To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter presents an overview of heritage speakers’ linguistic outcomes with the goal of bringing some answers to longstanding debates in contact linguistics. Of special interest are mechanisms of contact-induced change such as convergence and grammaticalization, the role of transfer and priming in those processes, and whether or not these processes lead to simplification or complexification in heritage grammars. Overall, the evidence in the literature favors the argument that syntactic material rarely gets transferred, and that patterns of convergence toward the dominant language are a byproduct of other mechanisms. Contrary to proponents of the theory that social factors take a secondary role in contact-induced grammaticalization, it has also revealed that contact-induced grammaticalization processes in heritage grammars are dependent on the social dynamics of the community. While priming may lead to converge, such effects are also heavily dependent on the social dynamics of the heritage speakers. Results also indicate that patterns of simplification and complexification are intrinsically linked to usage. The discussion makes a call for more work considering intersubjective factors in the study of heritage grammars, in an attempt to better understand the relationship between linguistic systems and social structures.
The sociocognitive approach (SCA) to pragmatics initiated by Kecskes integrates the pragmatic view of cooperation and the cognitive view of egocentrism and emphasizes that both cooperation and egocentrism are manifested in all phases of communication, albeit to varying extents. While cooperation is an intention-directed practice that is governed by relevance, egocentrism is an attention-oriented trait dominated by salience. In the SCA, communication is considered a dynamic process, in which individuals are not only constrained by societal conditions but also shape them at the same time. Interlocutors are considered as social beings searching for meaning with individual minds embedded in a sociocultural collectivity. As a consequence, the communicative process is characterized by the interplay of two sets of traits that are inseparable, mutually supportive and interactive. Individual traits (prior experience > salience > egocentrism > attention) interact with societal traits (actual situational experience > relevance > cooperation > intention). Each trait is the consequence of the other. Prior experience results in salience, which leads to egocentrism that drives attention. Intention is a cooperation-directed practice that is governed by relevance, which (partly) depends on actual situational experience.
We focus on one of the most salient policy issues of our time, immigration, and evaluate whether the salience of immigration in governing parties’ manifestos translates into actual legislative activity on immigration. We contend that democratic policymakers have genuine incentives to do so. Furthermore, we argue that the country context matters for pledge fulfillment, and we find that the migration salience of governing parties’ manifestos more strongly translates into policy activity when the level of immigration restrictions is higher and when countries’ economies perform well. This research has important implications for our understanding of the relationships between economic performance, democratic representation and immigration policy making.
Chapter 8 offers a development of thinking about social influence by considering the role of modern mass mediation. The chapter starts by looking at the role of communication in cultivating social representations of the world, both in formal and informal ways. It proceeds by reviewing several hypotheses concerning mass media effects, including diffusion, knowledge gap, cultivation, diegetic prototyping and serial reproduction. The chapter further considers the extended role of mass mediation in agenda setting, priming and framing issues for public consumption. The idea of a 'spiral of silence' best illustrates how mass media effect analysis adds a second level of analysis to the phenomena of social influence: the theory explicitly elaborates the notion of conformity in the context of modern mass mediation. Hence, the chapter asks a question rather than offering the answer: how do media effect theories elaborate social influence simultaneously on two levels, that of interaction and that of mass mediation. For example, how does this tie in with the rediscovery of crowds as 'internet bubbles' and 'echo chambers dominated by conformity bias and motivated reasoning'?
This chapter examines and compares the effects of issue characteristics on the nine blame games examined in Chapters 3-5 and consults three additional test cases in the USA in order to corroborate and refine the findings. The chapter demonstrates how issue characteristics – namely the salience of a policy controversy and its proximity to average publics – influence the content of blame game interactions. Issue characteristics influence how political opponents signal the severity of a policy controversy to the public, how they can try to put incumbents under pressure, and how incumbents seek to manage blame for the controversy. This chapter clarifies what is meant by blame games being played out in front of an ‘audience’, and it shows how politicians work with issue characteristics to pull the audience onto their side.
