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The aim of the paper is to investigate the usefulness of different illustration formats in online English learners’ dictionaries for the accuracy and speed of meaning comprehension as well as immediate and delayed retention. In a controlled online experiment, the meaning of selected English words and phrases had to be explained with the help of purpose-built monolingual dictionary entries. Four experimental conditions were created, which reflected the presence and format of illustrations in the entries: color pictures, greyscale pictures, line drawings, no illustrations. Meaning retention was checked immediately after exposure and two weeks later. The results show that it is worthwhile to include illustrations in online learners’ dictionaries and suggest the most beneficial illustration formats. Line drawings prove the most recommendable; they considerably improve meaning comprehension, reduce reception time, and stimulate the best immediate and delayed retention. Color pictures emerge as the second best. They produce results comparable with those for line drawings, except they do not help so much to remember meaning in the long run. Entries with greyscale pictures are the least recommendable. They do not contribute more to meaning comprehension and delayed retention. Yet, they even shorten reception time and help users to remember more words immediately after exposure.
Openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism are dimensional personality traits known as the Big Five. Study attrition is a common but often hard to anticipate problem. Artificial intelligence (AI) could examine both fronts to mitigate the unpredictability of the latter.
To investigate whether AI could predict study attrition employing personality traits scores.
Data from 2,697 questionnaires were analysed using an AI. The short form of the International Personality Item Pool was used to assess the Big Five personality traits on the first of three planned waves. The personality traits scores were employed to predict the missing of at least one wave. Overall attrition was 17.6%. The AI was conservatively tuned to minimize the negative likelihood ratio when confronting predicted and real attrition. The free and open source programming language R was used for all the analyses. Dataset source: Hansson, Isabelle; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir (2018), “Can personality predict longitudinal study attrition? Evidence from a population-based sample of older adults”, Mendeley Data, V1, doi: 10.17632/g3jx8zt2t9.1
Predictions obtained a negative likelihood ratio of 0.333 and a negative predictive value of 0.933. The results were indicative of fair performance.
AI might be useful to predict study retention. Furthermore, the results of this study might indicate a moderate effect of the Big Five on the probability of study retention. Finally, the AI used in this study is freely available, allowing anyone to experiment.
Professional jockeys are always seeking ways to gain the advantage over their riding rivals. Precisely how the jockey is positioned on the horse turns out to be an extremely important factor – one that has aroused recent scientific interest. One innovation is the so-called monkey crouch. This crouched style over the base of the horse’s neck was actually a drastic departure from the upright riding style that was in vogue until the very end of the nineteenth century. Who began this practice? Was this innovation the result of intelligent design? The answers to these questions vary, with three likely originators coming to the fore: Tod Sloan, Willie Simms, and Harding Cox. Their fascinating stories intersect in England and reveal that the invention of the monkey crouch was not due to foresighted design. The evolutionary processes of variation, selection, and retention seem to have been hard at work in its development.
To compare the predictive validity of learning and retention measures from the picture version of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test with Immediate Recall (pFCSRT + IR) for identifying incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Learning was defined by the sum of free recall (FR) and retention by delayed free recall (DFR) tested 15–20 min later. Totally, 1422 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants (mean age 69.6 years, 54% male, mean 16.7 years of education) without dementia or MCI received the pFCSRT + IR at baseline and were followed longitudinally. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effect of baseline learning and retention on risk of MCI.
In total, 187 participants developed MCI over a median of 8.1 years of follow-up. FR and DFR each predicted incident MCI adjusting for age, sex, and education. Also, each independently predicted incident MCI in the presence of the other with similar effect sizes: around 20% decrease in the hazard of MCI corresponding to one standard deviation increase in FR or DFR.
The practice of preferring retention over learning to predict incident MCI should be reconsidered. The decision to include retention should be guided by time constraints and patient burden.
To describe strategies used to recruit and retain young adults in nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity intervention studies, and quantify the success and efficiency of these strategies.
A systematic review was conducted. The search included six electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) published up to 6 December 2019 that evaluated nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity interventions in young adults (17–35 years). Recruitment was considered successful if the pre-determined sample size goal was met. Retention was considered acceptable if ≥80 % retained for ≤6-month follow-up or ≥70 % for >6-month follow-up.
From 21 582 manuscripts identified, 107 RCT were included. Universities were the most common recruitment setting used in eighty-four studies (79 %). Less than half (46 %) of the studies provided sufficient information to evaluate whether individual recruitment strategies met sample size goals, with 77 % successfully achieving recruitment targets. Reporting for retention was slightly better with 69 % of studies providing sufficient information to determine whether individual retention strategies achieved adequate retention rates. Of these, 65 % had adequate retention.
