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The goal of this work is to construct and study hybrid and multiplicative two-level overlapping Schwarz algorithms with standard coarse spaces for the almost incompressible linear elasticity and Stokes systems, discretized by mixed finite and spectral element methods with discontinuous pressures. Two different approaches are considered to solve the resulting saddle point systems: a) a preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method applied to the symmetric positive definite reformulation of the almost incompressible linear elasticity system obtained by eliminating the pressure unknowns; b) a GMRES method with indefinite overlapping Schwarz preconditioner applied directly to the saddle point formulation of both the elasticity and Stokes systems. Condition number estimates and convergence properties of the proposed hybrid and multiplicative overlapping Schwarz algorithms are proven for the positive definite reformulation of almost incompressible elasticity. These results are based on our previous study  where only additive Schwarz preconditioners were considered for almost incompressible elasticity. Extensive numerical experiments with both finite and spectral elements show that the proposed overlapping Schwarz preconditioners are scalable, quasi-optimal in the number of unknowns across individual subdomains and robust with respect to discontinuities of the material parameters across subdomains interfaces. The results indicate that the proposed preconditioners retain a good performance also when the quasi-monotonicity assumption, required by the available theory, does not hold.
We investigate several robust preconditioners for solving the saddle-point linear systems that arise from spatial discretization of unsteady and steady variable-coefficient Stokes equations on a uniform staggered grid. Building on the success of using the classical projection method as a preconditioner for the coupled velocity pressure system [B. E. Griffith, J. Comp. Phys., 228 (2009), pp. 7565-7595], as well; established techniques for steady and unsteady Stokes flow in the finite-element literature, we construct preconditioners that employ independent generalized Helmholtz and Poisson solvers for the velocity and pressure subproblems. We demonstrate that only a single cycle of a standard geometric multigrid algorithm serves as an effective inexact solver for each of these subproblems. Contrary to traditional wisdom, we find that the Stokes problem can be solved nearly as efficiently as the independent pressure and velocity subproblems, making the overall cost of solving the Stokes system comparable to the cost of classical projection or fractional step methods for incompressible flow, even for steady flow and in the presence of large density and viscosity contrasts. Two of the five preconditioners considered here are found to be robust to GMRES restarts and to increasing problem size, making them suitable for large-scale problems. Our work opens many possibilities for constructing novel unsplit temporal integrators for finite-volume spatial discretizations of the equations of low Mach and incompressible flow dynamics.
We discuss a family of discontinuous Petrov–Galerkin (DPG) schemes for quite general
partial differential operators. The starting point of our analysis is the DPG method
introduced by [Demkowicz et al., SIAM J. Numer. Anal.
49 (2011) 1788–1809; Zitelli et al., J.
Comput. Phys. 230 (2011) 2406–2432]. This discretization results
in a sparse positive definite linear algebraic system which can be obtained from a saddle
point problem by an element-wise Schur complement reduction applied to the test space.
Here, we show that the abstract framework of saddle point problems and domain
decomposition techniques provide stability and a priori estimates. To
obtain efficient numerical algorithms, we use a second Schur complement reduction applied
to the trial space. This restricts the degrees of freedom to the skeleton. We construct a
preconditioner for the skeleton problem, and the efficiency of the discretization and the
solution method is demonstrated by numerical examples.
The central objective of this paper is to develop reduced basis methods for parameter dependent transport dominated problems that are rigorously proven to exhibit rate-optimal performance when compared with the Kolmogorov n-widths of the solution sets. The central ingredient is the construction of computationally feasible “tight” surrogates which in turn are based on deriving a suitable well-conditioned variational formulation for the parameter dependent problem. The theoretical results are illustrated by numerical experiments for convection-diffusion and pure transport equations. In particular, the latter example sheds some light on the smoothness of the dependence of the solutions on the parameters.
Recently, adaptive wavelet strategies for symmetric, positive definite operators have been introduced that were proven to converge.
This paper is devoted to the generalization to saddle point problems which are also symmetric, but indefinite. Firstly, we investigate
a posteriori error estimates and generalize the known adaptive wavelet strategy to saddle point problems. The convergence of this strategy for elliptic operators essentially relies on the positive definite character of the operator. As an alternative, we introduce an adaptive variant of Uzawa's algorithm and prove its convergence. Secondly, we derive explicit criteria for adaptively refined wavelet spaces in order to fulfill the Ladyshenskaja-Babuška-Brezzi (LBB) condition and to be fully equilibrated.
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