This chapter offers an explication and partial defense of Ronald Dworkin’s philosophy of international law. It begins with an overview of Dworkin’s objections to legal positivism and the account of law Dworkin offers in its place, commonly referred to as (legal) interpretivism. A reconstruction of Dworkin’s analysis of international law follows, which in addition to being of interest in its own right usefully illustrates Dworkin’s interpretivist account of law and his reasons for thinking it superior to the one defended by legal positivists. The chapter concludes with rebuttals to a series of objections that have been raised to Dworkin’s analysis of international law. The defense is only partial, however, since it presumes Dworkin’s interpretivist account of law.
This chapter analyzes attitudes and preferences toward education spending. Relying on representative survey data for eight European countries, it (1) studies what citizens want when it comes to education spending and (2) explores explanations for these preferences, i.e. the main latent political cleavages over education reform. The first part of the chapter sheds theoretical and empirical light on the question how salient is education expenditure compared to other (social) policy areas. Moreover, it explores how attitudes toward education spending relate to attitudes toward means to finance this spending (via taxation, debt, or retrenchment in other areas). The second part of the chapter studies preferences toward the distribution of spending on different sectors of the education system. The results show, among other things, that compared to other issues education is highly salient, particularly schools and vocational education and training. While public support drops considerably once increases in expenditure come at a price, there is an astonishingly high support for education-related taxes. The chapter reports evidence for several potential cleavages over education spending (e.g. along respondents’ income and educational backgrounds), the most consistent one being a partisan divide.
This study investigates how working memory (WM) abilities are implicated in second language (L2) learners’ (a) morphosyntactic achievement and (b) perceptions of required mental effort and task difficulty under oral versus written task modality conditions. Beginning-level learners of L2 Spanish completed two computerized focused tasks in which they produced output and received feedback in oral form (Speaking group) or written form (Writing group). Two grammatical structures varying in their relative level of salience were targeted. After each task, participants rated their perceptions of mental effort required and task difficulty. Production and written and aural acceptability judgment tasks were employed to measure immediate and sustained L2 morphosyntactic achievement. Executive, phonological, and visuospatial WM abilities were gauged using automated operation span, nonword recognition, and forward Corsi block-tapping tasks, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that WM capacity was predictive of L2 morphosyntactic outcomes and task perception ratings in the Speaking group only. Specifically, phonological and visuospatial WM were associated with production and acceptability judgment performance accuracy, whereas executive WM was related to learners’ ratings of perceived mental effort. Differences were also observed based on the target structure.
A major challenge in linking conservation science and policy is deciding how, and when, to offer relevant science to decision-makers to have the greatest impact on decisions. This chapter argues it is a question of alignment – of selecting the right knowledge to address the needs of decision-makers, ensuring that knowledge is accessible to them, and articulating it within their decision-making processes. The chapter describes three mechanisms to enhance this alignment: decision support tools; active knowledge exchange mechanisms; and large-scale scientific assessments. For each, we provide examples and draw out guidelines regarding circumstances in which the mechanism is likely to be most effective. No single mechanism is consistently best at aligning evidence with policy and practice. Each has strengths and weaknesses, and can be applied in different circumstances and at different scales. The chapter ends with a call for these mechanisms that link synthesised evidence with policy and practice decisions to be funded sufficiently, alongside environmental research, to enable adherence to core values of salience, legitimacy, credibility and transparency.
The English lexicon is quite impoverished in capturing the perceptual detail of odour qualities. To make up for the lack of smell vocabulary, speakers will often resort to source-based descriptions, a strategy that likens smells to real-world reference points, like ‘mint’. This study examines the instances when Australian English speakers use particular communicative strategies, to explore whether cultural or cognitive influences allow for the easier abstraction of odour qualities. This study combines (1) an odour description task, and (2) a similarity-based sorting task. The results of (1) show that the communicative preferences for describing smells are indeed reliant on source-based descriptions, and the results of (2) show that conceptualisation of odours is primarily based on hedonic valence, and secondarily on salient scents. By combining these results, I find that the communicative preferences vary depending on the conceptualisations of a scent. Scents judged as pleasant receive relatively more abstract descriptions, like ‘sweet’, and show a higher degree of agreement, and the source-based descriptions are particularly frequent among culturally salient scents.