This review highlights poor reporting of recruitment and retention information across trials. Findings may not be applicable outside a university setting. Guidance on how to improve reporting practices to optimise recruitment and retention strategies within young adults could assist researchers in improving outcomes.
Adult community nursing services are evolving around the world in response to government policies and changing patient demographics. Amidst these changes, recruitment and retention of community nursing staff are proving a challenge. An integrative literature review has identified multiple factors that influence nurse retention in adult community nursing with sparse information on recruitment factors. Although factors impacting retention of community nurses have been identified, their generalisability around the world is a challenge as they are context and co-dependent. Indicating the need for this area of study to be explored at a local level, as the same factors present with different findings globally.
To establish factors influencing recruitment and retention of registered nurses in adult community nursing services.
Integrative literature review.
Four electronic databases were searched in August 2019 from January 2008 to December 2018: CINAHL Complete, Web of Science, MEDLINE and PROQUEST. Both qualitative and quantitative studies focusing on factors influencing community nursing recruitment and retention were included.
An integrative literature review methodology by Whittemore and Knafl (The integrative review: updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing 52, 546–553) was followed, supported by Cochrane guidelines on data synthesis and analysis using a narrative synthesis method. The Center for Evidence-Based Management (CEBMa) critical appraisal tools were used for study quality assessment.
Ten papers met the study inclusion criteria. Data synthesis and analysis revealed individual and organisational factors influencing the retention of community nurses with the following three dominant themes: (1) work pressure, (2) working conditions and (3) lack of appreciation by managers.
The review identified context-dependent factors that influence adult community nurses’ retention with limited generalisability. There is a lack of data on factors influencing recruitment into adult community nursing; further research is needed to explore factors affiliated to community nursing recruitment.
Respiratory emergencies normally manifest as bronchoconstriction and/or hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Primary management goals are explained, and the pharmacological management of all three manifestations are described.
This article reports on an evaluation of the Keeping Children Safe parent education programme run in Central West New South Wales. The programme, conducted since 2004, and continuing today, primarily targets parents of children at risk and other vulnerable and disadvantaged families. The evaluation covers a 13-year period, from the first group held in May 2004 to February 2017. From the beginning, the authors strategically endeavoured to recruit and retain parents from the target group. Findings from the literature indicate that this group is difficult to engage and retain in parent education groups. Parents targeted for the groups in this study were generally not receiving parent education elsewhere. Using mixed methods, the facilitators have continuously evaluated the programme in terms of attendance rates, process and impact. The results of these evaluations show successful recruitment and retention of participants from the target group over the 13 years of the evaluation reporting period and indicate that the programme’s immediate impact on participants has been favourable. The findings complement other programme evaluations focusing on recruitment and retention to programmes in the child protection context and on hard-to-reach clients. The authors also argue the importance of education for parents about child abuse and neglect.
Forgetting names is a common memory concern for people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and is related to explicit memory deficits and pathological changes in the medial temporal lobes at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the current experiment, we tested a unique method to improve memory for face–name associations in people with aMCI involving incidental rehearsal of face–name pairs.
Older adults with aMCI and age- and education-matched controls learned 24 face–name pairs and were tested via immediate cued recall with faces as cues for associated names. During a 25- to 30-min retention interval, 10 of the face–name pairs reappeared as a quarter of the items on a seemingly unrelated 1-back task on faces, with the superimposed names irrelevant to the task. After the delay, surprise delayed cued recall and forced-choice associative recognition tests were administered for the face–name pairs.
Both groups showed reduced forgetting of the names that repeated as distraction and enhanced recollection of these pairs.
The results demonstrate that passive methods to prompt automatic retrieval of associations may hold promise as interventions for people with early signs of AD.
In order to tackle the challenge of efficiently meeting clinical research accrual goals, many Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have developed recruitment support mechanisms and resources to help investigators successfully recruit study participants. Disseminating recruitment best practices and developing collaborations between institutions can help strengthen recruitment capabilities and methodologies currently utilized by researchers.
To discover what recruitment resources and mechanisms CTSAs are using, the CTSA Recruitment and Retention working group developed an electronic survey, which was distributed to CTSAs between May and July 2019. The survey contained over 50 multiple choice and short answer questions, with 40 of the 64 CTSA institutions completing the survey. Institutions reported on registries, feasibility assessment tools, clinical trial listings, experience recruiting special populations, program operations and evaluation, workforce education, social media use, and other recruitment resources.
All respondents currently utilize some form of a volunteer registry; over 80% of the CTSAs provide investigators with recruitment consultations, feasibility assessments, study listings, and electronic health record (EHR) utilization; 73% assist with study materials; 47% offer social media assistance. Many institutions reported success in recruiting patients and healthy volunteers, but difficulty in recruiting special populations such as non-English-speaking persons and rural populations. Additional recruitment tools included use of the EHR to facilitate recruitment, use of registries, and use of social media to engage participants.
