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In this chapter we examine the historical background to poverty research, the definition and concepts of poverty, and how is it experienced by individuals, families, and communities. The focus is mainly on the UK and on qualitative studies. Poverty is a cause of human suffering and the experiences of people living in poverty are mediated by social divisions such as gender, ethnicity, and disability. It can be understood in terms of the need of material resources, but also in terms of its psychosocial effects. It has clear effects on mental and physical health. Many aspects of the lives of people in poverty parallel the position of people with mental health conditions: lack of agency, opportunity, and voice; living compromised lives with stigma and discrimination; and struggling with day-to-day functioning, employment, and housing. Poverty impacts negatively on self-esteem and produces feelings of shame and guilt in response to inadequate material and social situations. It is possible that some of the mechanisms for understanding mental ill-health may also be shared with those related to poverty.
Although in his earlier ethical writings Kant explains the concept of moral feeling, inherited from the British sentimentalists, as a peculiar feeling of respect for the moral law that functions as an incentive for moral actions, the Doctrine of Virtue seems to add complexity to the issue. There, Kant discusses two similar aesthetic predispositions, moral feeling and respect, whose relationship to the feeling of respect is far from clear. This article offers a much needed elucidation of the relationship between these three concepts. In the first part, I show that Kant, in the writings before the Doctrine of Virtue, transforms the British sentimentalists’ construal of moral feeling into that of the feeling of respect as the sole moral incentive. In the second part, I argue that, although in the Doctrine of Virtue Kant distinguishes, for a specific reason, between the aesthetic predisposition of moral feeling and that of respect, they are both ultimately identical to the feeling of respect. The conclusion is that nothing of substance changes between Kant’s earlier thinking and his views in the Doctrine of Virtue; for Kant there is just one feeling that properly deserves the name of moral feeling, the feeling of respect.
The impact of practical instrumental music instruction on students’ psychological and sociological well-being is well documented in research literature. The extent to which these findings hold true for disadvantaged populations is unknown. Previous studies focused on young students with little to no research on disadvantaged young adults at university level. This study investigated the impact of group practical instrumental music instruction on the psychological well-being of disadvantaged university students. It particularly investigated changes in students’ optimism, self-esteem and happiness after participation in a wind ensemble. The study further looked at possible relationships between optimism, self-esteem, happiness and participation in an instrumental music ensemble. Results revealed increases in participant’s optimism, self-esteem and happiness and moderate to strong positive correlations between variables.
In this chapter we summarize how economists conceptualize beliefs. Moving both backward and forward in time, we review the way that mainstream economics currently deals with beliefs, as well as, briefly, the history of economists’ thinking about beliefs. Most importantly, we introduce the reader to a recent, transformational movement in economics that focuses on belief-based utility. This approach challenges the standard economic assumption that beliefs are only an input to decision making and examines implications of the intuitive idea that people derive pleasure and pain directly from their beliefs. We also address the question of when and why people care about what other people believe. We close with a discussion of the implications of these insights for contemporary social issues such as political polarization and fake news.
Variations in pubertal timing and tempo have relevance to psychosocial development. Accounting for pubertal timing, tempo, and psychosocial development simultaneously in a model remains challenging. This study aimed to document the typology of pubertal development in a cohort of Taiwanese adolescent boys and then to examine how the associations between psychosocial variables across time vary by the patterns of pubertal development. A group of adolescent boys (n = 1,368) reported pubertal signs and psychosocial variables for 3 years since seventh grade. The growth mixture model revealed three major classes of pubertal transition: average pubertal growth, late-onset with rapid catch-up, and late-onset with slow catch-up. In a cross-lagged panel model, the multigroup analysis found the regression coefficients mostly invariant across all three classes, except those between deviant behavior and subsequent changes in depressive symptoms that were significantly positive only in the late-onset with slow catch-up group. Adolescent boys in this group were estimated to have the highest marginal level of depressive symptoms and deviant behavior in ninth grade among the three classes. Our study highlights the heterogeneity in boys’ pubertal development and the role of the pubertal development pattern in their psychosocial development.
Cannabis is among the most widely used substances in the world. it is associated with several mental health problems.
To assess self-esteem among a group of young Tunisian users of cannabis.
The total study sample was composed of 137 participants, who took part of a transversal descriptive study during two months (January and February 2020).
In our study population, the cannabis consumers were young adults aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a male predominance of 71%. Among those users, 65.9% were single and 29.7% dropped out of school or experienced academic failure. On a socio-economic level, we concluded to a rate of 5.8% (lower class), 60.9% (middle class) and 33.3% (upper class). Besides, 40.8% were employed. In total, 23.2% had a psychiatric history. Furthermore, the use of other substances was also prominent and frequent as follows: alcohol 72.5%, tobacco 74.6%, ecstasy 41.3% and 25.4% cocaine. The use of cannabis was considered as a means of indulgence and pleasure for 66.7%, as an anxiolytic for 26.8% and as a sedative for 23.9%. Self-esteem, among those cannabis users, was very low in 20% of cases, low in 38% of cases, medium in 15% of cases and high in 25% of cases.
