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One of your biggest challenges as a leader is having difficult conversations with members of your group. These conversations may be necessary for a variety of reasons: (1) they might be underperforming or out of compliance with documentation or billing; (2) they might have conduct that is detrimental to the team; or (3) they seem to be struggling with the team concept and the overall goals of the group. Your success as a leader will be determined primarily by how well you conduct one-on-one meetings, working with “problematic” group members to help them be successful or to find a different path for them, sometime even “managing them out.” This chapter discusses how to have these difficult conversations, using case examples to illustrate different techniques. It goes into how to set up the meeting in advance, setting clear expectations and the right mindsets. It discusses how to plan in advance for how you’d like the meeting to go, as well as having a plan B and plan C for when things don’t go as intended. It discusses how to conduct the meeting, including who should be in the room when it happens. It also describes necessary documentation and follow-up from these meetings, as well as setting expectations and next steps. It concludes with the particularly difficult situation of removing someone from a leadership position.
Even when they are not directly related to the provision of water and sanitation services, business activities can be an important driver for the realization or, more frequent, violation of the HRtWS. The different ways those economic activities engage in development projects can affect the way people, notably traditional communities, access water and sanitation services. Usually, when confronting the economic and social benefits of those projects with the human rights risks for the affected communities, the mainstream narrative overestimates the former and makes the latter invisible. Among those business activities, megaprojects have a prominent role in terms of concerns for the HRtWS.
This chapter looks at the projects that the Elmhirsts instigated on their estate to promote agricultural and industrial revival and democratic participation. It positions Dartington amid the many interwar rural reform ventures with which it cross-pollinated, from the New Deal in America and Sriniketan in India to Rolf Gardiner’s Springhead and government smallholding schemes in Britain. Dorothy and Leonard’s philosophy of rural regeneration – attempting to combine ‘microscopic’ support for community life with the ‘macroscopic’ approach that was international in its outlook – prefigured and helped shape the phenomenon central to the later twentieth century. The sociologist Roland Robertson calls this ‘glocalisation’: a process by which local community is reconfigured, and even strengthened, by global forces. The gradual migration of the Elmhirsts’ vision of Dartington – from a self-governing, holistically integrated collective to an outpost of centralised social planning – dovetailed effectively into plans for national reconstruction during and after the Second World War.
Karl Mannheim, who lectured at Dartington in 1941, argued that utopias are always in dialectical tension with the existing order; for all their ‘incongruity’ with the status quo, they remain deeply embedded within a ‘historically specific social life’. The fortunes of Dartington from its foundation to the present day exemplify the messy vitality of the exchange with the real world promised in Mannheim’s formulation. The estate offered countercultural alternatives. Yet its founders were determined that it would develop in symbiosis with the wider world rather than ‘preparing for some hypothetical community’ of the future. Dartington’s communion with the outside world was increased by the international collaborators with whom the Elmhirsts engaged in pursuing their ideal of promoting a unified life. This chapter looks at how, in the ninety-odd years since its foundation, Dartington has offered a reconfigured vision of the outside world, while being both sustained and constrained by this larger environment.
This chapter considers how Britain’s developmental, retail-oriented models of planning played out in individual cities across the 1940s and 1950s. It shows that many councils viewed planning as a tool of proactive economic management and enthusiastically bent their powers to the task of promoting valuable new retail development. These activities coincided with a spectacular shops boom in most cities as large retail chains reaped the benefits of full employment and rising wages to embark on major programmes of shop-building and expansion. Councils and retail chains worked in tandem to erect huge new stores all over the country and refit urban centres for the affluent age. At times urban authorities even played the part of commercial developer themselves by putting up shops and collecting business rents. I relate these practices to councils’ energetic pre-war activities in the field of municipal enterprise and show that post-war planning powers offered a new outlet for these long-standing traditions of civic entrepreneurship. The chapter also shows how central government promoted the nascent commercial property sector in British redevelopment from the 1950s.
Answer Set Planning refers to the use of Answer Set Programming (ASP) to compute plans, that is, solutions to planning problems, that transform a given state of the world to another state. The development of efficient and scalable answer set solvers has provided a significant boost to the development of ASP-based planning systems. This paper surveys the progress made during the last two and a half decades in the area of answer set planning, from its foundations to its use in challenging planning domains. The survey explores the advantages and disadvantages of answer set planning. It also discusses typical applications of answer set planning and presents a set of challenges for future research.
The burst of information generated by new statistical projects made the question of calculation paramount. The masses of data that the new National Sample Surveys yielded, and the increasing complexity of planning models, had made the state’s data processing needs evident. Chapter 3 reveals the campaign led by Mahalanobis and the Indian Statistical Institute to bring India its first computers. Unlike in other parts of the world, computers were not sought for military purposes in India. Instead, India pursued them because they were seen as a solution to central planning’s most knotty puzzle, that of big data. The chapter follows the decade-long quest to import computers from the United States, Europe, and the U.S.S.R, unearthing the Cold War politics in which it inevitably became embroiled. Overall, Part I of this book demonstrates the building of a technocratic, data-hungry, high-modernist state and its attempts to make the economic realm more legible.