The topic of marijuana addiction is emotionally charged. The two aspects of addiction—withdrawal symptoms unique to marijuana and alterations in the brain’s reward mechanism common to all addictive drugs—must be approached separately. THC’s stimulation of CB1 receptors causes a homeostatic reduction of receptor density, called downregulation. When THC stimulation wanes, the resultant relative lack of receptors leads to a transient deficiency of endocannabinoid activity. Hirnoven found a 20% reduction in endocannabinoid receptors in the cortex of individuals regularly using marijuana requiring 4 weeks of abstinence to be reversed. The effects of cannabinoid deficiency outlined by Budney include withdrawal symptoms of restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, boredom and irritability. Relapse to marijuana use often occurs to abort withdrawal symptoms. The influx of dopamine in the reward center (nucleus accumbens) caused by excessive cannabinoid stimulation is the sine qua non for addiction and leads to a neurologically based increase in the salience of marijuana. Modification of reward mechanisms increases the motivation to use marijuana to the point that cognitive rationality is clouded and denial is produced.
Most people who use marijuana enjoy the experience and are going about their lives effectively. But there are others who crash and burn, or at least smolder, especially those in early adolescence. The largest community focused on concern for a loved one’s harmful involvement with alcohol and other drugs is found in Al-Anon Family Groups, which focus on maintaining understanding of the drug-induced neurologically-based salience of marijuana for their loved one and feeling compassion for their addiction. Al-Anon embodies the principle that we are powerless to force an addict to think differently, though we can educate ourselves about addiction, encourage them toward health, present factual information and reflect reality for them. We can learn nonjudgmental ways to respond to their denial, myths and rationalizations. Parental authority also stems from parental integrity – living a life that embodies what you hope children will learn. When adolescents refuse to stop using marijuana despite their parents’ firm insistence, a process of contracting for privileges and consequences can be useful.
Chapter 6 examines the relationship between presidential remarks on Supreme Court cases and news coverage of those remarks. We argue that presidents make concerted efforts to influence media coverage of their perspectives to mold how the public thinks about the constitutional issues involved in the Court’s cases. We examine the ability of presidents to shape the volume of news attention to the Court’s cases, as well as the tone of newspaper coverage of the president’s remarks (using Lexicoder text analysis software) for all New York Times coverage of presidential speeches on Supreme Court decisions from 1953 to 2017. We find that presidents are capable of influencing the volume of news coverage of their discussions of Court cases, with coverage associated with the length and type of the presidential statement, the tone presidents use to describe the cases, and the timing and location of the speech, among other factors. However, presidents are generally incapable of affecting the tone of media coverage of their remarks.
Subclinical psychotic symptoms are present in the general population. Furthermore, they are quite common in diagnostic categories beyond psychosis, such as BPD patients.
We want to assess the differences between 3 groups: BPD (n = 68), FEP (n = 83) and controls (n = 203) in an experimental paradigm measuring the presence of speech illusions in white noise. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was administered in the patient group, the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised, and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in the control and BPD group. The white noise task was also analysed within a signal detection theory (SDT) framework. Logistic regression analyses and the general linear models were used to analyse the adjusted differences between groups.
Differences were more prevalent in signals that were perceived as affectively salient in patients groups (9.6% in FEP vs 5.9% in BPD and 1% in controls; OR: 10.7; 95%CI: 2.2–51.6, p = 0.003 in FEP; OR: 6.3; 95%CI: 1.1–35.0, p = 0.036 in BPD). Besides, we found a worse general performance and more false alarms in the task for FEP group using SDT framework.
Experimental paradigms indexing the tendency to detect affectively salient signals in noise may be used to identify liability to psychosis in people with vulnerability. Its predictable value in other diagnostic categories and general population requires further research.
Behavioral paternalists often distinguish their views from harder forms of paternalism by emphasizing the moderate character of their proposals. Insights from the academic literature on slippery slopes suggest that behavioral paternalist policies are particularly vulnerable to expansion, which makes the claim to moderation unsustainable. This is true even if policymakers are rational (in the neoclassical sense), but the slippery-slope threat is even greater if policymakers share the behavioral and cognitive biases attributed to the people their policies are supposed to help. Rational slope mechanisms include altered incentive slopes, authority and simplification slopes, and expanding justification slopes. Behavioral slope mechanisms include action bias, overconfidence, confirmation bias, present bias, availability and salience effects, framing and extremeness aversion, and affect and prototype heuristics. The theoretical and empirical vagueness of behavioral paternalism creates gradients that encourage the gradual expansion of policies. Finally, the particular way in which leading behavioral paternalists have framed the issue of paternalism gives rise to an inherently expansionist dynamic, which we call the paternalism-generating framework.