These results lead us to question the relation between cannabis and self-esteem. The question that is evolved about the use of cannabis is the following: Is it used as a remedy or is it the cause of self-esteem deficiency?
Self-stigmatization in patients with bipolar disorder could lead to shame, self-judgement, impaired quality of life, and could negatively affect self-esteem imeding recovery.
The aim of this study was to assess self-stigma in remitted patients with bipolar disorder and to evaluate its impact on self-esteem.
We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study of 61 patients with bipolar disorder. Euthymia was verified using the Hamilton scale for depression and the Young scale for mania. We used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) to evaluate self-stigma, and the Rosenberg scale to assess self-esteem.
The mean age of patients was 43.4 years. The sex ratio was 2.4. The mean score on the ISMI was 2.36. More than half of our patients (59%) were self-stigmatized. With regard to self-esteem, the mean score obtained on the Rosenberg scale was 27.72. Low or very low self-esteem was found in 54% of patients. The most self-stigmatized patients had significantly lower self-esteem (p<10-3).
Internalized stigmatization negatively affects self-esteem of patients with bipolar disorder. Psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy would improve self-esteem and enhance psychosocial treatment adherence and move people with bipolar disorder toward a culture of recovery based on hope and self-determination.
This study revolves around self-esteem which is defined as a basic human characteristic related to self-awareness, emotions, cognitions, behavior, lifestyle, general health and socio-economic factors. This fundamental data of the personality is revealed from one person to another as well as from one period to another. Many studies point out that advancing adults do not necessarily imply a decline in sense of self-worth, although skill losses are very real in many areas of psychological activity. Therefore, it seemed interesting to us to further explore this point in Moroccan women.
Evaluate and compare self-esteem among different age groups of Moroccan women. Identify the different influencing factors.
This is a descriptive cross-sectional study using a questionnaire based on tow parts, the first based Rosenberg scale, and the second part to identify the presence of certain factors influencing self-esteem.
Our researches have shown a similar results to those of some previous studies. Indeed, we found out that women experience a significant rise of self-esteem simultaneously with the increase of age. Yet, this self-esteem starts to decline in middle-aged women. Several factors can affect it; we can note on the top, the impact of relationships, education and physical health.
This research contributes to our understanding of Moroccan women’s self-esteem and to the identification of factors that influence it.Self-esteem is a core identity issue, essential to personal validation and our ability to experience joy. Previous researchs also suggests that self-esteem might influence economic welfare and physical health.
Background: Existing evidence poses low self-esteem as a risk factor for both suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SAs) in the general population.
The present study assesses the relationship between self-esteem level and SI/SA, considering across the lifespan. Two separate meta-analyses, one for SI and the other for SA are herein reported since they substantially overlap in terms of eligibility procedures and search strategies.
Eligible studies documented at least one suicidal, and a non-suicidal group. Data were analyzed using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software (RevMan, version 5.4.1) under the random-effects models. Values were standardized owing to the anticipated heterogeneity of self-esteem rating tools. Sensitivity analyses were performed to control for heterogeneity.
Out of 3,310 initial hits, 24 studies were deemed eligible for inclusion. The meta-analyses showed that individuals with lower levels of self-esteem, compared to those with higher levels, were more likely to endorse both SI and SA. SI reached a standardized mean difference of -0.43 (CI: -0.81, -0.05), while SA reduced by -0.89 (CI: -1.02, -0.76), overall. Limitations: The herein presented results rely on standardized mean differences rather than odds of either SI or SA since the original studies failed to systematically fetch rates of the events.
Lower levels of self-esteem represent a risk factor for both SI and SA across the lifespan. Forthcoming studies should systematically account for multiple moderators to allow meta-analytic synthesis including sub-group and meta-regression analyses assuming high-heterogeneity would still be concerned.
Successful adolescence depends on ability to correctly understand emotionally expressive gestures, especially symbolic (same meaning for everyone) and expressive (individual understanding). Presence of an internal mismatch in adolescent’s self-esteem between what he shows in society and what he really feels can lead to difficulties in forming an adequate adult self-esteem.
Adolescents with affective disorders (F31) -12, normal adolescents - 32. Ages 12-17.
Recognition of emotionally expressive movements: postures&gestures (gestures-test), direct self-esteem by Dembo-Rubinstein test and indirect self-esteem by color attitude test by Etkind.
