasoning and evidence-based decision-making behind each answer. With a recommended reading source also provided readers can explore and revise topics in further detail to reinforce their learning. A further 130 questions are included in two mock exam papers, helping candidates to strengthen their time management skills. Written by an author with many years' experience working on the DRCOG, candidates can be sure of the exact question format and how best to prepare for the actual exam.
Catholic schools have faced a number of hurdles in recent decades, including the sharp decline of vocations among religious sisters who have worked in schools (as much as 90 percent in the last four decades), rising tuition prices for families, the sexual abuse crisis, and questions about institutional commitment to maintaining schools in light of these challenges. These changes affect all students and families, but have special significance for those of lower socioeconomic status, who historically used Catholic schools as an engine of upward mobility.
For this policy dialogue, the editors of HEQ asked Paul Grendler and Carol Ann MacGregor to reflect on the benefits, challenges, and turning points of Catholic-sponsored education from the sixteenth century to the present. Grendler is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Toronto, the former president of the Renaissance Society of America and the American Catholic Historical Association, and a recipient of the Galileo Galilei Prize. The author of eleven books, he has published widely on education in the Renaissance. His recent work concentrates on Jesuit universities and Jesuit schools, especially in Italy. MacGregor is Associate Professor of Sociology and current Vice Provost at Loyola University New Orleans. She has also been named an Associate Fellow of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture at the University of Virginia. Her publications, which have appeared in American Catholic Studies and American Sociological Review (among others), focus on Catholic education policy and practice, and religion and public life.
HEQ Policy Dialogues are, by design, intended to promote an informal, free exchange of ideas between scholars. At the end of the exchange, we offer a list of references to readers who wish to follow up on sources relevant to the discussion.
Contending with Kei Miller’s declaration in ‘A Smaller Sound, A Lesser Fury: A Eulogy for Dub Poetry’ that the genre has died, this essay uses the lens of transition to demonstrate the continued vitality of this Jamaican-rooted performance and neoliterary genre that serves political and aesthetic needs of the variously disempowered. The essay suggests Miller misconceives what dubpoetry is, threatening its vital social work and doing a disservice to the older generation of dubpoets and their inheritors. Providing evidence that the majority of first-generation dubpoets continue to create new work, collaborate, develop new subgenres, and teach, the essay offers close readings of work by dubpoetry’s heirs. Jamaican dubpoetry band The No-Maddz, Jamaican-British spoken word poet Raymond Antrobus and Canadian dub inheritors Klyde Broox, d’bi.young anitafrika and Kaie Kellough are shown to effect presentational, generic, thematic/political and media transitions in and from dubpoetry.
Lisa M. v. Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital exemplifies the reluctance of many courts to impose vicarious liability in cases of employee sexual abuse, treating cases of sexual abuse differently from other cases. The California Supreme Court in Lisa M. ruled against a pregnant patient who had been sexually molested by a hospital technician under the guise of performing an ultrasound examination. The court determined that the assault was “outside the scope of employment,” not fairly attributable to the employer, and the result only of “propinquity and lust.” The rewritten feminist opinion recharacterizes the assault as an outgrowth of employment, emphasizing that the employee exercised job-created control and power over plaintiff’s body. Because sexual assaults are not uncommon in the healthcare setting, the feminist opinion regards the assault as foreseeable and would allow a jury to determine whether vicarious liability is warranted because the assault was committed within the scope of employment. The accompanying commentary situates the case at the intersection of sexual violence and women’s health and examines how job-created power can make a patient vulnerable to harm by medical professionals.
Child sexual abuse is a serious problem that has received increased attention in recent years. When viewed from an ecological perspective child sexual abuse can be understood as being influenced by factors within individuals, families and broader social systems. Therefore, preventing child sexual abuse involves strengthening capacity to intervene at individual, family, and broader social levels such as via school programs and community initiatives.School-based education programs have been developed in efforts to prevent child sexual abuse before it happens, and to provide children who may already be experiencing it with information about the importance of and strategies for seeking help. This chapter outlines the key characteristics of effective child sexual abuse prevention programs and identifies directions for future research and practice.
Chapter 8 scrutinizes why actors should embed themselves in the arena in the first place and when they prefer detaching from everyday security. The question of embedding or detaching is particularly relevant to newly arriving peacekeepers but also poses itself to national militaries. Embedding into the arena forces an actor to engage in fluid ordering as everyday contact and spontaneous security events necessitate immediate reactions. Detachment, on the other hand, allows for more organized and directed engagement of the security arena through stable ordering. However, detachment can fuel rumours and allegations thereby deteriorating the overall security situation. Actors become torn between fulfilling local demands for robust intervention by accepting fluidity, on the one hand, and meeting international demands of stable ordering through detachment, on the other.