Areas of opportunity or growth include the development of innovative solutions in the areas of social media advertising, identification of participants from special populations, and research volunteer engagement.
This chapter focuses on six key areas that are affecting recruitment and retention: (1) technology, (2) social media, (3) big data, (4) HR technology and information systems, (5) globalization, and (6) demographics. It begins with a brief review of changes in each of these areas and how they are affecting work. Then we consider how these same changes are affecting recruitment, recognizing that in the age of the Internet and social media, recruitment is, by definition, global. In a concluding section, we offer research-based suggestions regarding what managers can do to maximize the retention of talented employees that they want to keep.
Stigma against mental illness and the mentally ill is well known. However, stigma against psychiatrists and mental health professionals is known but not discussed widely. Public attitudes and also those of other professionals affect recruitment into psychiatry and mental health services. The reasons for this discriminatory attitude are many and often not dissimilar to those held against mentally ill individuals. In this Guidance paper we present some of the factors affecting the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists which is perceived by the public at large. We look at the portrayal of psychiatry, psychiatrists in the media and literature which may affect attitudes. We also explore potential causes and explanations and propose some strategies in dealing with negative attitudes. Reduction in negative attitudes will improve recruitment and retention in psychiatry. We recommend that national psychiatric societies and other stakeholders, including patients, their families and carers, have a major and significant role to play in dealing with stigma, discrimination and prejudice against psychiatry and psychiatrists.
Hurricanes can interrupt communication, exacerbate attrition, and disrupt participant engagement in research. We used text messaging and disaster preparedness protocols to re-establish communication, re-engage participants, and ensure retention in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-test study.
Participants were given HIV home test kits to test themselves and/or their non-monogamous sexual partners before intercourse. A daily text message-based short message service computer-assisted self-interview (SMS-CASI) tool reminded them to report 3 variables: (1) anal sex without a condom, (2) knowledge of partners’ testing history, and (3) proof of partners’ testing history. A disaster preparedness protocol was put in place for hurricanes in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 6315 messages from participants (N = 12) active at the time of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Disaster preparedness narratives were assessed.
All participants were able to communicate sexual behavior and HIV testing via SMS-CASI within 30 days following María. Some participants (n = 5, 42%) also communicated questions. Re-engagement within 30 days after the hurricane was 100% (second week/89%, third week/100%). Participant re-engagement ranged from 0–16 days (average = 6.4 days). Retention was 100%.
Daily SMS-CASI and disaster preparedness protocols helped participant engagement and communication after 2 hurricanes. SMS-CASI responses indicated high participant re-engagement, retention, and well-being.
This chapter connects pay to the important (and costly, from an organizational standpoint) subject of employee turnover. It opens by discussing how the level of pay relates to workers’ turnover rates. A discussion of the timing of compensation (over the course of the worker’s career or tenure with the employer) follows, the key point being that deferred compensation encourages retention. Employers might renege on deferred-pay contracts, which introduces risk for workers. The chapter covers workers’ perceptions of risk as they pertain to the timing and design of pay and to sorting effects. When pay is deferred, workers sometimes advance to a career stage in which their pay outpaces their productivity, at which time employers would like them to quit. Inducing workers to leave can be tricky, particularly given the external and internal constraints covered in Chapters 4 and 5. Sections 12.5 and 12.6 concern severance packages and buyouts, which basically involve paying workers to leave. The conditions under which such payments are offered and accepted are covered. The chapter ends with coverage of corporate raids and when a manager should match an outside offer received by an employee.
This chapter treats pay in nonprofits and the public sector, where the organization’s objectives are not as straightforward as in the typical for-profit firm. It also covers small businesses, a subject which is neglected in standard compensation texts but which is important because some readers are or aspire to be small-business managers. The opening section defines the 3 entities under discussion. Organizational missions and workers’ intrinsic motivation are described, which relates to compensating differentials in that workers who value the organizational mission interpret it as a non-monetary component of pay that creates an incentive to work hard to further the mission. The chapter revisits external and internal constraints on pay, training (and recruitment of desired worker types), performance pay, and turnover, thereby tying the book’s earlier concepts together. Subjects that were covered in earlier chapters are re-examined through the different lenses of nonprofits, the public sector, and small businesses. The chapter ends with coverage of “distance” between managers and owners, which tends to be shorter in small businesses than in larger ones, and its implications for pay.