The Mann-Whitney test showed significant differences between samples in terms of self-esteem gap - “mind” (U=270,000, p<0.37), “character” (U=279,000, p<0.20), “happiness” (U=288,000, p<0.01 ), gestures-test “symbolic” (U=301,000, p<0.003), “expressive” (U=292,000, p<0.007), “emotions” (U=109,000, p<0.028). Cluster analysis divided each of groups into two distinct clusters. Normal: Cluster1 small self-esteem gap, good gesture recognition, negative pole of emotions prevails. Cluster2 small self-esteem gap, worse gesture recognition, pole of emotions is closer to positive. Affective: Cluster1 large self-esteem gap in “mind”, good gesture recognition. Cluster2 large self-esteem gap in “character”, good gesture recognition and bright negative pole of emotions.
Gestures recognition in normal group is significantly higher than in affective disorder group. Normal adolescents clusters are distinguished by change in gaps throughout self-esteem and pole of emotional recognition. Affective disorder clusters differ by significant gap in one of self-esteem parameters, as well as in the degree of emotional recognition. Those with the largest “character” gap are more likely to attribute negative emotions to gestures than those with larger “mind” gap.
Adolescents spend more time on the Internet than adults, making them susceptible to problematic Internet use (PIU). Evidence shows that PIU has a negative impact on self-esteem among adolescents, disturbing the development of emotional regulation, which makes them more likely to develop depressive symptoms subsequently. However, there is lack of literature focusing on the process that self-esteem may mediate the association between PIU and depressive symptoms.
This study aimed to examine the prospective links between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms in adolescence.
A total of 1,736 adolescents completed this longitudinal study. The baseline survey was conducted in 2019, and the follow-up surveys were performed at 1-year and 2-year later. Problematic Internet use, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were measured. A cascade model was used to examine the longitudinal associations between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.
The mean (SD) age of participants was 13.6 (1.5) years at baseline. The final results observed significant within-time associations between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms at each time point. PIU and low level of self-esteem could predict subsequent depressive symptoms among adolescents, and depressive symptoms were also associated with subsequent PIU and self-esteem.
Both problematic Internet use and self-esteem show bidirectional predictions with depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Health-related professionals, schools and families should be aware of the findings of bidirectional associations. Adolescents with problematic Internet use and lower self-esteem should be paid more attention to attenuate the risk of developing depressive symptoms.
Many internationally studies, in the last two decades, found problematic internet use associated with a variety of psychosocial problems, but in Portugal this is a recent research question specially in adults.
To explore the relationship between problematic Internet use, emotional regulation and self-esteem.
138 Portuguese subjects (77.5% females), with a mean age of 27.76 years old (SD = 8.98, range: 18-58) filled in the Portuguese versions of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale-2, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.
Negative consequences subscale of generalized problematic internet use was positively correlated with all the emotional regulation difficulties subscales and negatively with Self-Esteem, and positively with daily hours of internet usage. A similar result was found for Self-Deficient Regulation subscale, except for Clarity subscale. Mood Regulation was correlated with Strategies, Goals and Self-Esteem. Males showed higher levels of Negative Consequences. Age and age onset of Internet use were negatively correlated with Mood Regulation, Self-Deficient Regulation and Negative Consequences. A statistically significant difference in Mood Regulation, Self-Deficient Regulation and Negative Consequences in marital status levels, and in professional situation, with higher median scores in divorced and single without a relationship and in student subjects; no significant differences were found in educational level.
Generalized problematic Internet use, especially their Negative Consequences, is associated with higher emotional dysregulation, low self-esteem, lower age and lower age of Internet onset, being divorced or single without a relationship and being student, and it is more prevalent in males.
The Social media have gained tremendous popularity over the past decade, these sites have occupied a major part of people’s lives, especially young people. Many teenagers use tik tok, instagram, snapchat and facebook, to build relationships, connect with the world, share and acquire knowledge and information, and build their personalities, their effects are not limited. to that, comparisons made using social networking sites have led people to have a drop in self-esteem, with all the complications that can cause (anxiety disorders, depression and the anxiety disorder , etc.)
Assessment of the impact of social media on the self-image, of young subjects in the Moroccan context
Cross-sectional study with a descriptive and analytical aim, using a questionnaire and a satisfaction scale to assess the impact of social media on the self-image of young subjects in the Moroccan context. bibliographic research to objectify several studies on this subject
our results are close to the results of the literature. Sample of 200 young peoples was selected based on the confidence level of 80%. In order to test the hypothesis each respondent was given a questionnaire which tested their selfesteem and enquired the amount of time they spent on Facebook, instagram, tik tok, snapchat.