How have British cities changed in the years since the Second World War? And what drove this transformation? This innovative new history traces the development of the post-war British city, from the 1940s era of reconstruction, through the rise and fall of modernist urban renewal, up to the present-day crisis of high street retailing and central area economies. Alistair Kefford shows how planners, property developers, councils and retailers worked together to create the modern shopping city, remaking the physical fabric, economy and experience of cities around this retail-driven developmental model. This book also offers a wider social history of mass affluence, showing how cities were transformed to meet the perceived demands of a society of shoppers, and why this effort was felt to be so urgent in an era of urban deindustrialisation. By bringing the story of the shopping city right up to its present-day crisis and collapse, Kefford makes clear how the historical trajectories traced in this book continue powerfully to shape urban Britain today.
The Introduction lays out the argument of the book and the political stakes of economic planning for the Indian state. It illuminates how crucial planning was to the Nehruvian state’s self-definition, and how the experiment of Plans and Parliament was meant to represent a distinct path in the superpower-divided Cold War. Seen from western capitals, the Indian experiment offered a path for Asia that was in stark contrast to the communist totalitarianism of the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union. It opens with a brief, but broad, history of the ideas of economic planning and national development in India between the late nineteenth century and the establishment of the Planning Commission in 1950. Surveying the spread of these ideas, it reveals the surprising support planning had across the political spectrum. There is also a short description of the international context of central planning and state intervention in the economy (ranging from the Soviet Union, to post-war Britain and New Deal America) in order to situate the Indian path within it. Along with an engagement with the secondary literature on the subject, the introduction lays out the key themes that the rest of the book will pursue.
Mass gatherings (MGs) often bring together professionals and organizations that collaborate irregularly or have never engaged in joint working. They involve interaction and communication among multiple and diverse services, which can often prove challenging. Planning such an event is of paramount importance for its success, and interorganizational communication ranks among its most important aspects. Nonetheless, there is limited empirical evidence to support interagency communication in MGs.
This study used the 2017 Athens Marathon (Athens, Greece) as the empirical setting to examine how interorganizational communication was perceived among the multiple public health and safety professionals during the planning and implementation phase of the event.
Data comprised 15 semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, direct observations of meetings and the event itself, and documentary analysis. Open coding and thematic analysis were used to analyze the data.
Findings indicated three key components of interorganizational communication in such an event: (1) shared situational awareness; (2) interorganizational understanding; and (3) implementing liaison officers.
This study outlined the factors that influenced interorganizational communication before and during a MG. Practical implications arising from this study may inform the way organizers of marathons and other mass sporting events can engage in effective interorganizational communication.
This chapter will increase your knowledge and awareness of literacy as one of the seven general capabilities in the Australian Curriculum to support your understanding of the function of literacy across the curriculum areas, such as in Science and Humanities and Social Sciences (HASS). The chapter explores the literacy general capability and looks at how it is designed to be incorporated into planning and teaching. It then looks at the use of strategies for writing genres, including the teaching and learning cycle, tiered vocabulary for word knowledge and vocabulary development, as well as some reading strategies for use with technical non-fiction texts. A further consideration for planning and implementation at the school and classroom level is also presented.
Recent disasters have demonstrated gaps in employers’ preparedness to protect employees and promote their well-being in the face of disruptive events. Our objective was to develop a useful strategy for advancing comprehensive employer preparedness and to assess employer preparedness in a sample of employers.
A Total Worker Health Employer Preparedness Model was developed to include seven domains: planning, human resources policies, hazard reduction, training, staffing, communications, and resources for resilience. A Survey and scoring Index based upon the Model were administered to human resources professionals in the northeast United States.
Seventy-six responded, representing diverse employment sectors. The mean Index score was 8.8 (out of 23), which is a moderate level of preparedness. Nine scored over 15, indicating greater preparedness. Thirteen scored 0. Employers were most prepared for severe weather events and least prepared for acts of violence. There were no significant differences by sector, size, or reach, although the health-care sector reported higher scores.
This unique attempt to assess TWH Employer Preparedness can serve as the basis of important further study that strengthens the empirical basis of the construct. Additionally, the Model, Survey, and Index can assist employers in advancing their preparedness for all hazards.
