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Chapter 4 addresses the myth of editorial neutrality, exploring how editorial biography can illuminate historical editions. It includes three case studies, each of which focuses on an edition produced for English schoolchildren between 1909 and 1927 and draws on both the editor’s life and the broader setting of the edition’s creation. The first study examines Evelyn Smith’s 1927 Henry V, an edition which strongly signals its post-war context, using her glossarial notes, questions, and citations to extrapolate information about Smith’s viewpoints. The second study highlights the tension between archival evidence regarding Agnes Russell Weekes and the racist and colonialist content of her 1909 edition of The Tempest. The third study demonstrates how understanding editor Dorothy Macardle’s Irish Nationalist background reveals the immense depth of her edition of The Tempest (c. 1917).
Introduction to the research claims and objectives of the work as a whole, paying attention to the fraught relationship between psychoanalysis, race, and poverty. A historical outline of the Freudian free clinic movement is used to examine the viability of an adapted psychoanalysis, with its components of free or low-fee therapy, community outreach, lay counselors, etc.
Hirsutism is a common endocrine disorder affecting 5–10% of women of reproductive age. A thorough history, physical examination and selected laboratory tests will confirm the underlying cause. This chapter reviews various causes and clinical management of hirsutism. Counselling, lifestyle modifications, mechanical hair removal and selected medical therapies can be used to reduce the degree of hirsutism and to improve self-esteem. Combined oral contraceptive pill is the first-line therapy for hirsutism, provided there has been no contraindication. At least 6–9 months of treatment may be necessary before an effect can be observed.
This chapter investigates Adès’s 2003–4 opera The Tempest in the context of postcolonial theory, arguing that the adaptation considerably transforms the statuses of Caliban, Ariel, and Prospero. I situate the opera within major strands of postcolonial thought of the past half-century, focussing especially on Caliban as a way to explore themes of resistance, identity and diaspora. Identifying the opera’s transformations in the libretto, I then explore how both text and Adès’s music work as ambiguous signifiers of political subtexts, centring on ideas of servitude and power. Touching also on the different aesthetics of the several contrasting productions of the opera, I tie together these different areas to put this operatic Tempest in dialogue with the extensive corpus of critical approaches to the play in literature, film and theatre. I conclude by suggesting that it can be productively analysed in the context of legacies of colonialism and empire in twenty-first-century Britain.
This chapter provides an overview of the sociolinguistic dimensions of heritage language acquisition and use across a variety of settings. Principal theoretical concepts and methodological approaches that address macro, meso, and micro level considerations, including history, context, community, and culture as well as identity, investment, and ideology are described. It considers ‘the social turn’ in language acquisition research more broadly and explains its relationship to heritage language studies, highlighting, in particular, linguistic variability. The chapter identifies key trends in the fields of heritage language acquisition and socialization, and describes the crucial impact of social variables such as generation, social class, ethnicity and race, and gender and sexuality in processes of heritage language acquisition and use. Finally, potential future areas of research focused on the sociolinguistic realities of heritage language users and their communities are highlighted. Overall, this chapter provides readers a glimpse into the sociolinguistic complexity of heritage language speakers, learners, and their communities.
In Unseen City: The Psychic Lives of the Urban Poor, Ankhi Mukherjee offers a magisterial work of literary and cultural criticism which examines the relationship between global cities, poverty, and psychoanalysis. Spanning three continents, this hugely ambitious book reads fictional representations of poverty with each city's psychoanalytic and psychiatric culture, particularly as that culture is fostered by state policies toward the welfare needs of impoverished populations. It explores the causal relationship between precarity and mental health through clinical case studies, the product of extensive collaborations and knowledge-sharing with community psychotherapeutic initiatives in six global cities. These are layered with twentieth- and twenty-first-century works of world literature that explore issues of identity, illness, and death at the intersections of class, race, globalisation, and migrancy. In Unseen City, Mukherjee argues that a humanistic and imaginative engagement with the psychic lives of the dispossessed is key to an adapted psychoanalysis for the poor, and that seeking equity of the unconscious is key to poverty alleviation.
