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Consumption of pork and pork products can be associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis. Salmonella infection is usually subclinical in pigs, and farm-based control measures are challenging to implement. To obtain data on Salmonella prevalence, samples can be collected from pigs during the slaughter process. Here we report the results of a Great Britain (GB) based abattoir survey conducted by sampling caecal contents from pigs in nine British pig abattoirs during 2019. Samples were collected according to a randomised stratified scheme, and pigs originating from 286 GB farms were included in this survey. Salmonella was isolated from 112 pig caecal samples; a prevalence of 32.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27.4–37.4]. Twelve different Salmonella serovars were isolated, with the most common serovars being S. 4,,12:i:-, a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium (36.6% of Salmonella-positive samples), followed by S. Derby (25.9% of Salmonella-positive samples). There was no significant difference compared to the estimate of overall prevalence (30.5% (95% CI 26.5–34.6)) obtained in the last abattoir survey conducted in the UK (2013). Abattoir-based control measures are often effective in the reduction of Salmonella contamination of carcasses entering the food chain. In this study, the effect of abattoir hygiene practices on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses was not assessed. Continuing Salmonella surveillance at slaughter is recommended to assess effect of farm-based and abattoir-based interventions and to monitor potential public health risk associated with consumption of Salmonella-contaminated pork products.
shifts the perspective to the collective initiatives of inhabitants to secure health in their living and working environments. Those who lived in proximity to one another often shared infrastructures and hygienic routines. Court cases featuring neighbourly disputes reveal how inhabitants routinely tried to secure access to fresh water and hygienic domestic facilities such as cesspits, drainage pipes and latrines, and sought to ban stench and other nuisances from living environments. Expressed in a discourse revolving around damage and disturbance, local well-being – a “good neighbourhood” – was guaranteed by combining social harmony and material or infrastructural functionality, and resulted in forms of community formation and civic participation.
“A City for Pigs” portrays Plato as a systems modeler of a sustainable society. Plato’s argumentative methods, in the Republic especially, are favorably compared to techniques of computer simulation and to the heuristic objectives of game theory. Plato’s views about social cooperation in the use of common-pool resources, for example, are shown to be strikingly similar to conclusions reached via field studies by Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (1990). Plato’s own homology, of city and soul, provides a compelling rationale for both individual and collective action vis-à-vis the environmental and social problems we still face today.
Pigs have played a central role in the subsistence and culture of China for millennia. The close relationship between pigs and people began when humans gradually domesticated wild pigs over 8,000 years ago. While pigs initially foraged around settlements, population growth led people to pen their pigs, which made them household trash processors and fertilizer producers. Household pigs were in daily contact with people, who bred them to fatten quickly and produce larger litters. Early modern Europeans found Chinese pigs far superior to their own and bred the two to create the breeds now employed in industrial pork production around the world, including China. In recent decades, industrial farms that scientifically control every aspect of pigs’ lives have spread rapidly. Until recently, most Chinese people ate pork only on special occasions; their ability in recent decades to eat it regularly exemplifies China's increasing prosperity. Meanwhile, vast areas of North and South American farmland are now devoted to growing soybeans to feed hundreds of millions of pigs in China, and the methane, manure, and antibiotic resistance they produce creates environmental and health problems on a global scale.
Antibiotics are designed to affect gut microbiota and subsequently gut homeostasis. However, limited information exists about short- and long-term effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on gut homeostasis (especially for the small intestine) of pigs following antibiotic withdrawal. We investigated the impact of EAI on specific bacterial communities, microbial metabolites and mucosal immune parameters in the small intestine of later-growth-stage pigs fed with diets differing in CP levels. Eighteen litters of piglets were fed creep feed with or without antibiotics from day 7 to day 42. At day 42, pigs within each group were offered a normal- or low-CP diet. Five pigs per group were slaughtered at days 77 and 120. At day 77, EAI increased Enterobacteriaceae counts in the jejunum and ileum and decreased Bifidobacterium counts in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). Moreover, tryptamine, putrescine, secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG concentrations in the ileum and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA and protein levels in the jejunum and ileum were decreased in pigs with EAI (P < 0.05). At day 120, EAI only suppressed Clostridium cluster XIVa counts in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). These results suggest that EAI has a short-term effect on specific bacterial communities, amino acid decarboxylation and mucosal immune parameters in the small intestine (particularly in the ileum). At days 77 and 120, feeding a low-CP diet affected Bifidobacterium, Clostridium cluster IV, Clostridium cluster XIVa and Enterobacteriaceae counts in the jejunum or ileum (P < 0.05). Moreover, feeding a low-CP diet increased the concentrations of Igs in the jejunum and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). At day 120, feeding a low-CP diet increased short-chain fatty acid concentrations, reduced ammonia and spermidine concentrations and up-regulated genes related to barrier function in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). These results suggest that feeding a low-CP diet changes specific bacterial communities and intestinal metabolite concentrations and modifies mucosal immune parameters. These findings contribute to our understanding on the duration of the impact of EAI on gut homeostasis and may provide basis data for nutritional modification in young pigs after antibiotic treatment.