Capacity development is increasingly recognized as central to conservation goals. Efforts to develop individual, organizational and societal capacity underpin direct investments in biodiversity conservation and natural resource management, and sustain their impact over time. In the face of urgent needs and increasingly complex contexts for conservation the sector not only needs more capacity development, it needs new approaches to capacity development. The sector is embracing the dynamic relationships between the ecological, political, social and economic dimensions of conservation. Capacity development practitioners should ensure that individuals, organizations and communities are prepared to work effectively in these complex environments of constant change to transform the systems that drive biodiversity loss and unsustainable, unequitable resource use. Here we advocate for a systems view of capacity development. We propose a conceptual framework that aligns capacity development components with all stages of conservation efforts, fosters attention to context, and coordinates with parallel efforts to engage across practitioners and sectors for more systemic impact. Furthermore, we highlight a need for practitioners to target, measure and support vital elements of capacity that have traditionally received less attention, such as values and motivation, leadership and organizational culture, and governance and participation by using approaches from psychology, the social sciences and systems thinking. Drawing from conservation and other sectors, we highlight examples of approaches that can support reflective practice, so capacity development practitioners can better understand the factors that favour or hinder effectiveness of interventions and influence system-wide change.
This chapter aims to develop teacher skills in planning units of work in geography. Teachers must become aware of the learning requirements of the unit from the Australian Curriculum: Geography that they intend to teach and then be focused on the assessment aspects that will drive the planning for the unit. Finally, the chapter provides a planning approach for the development of a teaching program that is relevant, achievable and engaging units for teaching.
This part of the book offers a guide to writing about poetry. It addresses the two main kinds of essay you might be invited to write about a poem – a commentary or close reading, and the more discursive essay – and shows how to manage them, from annotation, to planning, to constructing an argument, to editing and proof-reading.
This chapter focuses on types of emotional strategies that students are using to deal with negative emotion. It links back to Chapter Three by clarifying that dyslexic student negative emotion is an issue not only because of its prevalence; in fact, the students interviewed did not have any productive strategies to cope emotionally. Consequently, the chapter themes negative emotional coping methods under the actions of avoidance, getting stressed, worrying and crying, panicking, and withdrawing from social interaction. It confirms these themes by providing recollections from voices of students who have employed these methods. Although this may initially seem rather defeatist, the sharing of these experiences by students with dyslexia is in fact positive for dyslexic readers of the book, as they can identify with the scenarios. The second part of the chapter is themed around more productive emotional coping methods that some of the students discussed as mechanisms they found useful: talking to someone, planning and using strategies, implementing breaks, participating in exercise, seeking comfort, and using mental resilience, such as persistence and determination. Specific examples are provided through articulations of dyslexic students, and the dyslexic reader of the book is invited in to consider these approaches.
As disasters become more frequent and severe worldwide, disaster planning as a human endeavor is more important than ever, with the potential to save millions of lives globally. In this important new book, the author offers a practical, step-by-step guide for writing, implementing, and measuring the quality of your own disaster plan to address any threat with an approach that has been tested in public health and medical settings worldwide. Filling a significant gap in the existing literature, this book offers a comprehensive reference for both the principles and the practice of disaster planning. Access to a 25-lecture training course provides ancillary teaching materials for college level courses, offering added value for academic readers. An essential resource for public health graduates and anyone responsible for the management of disasters, primarily public health professionals, emergency physicians, first responders, and emergency managers.
Hope powerfully influences our lives, deeply shaping our actions, as well as being essential for social and political change. Many accounts of hope, however, fail to do justice to its active role, ignoring the connection between hope and action that makes it a significant feature of our lives. In this essay, I propose a new account of hope in which hopes characteristically shape and figure in intentions. I argue that this account does justice to hope's distinctive manifestations in action, explains the rational constraints on hoping, and sheds light on the distinctions between hoping and wishing.
In this chapter you will be introduced to some of the literature, research and practices that will help you learn about and reflect on teaching and the teaching profession in the twenty-first century. You will also be introduced to relevant information about Australia’s school communities and school structures so that you can best understand the complex and diverse nature of the work involved in teaching students across the full learning spectrum from early years to senior secondary.
One of our goals in this opening chapter, and throughout the entire book, is to challenge your thinking about the range of issues involved in learning to teach in the twenty-first century. Therefore, we invite you to engage with and question the concepts and ideas presented in the coming pages, rather than accept them at face value. In many cases, we will prompt you to do so, particularly by examining key issues through social and ideological lenses. Adopting a critical inquiry stance is crucial in learning to become a teacher – it will help you to discover what it is that really matters in teaching in the twenty-first century.
Planning for learning is essential for creating environments conducive to learning and to developing student understandings. Standard 3 of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (APST) (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL], 2017) specifies the need for all graduate teachers to be able to ‘plan for and implement effective teaching and learning’. Quality planning involves the systematic use of feedback data to design activities that encourage the assimilation and synthesis of information, leading to the creation of new understandings.
Good planning begins with the end in mind and incorporates multifaceted and interdependent elements that demand constant monitoring and adjustments by teachers in response to their ongoing assessment and evaluation as plans are enacted (Cornish & Garner, 2009). Planning, implementing, monitoring and adjusting are part of an ongoing recursive process.
In this chapter, we look at the planning process in relation to all these elements, including: big picture planning, classroom-level planning, learning adjustments to cater for students’ learning needs.