This chapter explores the representation of emotions in justifications of slavery during antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the rise of Atlantic slavery, paying close attention to the shift from the notion of “slavery to passions” in ancient Greco-Roman philosophy to the principle of “slavery to sin” in early Christian thought. This chapter concludes with an analysis of the role of emotional discourse in the globalization of racialized slavery.
This chapter on Henry David Thoreau puts in relief the ecological commons and historiography of nature that issue from the environmental relations illustrated by the sketch. Connecting Thoreau’s Cape Cod to his “Dispersion of Seeds,” the chapter describes these relations in terms of the dispersal that follows from waves rising and receding upon the shore and tossing up weeds, corpses, and all kinds of salvage materials left from shipwrecks. The sketch’s seeing—and enacting—of relation as a littoral erosion and disintegration presents an alternate sense of how one lives with, pressed up against, familiarly or strangely, other species and races. If a romantic ecology might envision relations in the form of an interconnected cobweb, Thoreau’s late manuscripts release those slight silky threads to the air and lets them fly apart and ray out prismatically. This chapter follows how Thoreau’s sketches embody the ways in which text becomes a natural history of casualty, attending to species and race, and engaging with them by way of an environmental optics. The tenuous lines of sight draw a partial ecology that stretches and cleaves the liminalities between “nature” and Thoreau’s “I,” even as it disperses those very entities.
This chapter explores the projection of passions and feelings in master–enslaved relations and the role of this projection in the development of body politics and power relations in the empires of the Atlantic world. The chapter recognizes links between ideas about emotions and the genocidal violence of Atlantic slavery. Particular attention is paid to the representation of enslaved resistance as a “passionate transgression,” focusing on the Haitian Revolution as a case study.
This chapter analyzes the representation of emotional difference in scientific racism during the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. It examines the conceptualization of the “passions” in biological, geographical, and historical determinism, while also paying close attention to the implications of emotional discourse in eugenics.
This chapter examines the paradigmatic discourses about emotions of White abolitionism and during the “disintegration” of legal slavery in the Atlantic world. This chapter highlights the mutations of ideas of “feelings” in the "post-emancipation” era and their role in the continuation of slavery, while also addressing the escalation of emotional archetypes of race and slavery in twentieth-century media.
The debate over the definition and dispersal of species was intertwined with how the nineteenth century was grappling with the definition of racial difference. This chapter focuses on how the African American physician James McCune Smith reinterpreted racial uplift through the scientific discourses of biogeography and ethnology. Crucially, for McCune Smith, African and Pacific Islander diasporas overlap in the figure of the coral insect, the tiny sea zoophyte that slowly and tenaciously builds the reefs and islands improbably dotting the oceans. The chapter explores how he links the coral insect to African and Pacific Islander experiences of encounter with Euro-American settler cultures and its narratives of racial tutelage and reform. Placing this bizarre cross-species kinship in the context of the nineteenth century’s cultural and scientific imagination, the chapter discusses how McCune Smith’s sketches “Heads of the Colored People” perform the coral insect’s creative biological and geological agency and microscopically figure and transfigure the human-to-nature order. His diasporic view was informed by Charles Lyell’s and Charles Darwin’s biogeographical theories of coral reef formation, as well as the corpus of research on corals by American scientist James Dwight Dana from his time on the Wilkes Expedition.
This chapter analyzes how emotions are expressed in the development of international law about contemporary slavery and in its current media coverage. This chapter also concentrates on the role of emotional concepts in the continued racialization of contemporary slavery and mass incarceration in the Atlantic world.
Nineteenth-Century American Literature and the Discourse of Natural History illuminates how literary experimentation with natural history provides penumbral views of environmental survival. The book brings together feminist revisions of scientific objectivity and critical race theory on diaspora to show how biogeography influenced material and metaphorical concepts of species and race. It also highlights how lesser known writers of color like Simon Pokagon and James McCune Smith connected species migration and mutability to forms of racial uplift. The book situates these literary visions of environmental fragility and survival amidst the development of Darwinian theories of evolution and against a westward expanding American settler colonialism.
