The seminal characteristics of Moenkhausia oligolepis are described. Three males were induced with a single dose of carp pituitary. Semen was collected 6 h after induction, and diluted in dibasic sodium phosphate extender solution. For motility analysis, 1 µl of diluted semen was added to 10 µl of distilled water to achieve gamete activation. The average duration of total motility was 76.67 s; while the average sperm motility rate at intervals of 15 s was 95.3, 85.3, 59.6, 31.7, 13.0, 4.6 and 1.2%. To determine sperm concentration in samples, 0.5 μl of semen was diluted with 500 μl of glutaraldehyde. An aliquot of 10 μl of this dilution was utilized for cell counting. An average count of 4.97 × 109 ± 3.46 sperm/ml was obtained. Morphological analyses were performed using eosin–nigrosine dye; 20.33% of the sperm were observed to be dead. Live sperm, comprising the other 79.67%, had an average length of approximately 30 µm, with a head diameter of 4.488 ± 0.7 µm; and a flagella plus mid-piece length of 26.071 ± 12.4 µm. Of those sperm, 69% had a normal morphology, while 31% had primary and secondary abnormalities. The observed abnormality rate did not have a detrimental effect on artificial fertilization potential for the species. The description of the seminal characteristics of a species is one of the most important sets of information required for artificial reproduction of fish in captivity. It also contributes significantly to the total biological knowledge of the studied species.