A tropology of moral injury and corruption long framed the plight of the sex crime victim. Nineteenth-century psychiatric acknowledgment of adverse sexual experience reflected general trends in etiological thought, especially on ‘epileptic’ and hysteric seizures, but on the whole remained descriptive, guarded and limited. Various experiential threats to the modern sexual self beyond assault and rape were granted etiological significance, however: illegitimate motherhood, masturbatory guilt, sexual enlightenment, ‘homosexual seduction’ and chance encounters leading to fetishistic fixation. These minor early appeals to medical psychology help us appreciate the multiple nuances of ‘sexual trauma’ advanced in Breuer and Freud’s Studies on Hysteria (1895) and Freud’s subsequent work.
This chapter examines the affective dimension of the unsaid. It proposes an affective approach to understanding, researching, and writing the unsaid by outlining and utilizing two distinct yet resonate methodologies, grounded in the research practices of each author. In doing so, the chapter shows how different methodological approaches to the challenge of writing the unsaid offer an unfolding of potentials for how silence might speak without words. The chapter begins with a brief account of affect studies in the humanities before detailing a methodology of affective witnessing to the silence of political violence, followed by an examination of the relations between silence and the body in the unsaid of sexual abuse and the problem of writing in the face of blockages to speaking. In closing, it considers in more general terms what affective methodologies might bring to qualitative research into the unsaid.
Child sexual abuse is a global problem with significant emotional, psychological, and financial implications to victims, perpetrators, and society. Most child sexual abuse prevention programs target young children or those who have already engaged in abusive behavior, in order to prevent further offending. There are numerous secondary prevention programs targeting individuals at-risk of various health conditions in an effort to reduce the likelihood they will go on to experience a particular illness or disease. Considerable research exists regarding the risk factors for engaging in child sexual abuse and more specifically the factors contributing to reoffense. We argue that engaging in secondary prevention programs for people with pedophilia, in order to prevent child sexual abuse, is an ethically responsible and necessary practice. Secondary prevention programs with this focus are reviewed, along with the implications of mandatory reporting in doing this work.
Little is known about the association between trauma and intellectual disability in SMI patients.
To establish the prevalence of trauma and its association with intellectual functioning in SMI outpatients.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in two mental health trusts in the Netherlands. We used the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ) to screen for trauma and PTSD, and the Screener for Intelligence and Learning disabilities (SCIL) for suspected MID/BIF. Chi-square and t-tests were used to test differences in outcome over patient characteristics. Post-hoc analysis was used to investigate gender differences between patients with and without MID/BIF on trauma and sexual trauma.
Any trauma was found in 86% of 570 patients and 42% were suspected for PTSD. The SCIL suggested that 40% had Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF), half of whom were suspected of having Mild Intellectual Disability (MID). These patients had more traumatic experiences (1.89 in BIF, 1.75 in MID, against 1.41 in SCIL-negative patients). Female MID/BIF patients (61%) had experienced significantly more sexual abuse than male MID/BIF patients (23%).
Significantly more SMI outpatients who screened positive for MID/BIF reported having experienced traumatic events than those who screened negative. Rates of all trauma categories were significantly higher in the screen-positive group, who were also more likely to have PTSD. Sexual abuse occurred more in all females but the SCIL positive women are even more often victim. Clinical practice has to pay more attention to all of these issues, especially when they occur together in a single patient.
This article provides a general account of the universal law of sanctions in the Roman Catholic Church. The crisis of the Catholic Church caused by clergy sexual abuse of minors has revealed, among other things, the widespread well-intentioned but naïve inclination to resort to penal law as opposed to any theology of mercy and forgiveness. Although the author argues that penal law has a proper place in the Catholic Church, he considers that in a voluntary community that shares a homogeneous system of moral values without strong penalties involving deprivation of liberty – a community like the Catholic Church – moral and administrative sanctions could be more effective than penal sanctions. A distinction between administrative sanctions and penal sanctions, and therefore between administrative tribunals (should they be established) and penal tribunals, is highly recommended.
Claims of sexual violence against female conscripts by military commanders abound in the Eritrean National Service (ENS), but hitherto there has been no attempt to subject these claims to rigorous empirical scrutiny. This article is a partial attempt to fill the gap. Based on data collected through snowball sampling from 190 former conscripts in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Norway, South Africa, Kenya, and Sweden who fled from the ENS, supplemented by data from systematically selected key informants who were interviewed in depth, it examines the extent to which female conscripts serving in the ENS were subjected to sexual violence and harassment by their commanders, including at the Sawa military training camp. The extensive data, based on the perceptions and experiences of respondents who served on average about six years, suggest that sexual abuse is rampant throughout the ENS, particularly among female conscripts who are assigned to work at the camp subsequent to the six months of military training.