In this chapter I uncover the place of animals within imperial discourses. This repertoire of representations served to denigrate Burmese populations as being too close to animals but did so ambivalently. Imperial texts also revealed their authors’ barely sublimated desires for the colonized Other and their own close, emotional connections with non-human creatures.
This paper examines the context-dependent role of race as a predictor of non-electoral political participation. Prior country-level studies have documented group-level differences in a variety of forms of participation in South Africa and the United States, but have found few to no differences in Brazil. Why are members of one group more engaged in certain political activities than members of other groups only in specific contexts? Why do members of socioeconomically deprived groups, such as non-Whites, participate more than better-off groups in acts that require group mobilization in South Africa and the United States but not in Brazil? Results from the World Values Survey and the International Social Survey Programme show that Blacks and Coloureds in South Africa and Blacks in the United States participate more than Whites in activities that demand prior organization and mobilization, whereas group differences are negligible in Brazil. I argue that (1) race as a driver of political mobilization is conditional on the existence of politicized racial identities; (2) members of groups that share a strong collective identity participate in direct political action more than predicted by their socioeconomic background; (3) politicization of identities is the product of racial projects that deploy the state apparatus to enforce group boundaries for the implementation of segregationist policies as well as the reactions against them; and (4) by enforcing group boundaries, those systems unintentionally create the conditions for the formation of politicized group identities. In the absence of such requisites, political mobilization along racial lines would be weak or nonexistent.
Pentecostalism understands that spiritual and social power without political power is limited in its ability to coerce, and so it contests for power through spiritual warfare and active partisan politics. However, when a “Christian” president lost his re-election bid in 2015, it also pushed some Pentecostals to look beyond their country to the USA and the symbolism of a powerful president associating with Christianity. This chapter thus considers how the Pentecostal power identity takes its desires across the borders of nation-space. Titled, “What Islamic devils?!”: Power Struggles, Race, and Christian Transnationalism, this study provides the historical context to Nigerians’ support for US president Donald Trump by exploring the dynamics of political theology as it crosses the bounds of nationhood. Through an analysis of the nitty-gritty of the politics of the spirituality of Nigerian Pentecostals, the desire to defeat Islam (the other religion that contends power), the local politics of faith as it intermingles with ethnicity identity, this chapter shows how all these various dynamics sustains the power identity that manifests in the adoration of Trump.
This chapter uses analysis of over 10,000 runaway slave advertisements in an in-depth look at marronnage through the lens of network building, identity formation, and race and solidarity work. Nearly half of the thousands of runaways described in the Les Affiches américaines advertisements fled within a small group of two or more people. Many were racially or ethnically homogeneous maroon groups that rallied around their collective identity, while groups composed of diverse ethnic backgrounds bridged their differences to forge an emerging racial solidarity. The chapter also explores the complex relationships between enslaved people, maroons and free people of color since absconders often had previous relationships with and sought refuge with people beyond their immediate plantation, highlighting the importance of social capital in finding success at marronnage.
This article offers a practical methodological ‘toolkit’ for creating more diverse reading lists for social policy teaching. It reports on the findings of the award-winning ‘Reading List Diversity Mark Project’, carried out at the University of Kent in 2018–20, which investigated how many Black, Asian and other ethnic minority authors were included on undergraduate reading lists. Through the application of critical race theory (CRT), we argue that inclusive curricula matter. We then analyse the reasons for the marginalisation of race and ethnicity in the social policy curriculum. A distinctive aspect of the project was the nature of our staff-student collaboration and we discuss how this shaped its design and outcomes. We argue that our approach could be implemented at other institutions and conclude with suggestions about how to achieve a more diverse social policy curriculum.
This chapter focuses on the city of Boston and delves into how intersectional differences among women entrepreneurs result in additional and different biasing forces for women of color and immigrant women entrepreneurs compared to White women engaging in entrepreneurship. As such, the chapter provides a holistic consideration of how gender, race, and other relations of difference may play out in experiences of entrepreneurship within entrepreneurial ecosystems. The chapter aims to provide a complex and holistic picture of how entrepreneurial ecosystems essentially provide very different experiences, interactions, and institutional support for actors in ecosystems, thereby supporting our argument that actors, even if in the same category, are indeed heterogeneous and not homogeneous.