Feeding strategies for growing monogastric livestock (particularly pigs) must focus on maximising animal performance, while attempting to reduce environmental P load. Achieving these goals requires a comprehensive understanding of how different P feeding strategies affect animal responses and an ability to predict P retention. Although along with Ca, P is the most researched macromineral in pig nutrition, knowledge gaps still exist in relation to: (1) the effects of P feed content on feed intake (FI); (2) the impact of P intake on body composition; (3) the distribution of absorbed P to pools within the body. Here, we address these knowledge gaps by gathering empirical evidence on the effects of P-deficient feeds and by developing a predictive, mechanistic model of P utilisation and retention incorporating this evidence. Based on our statistical analyses of published literature data, we found: (1) no change in FI response in pigs given lower P feed contents; (2) the body ash–protein relationship to be dependent upon feed composition, with the isometric relationship only holding for pigs given balanced feeds and (3) the priority to be given towards P retention in soft tissue over P retention in bones. Subsequent results of the mechanistic model of P retention indicated that a potential reduction in P feeding recommendations could be possible without compromising average daily gain; however, such a reduction would impact P deposition in bones. Our study enhances our current knowledge of P utilisation and by extension excretion and could contribute towards developing more accurate P feeding guidelines.
A new competency-based job framework was implemented for clinical research professionals at a large, clinical research-intensive academic medical center. This study evaluates the rates of turnover before and after implementation of the new framework. Turnover in this workforce (as with most) is costly; it contributes to wasted dollars and lost productivity since these are highly specialized positions requiring extensive training, regardless of experience in the field.
Trends in employee turnover for 3 years prior to and after the implementation of competency-based job framework for clinical research positions were studied using human resources data. Employee demographics, turnover rates, and comparisons to national statistics are summarized.
Employee turnover within the clinical research professional jobs has decreased from 23% to 16%, a 45% reduction, since the implementation of competency-based job framework.
The new jobs and career ladders, both of which are centered on a competency-based framework, have decreased the overall turnover rate in this employee population. Since little is known about the rates of turnover in clinical research, especially in the academic medical setting, the results of this analysis can provide important insights to other academic medical centers on both employee turnover rate in general and the potential impact of implementing large-scale competency-based job changes.
Quitlines are standard care for smoking cessation; however, retaining clients in services is a problem. Little is known about factors that may predict dropout.
To examine predictors of retention while in-program and at follow-up for clients enrolling in a state quitline.
This was a retrospective analysis of quitline enrolled clients from 2011 to 2017 (N = 49,347). Client retention in-program was categorized as (a) low adherence to treatment (receiving zero coaching calls), moderate (1–2 calls), and high adherence (3+ calls). Dropout at follow-up included participants who were not reached for the 7-month follow-up.
More than half the sample dropped out during treatment; 61% were not reached for follow-up. Women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.16, 127]) and those with high levels of nicotine dependence (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = [1.02, 1.04]) were more likely to have moderate adherence to treatment (1–2 coaching calls). Dropout at follow-up was more likely among clients who used nicotine replacement therapy (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = [1.09, 1.19]) and less likely among those who had high treatment adherence (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = [0.39, 0.42]).
Given the relapsing nature of tobacco use and the harms related to tobacco use, quitlines can improve their impact by offering tailored services to enhance client engagement and retention in-treatment and at follow-up.
This chapter provides an overview of changes in the higher education environment that inform admissions and placement decisions. Various factors that must be considered when reconceptualizing current admission and placement practices are discussed. An expanded assessment framework based on two models – the multilevel design model and the complementarity model – are described. These models aim to better support diverse students’ learning by improving the connection between assessments and instruction once students are admitted to higher education institutions. Finally, the contributions of technological advancements, measurement of noncognitive skills, and innovations in task design are described.
This study aimed to explore the extent to which health visitors who trained and qualified in both Greater London and the South West of England between September 2011 and January 2016 were employed in health visiting posts and have remained in the profession.
In 2011, the UK Government launched the Health Visitor Implementation Plan ‘A Call to Action’ (Department of Health, 2011) to develop the health visitor workforce by training 4200 health visitors over a four-year period. By April 2015, 4000 additional health visitors were trained, but the total workforce has since fallen back to pre-Implementation Plan size.
Data were collected using a survey, completed online by participants. All participants had undertaken a health visitor education programme at one of two participating universities. The survey was distributed in January 2017 and completed by 180 individuals. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS; association was assessed using individual chi-square tests or Fisher’s exact test. Free-text responses were thematically analysed.
Most (153; 87%) participants were still working as health visitors. Length of time spent working in the community prior to completing health visitor training was associated with staying in the role ( χ2 (with Fisher’s exact test = 7.998, P = .027). Current pay was associated with attrition from the health visitor workforce ( χ2 (with Fisher’s exact test) = 67.559, P < .001.). The majority who had left the health visitor role were on higher pay bands in their new post compared to those that had stayed (12; 60%). Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) theory of socio-ecological development was used as a framework to interpret the results. While participants made an active choice to join the profession, leaving was influenced more by factors outside their control. To influence health visitor retention, both local and strategic changes are required.