social networks are a way to communicate information, ideas of ways of life. this communication includes harmful effects on the social behavior of young people
Previous research indicates that parental emotion socialization (ES) practices play important roles in adolescents’ social and emotional development. However, longitudinal studies testing bidirectional effects are relatively scarce. Additionally, most studies have focused on people from Western societies. In the current 3-year, multi-informant, longitudinal study of Chinese adolescents and their parents, we investigated prospective bidirectional effects between parental positive ES practices and adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem and depressive symptoms). Adolescents (N = 710 at T1, 50% boys, Mage = 12.41, SD = 0.59) reported on parental positive ES practices and their own depressive symptoms and self-esteem when they were in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade. Mothers and fathers reported on their own use of positive ES practices at all three time points. We utilized a random intercept cross-lagged panel model to examine between- and within-family effects. Overall results showed robust effects of adolescent depressive symptoms on parental positive ES practices and bidirectional effects between parental ES and adolescent self-esteem. Effects differed by informants whether using adolescent-perceived data, or mother- or father-reported data. However, these child effects and bidirectional effects did not differ by adolescent sex. Our findings add to the understanding of parental ES and adolescent psychosocial adjustment.
This chapter demonstrates how concrete practices align and form a praxis, using the field of self-esteem research as a case study – as one of the most popular concepts in both academic and pseudo psychology. The mainstream praxis of self-esteem research is dissected in the context of enacting a substance ontology. Here Aristotle’s distinction between particulars (i.e., primary substances) and universals (i.e., secondary substances) is applied as a way of making sense of various dominant practices in self-esteem research. The tendency to reify self-esteem is discussed, including how this relates to objectivist measurement-standards of self-esteem, an emphasis on predicting ‘levels’ of self-esteem, and a societal need and felt-responsibility to ‘boost’ self-esteem. I discuss how the mainstream praxis of self-esteem research demonstrates an attempt to position our field (and individual scientist identities) as ‘scientific’, thus revealing a (inaccurate) natural-science envy.
The small and somewhat fringe praxis of processual self-esteem research is described with respect to its enactment of a process ontology. The chapter shows that a process approach has resulted in a focus on ‘how’ questions in self-esteem research (rather than on predictive validity, for example) and a more pluralistic approach to the operationalization of self-esteem. What the various processual-studies reviewed have in common is a conceptual and methodological approach to self-esteem as a situated and action-based process, rather than a thing that individuals have to different degrees. Here, the central role of situational affordances is highlighted. This processual praxis often relies explicitly on complex dynamic systems principles, such as self-organization, emergence, variability, and attractor landscapes. With processes and actions as its focus, this praxis constructs self-esteem knowledge that emphasizes one’s agency in the world and the centrality of our actual context-bound actions and experiences as we move through it. This chapter ends with a discussion of how a process approach is beneficial for the lived reality of self-esteem, where individuals are encouraged to embrace and reflect on their situated and fluctuating experiences of self, rather than a pursuit of ‘high’ self-esteem.
Psychological science constructs much of the knowledge that we consume in our everyday lives. This book is a systematic analysis of this process, and of the nature of the knowledge it produces. The authors show how mainstream scientific activity treats psychological properties as being fundamentally stable, universal, and isolable. They then challenge this status quo by inviting readers to recognize that dynamics, context-specificity, interconnectedness, and uncertainty, are a natural and exciting part of human psychology – these are not things to be avoided and feared, but instead embraced. This requires a shift toward a process-based approach that recognizes the situated, time-dependent, and fundamentally processual nature of psychological phenomena. With complex dynamic systems as a framework, this book sketches out how we might move toward a process-based praxis that is more suitable and effective for understanding human functioning.
Political scientists recognize discriminatory attitudes as key to understanding a range of political preferences. Sexism is associated with both explicitly and non-explicitly gendered attitudes. But why do certain individuals display discriminatory attitudes, while others do not? Drawing from psychology, we examine the potential power of an underexplored set of personality traits—secure versus fragile self-esteem—in explaining gendered attitudes and preferences. With an online sample of (N = 487) U.S.-based participants, we find that fragile self-esteem is an important trait underlying individuals’ attitudes: individuals who display a discordant view of self—explicitly positive but implicitly negative—are more likely to hold hostile sexist attitudes and prefer men in leadership; these individuals are also more likely to support the Republican Party and former U.S. president Donald Trump. While present in only a fraction of the population, our results suggest that this trait may be important for understanding the development of discriminatory attitudes toward out-groups.
How does experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) affect one's identity, in terms of self-concept and self-esteem? In this Element, the authors propose a novel framework called the E3 Model in which relevant theory and research studies can be organized into three phases: Entrapment, Escape, and Elevation. Entrapment focuses on how people enter and commit to a relationship that later becomes abusive and how experiencing IPV affects the self. Escape explores how victims become survivors as they slowly build the resources needed to leave safely, including galvanizing self-esteem. Finally, Elevation centers on how survivors psychologically rebuild from their experience and become stronger, happier, more hopeful selves. This Element concludes with a discussion of applications of the E3 Model, such as public and legal policy regarding how to best help and support survivors.