Rational beliefs need not be truth-tracking nor adhere strictly to basic logical or statistical-inference principles. They must simply be appropriate to the attainment of the individual’s purposes in specific contexts. We analyze various “errors” that behavioral economists have supposedly discovered in belief formation. Specifically, we examine supposed errors related to imperfect logical deduction, the conjunction fallacy (including the famous “Linda problem”), availability bias, overconfidence bias, and distorted salience. In each case we show that the standard behavioral analysis is too simple and that many of their behaviors qualify as inclusively rational. The fundamental error of behavioral analysts is to expect that universal, abstract methods of belief formation will be appropriate for guiding all concrete choices.
Real-world policymakers face pressure to take action, to legislate, and to attempt to solve problems even in imperfect ways. What kind of paternalistic policies can we reasonably expect policymakers to create? We argue that public-choice pressures will tend to produce suboptimal paternalistic policies, even if we assume behavioral paternalists’ conclusions about human behavior are generally correct. Rational ignorance, bureaucratic self-interest, concentrated benefits and diffuse costs, the influence of rent-seekers and moralists, and other factors will tend to shape policy in undesirable ways. If policymakers are susceptible to biases such as those attributed to regular people, the results could be even worse. Biases with the potential to adversely affect policymaking include action bias, overconfidence, confirmation bias, availability and salience effects, affect and prototype heuristics, and present bias. Because the political sphere offers weak incentives for the self-correction of biases, we expect such biases to be more significant in the public than in the private sphere.
Preference for semantic analyzability in ELF creates “utterer-implicatures” that usually do not implicate anything beyond what is said. But still we have kept calling them implicatures and not “implicitures” or “explicatures” as they are called in the Gricean literature because they are the results of the same mechanism as in L1. In ELF interactions there is a kind of pragmaticization of semantics which is a synchronic, one-off phenomenon in which coded meaning, sometimes without any specific pragmatic enrichment based on the target language, obtains temporary pragmatic status. ELF speakers need this online pragmaticalization because they cannot rely on pragmatic effects as in L1. So ELF users need to build up temporary frames and norms in the course of interaction. Actual situation context does not help because it is understood differently by interlocutors. So ELF users will produce and interpret a pragmatic act, including implicatures, mainly based on its semantic content that is pragmaticized not by the actual contextual effect or core common ground but by prior context and co-constructed emergent common ground. This ELF pragmatics relies not on existing norms and conventions but rather on emergent intention, innovation, emergent common ground, online frame building and one-off strategies.
Permissivism is the view that there are evidential situations that rationally permit more than one attitude toward a proposition. In this paper, I argue for Intrapersonal Belief Permissivism (IaBP): that there are evidential situations in which a single agent can rationally adopt more than one belief-attitude toward a proposition. I give two positive arguments for IaBP; the first involves epistemic supererogation and the second involves doubt. Then, I show how these arguments give intrapersonal permissivists a distinct response to the toggling objection. I conclude that IaBP is a view that philosophers should take seriously.
Research during the past six decades has found that parties joining coalition governments receive payoffs, in the form of government posts, in proportion to their coalition share. These findings, however, do not indicate which coalition partners receive payoffs that will most enable them to influence their preferred policies. This article joins recent qualitative analyses of coalition allocation and examines payoffs in terms of the salience of positions relative to the policy goals of the parties receiving them. The single-country study of eight Israeli governments from 1992 to 2015 integrates quantitative and qualitative analyses of coalition payoffs. This article contributes to coalition allocation research by expanding the scope of coalition payoffs to include junior ministers and committee chairs, and by distinguishing payoff outcomes for different party families. The results show an edge for formateur parties in obtaining policy-salient ministerial payoffs and an advantage to non-formateurs for policy-salient deputy (junior) minister positions.