Feeding strategies for growing monogastric livestock (particularly pigs) must focus on maximising animal performance, while attempting to reduce environmental P load. Achieving these goals requires a comprehensive understanding of how different P feeding strategies affect animal responses and an ability to predict P retention. Although along with Ca, P is the most researched macromineral in pig nutrition, knowledge gaps still exist in relation to: (1) the effects of P feed content on feed intake (FI); (2) the impact of P intake on body composition; (3) the distribution of absorbed P to pools within the body. Here, we address these knowledge gaps by gathering empirical evidence on the effects of P-deficient feeds and by developing a predictive, mechanistic model of P utilisation and retention incorporating this evidence. Based on our statistical analyses of published literature data, we found: (1) no change in FI response in pigs given lower P feed contents; (2) the body ash–protein relationship to be dependent upon feed composition, with the isometric relationship only holding for pigs given balanced feeds and (3) the priority to be given towards P retention in soft tissue over P retention in bones. Subsequent results of the mechanistic model of P retention indicated that a potential reduction in P feeding recommendations could be possible without compromising average daily gain; however, such a reduction would impact P deposition in bones. Our study enhances our current knowledge of P utilisation and by extension excretion and could contribute towards developing more accurate P feeding guidelines.
In the current post-antibiotic era, botanicals represent one of the most employed nutritional strategies to sustain antibiotic-free and no-antibiotic-ever production. Botanicals can be classified either as plant extracts, meaning the direct products derived by extraction from the raw plant materials (essential oils (EO) and oleoresins (OR)), or as nature-identical compounds (NIC), such as the chemically synthesised counterparts of the pure bioactive compounds of EO/OR. In the literature, differences between the use of EO/OR or NIC are often unclear, so it is difficult to attribute certain effects to specific bioactive compounds. The aim of the present review was to provide an overview of the effects exerted by botanicals on the health status and growth performance of poultry and pigs, focusing attention on those studies where only NIC were employed or those where the composition of the EO/OR was defined. In particular, phenolic compounds (apigenin, quercetin, curcumin and resveratrol), organosulfur compounds (allicin), terpenes (eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, capsaicin and artemisinin) and aldehydes (cinnamaldehyde and vanillin) were considered. These molecules have different properties such as antimicrobial (including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, as well as the improvement of intestinal morphology and integrity of the intestinal mucosa. The use of NIC allows us to properly combine pure compounds, according to the target to achieve. Thus, they represent a promising non-antibiotic tool to allow better intestinal health and a general health status, thereby leading to improved growth performance.
During the eleventh to thirteenth centuries AD, the small settlement of Banganarti grew into one of the most important pilgrimage centres in the Middle Nile Valley. Ongoing excavations have yielded clear evidence of its unique economic and social diversity. Large-scale pig breeding, attested by the ubiquitous remains of pigs in the archaeozoological record, is particularly significant and unlike that found on other regional medieval sites. The authors investigate the popularity of pig breeding and pork consumption at Banganarti in relation to the specific role played by the site in the religious landscape of the medieval kingdom of Makuria.
The identification of natural bioactive compounds which can prevent the post-weaning growth check and enhance gastrointestinal health in the absence of in-feed medications is an urgent priority for the swine industry. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of increasing dietary inclusion levels of laminarin in the first 14 d post-weaning on pig growth performance and weaning associated intestinal dysfunction. At weaning, ninety-six pigs (8·4 (sd 1·09) kg) (meatline boars × (large white × landrace sows)) were blocked by live weight, litter and sex and randomly assigned to: (1) basal diet; (2) basal + 100 parts per million (ppm) laminarin; (3) basal + 200 ppm laminarin and (4) basal + 300 ppm laminarin (three pigs/pen). The appropriate quantity of a laminarin-rich extract (65 % laminarin) was added to the basal diet to achieve the above dietary inclusion levels of laminarin. After 14 d of supplementation, eight pigs from the basal group and the best-performing laminarin group were euthanised for sample collection. The 300 ppm laminarin group was selected as this group had higher ADFI compared with all other groups and higher ADG than the basal group (P < 0·05). Laminarin supplementation increased villus height in the duodenum and jejunum (P < 0·05). Laminarin supplementation increased the expression of SLC2A8/GLUT8 in the duodenum, SLC2A2/GLUT2, SLC2A7/GLUT7, SLC15A1/PEPT1 and FABP2 in the jejunum and SLC16A1/MCT1 in the colon. Laminarin supplementation reduced Enterobacteriaceae numbers in the caecum (P < 0·05) and increased lactobacilli numbers (P < 0·05), total volatile fatty acid concentrations and the molar proportions of butyrate (P < 0·01) in the colon. In conclusion, 300 ppm laminarin from a laminarin-rich extract has potential, as a dietary supplement, to improve performance and prevent post-weaning intestinal dysfunction.
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an interface between the external and internal milieus that requires continuous monitoring for nutrients or pathogens and toxic chemicals. The study of the physiological/molecular mechanisms, mediating the responses to the monitoring of the GIT contents, has been referred to as chemosensory science. While most of the progress in this area of research has been obtained in laboratory rodents and humans, significant steps forward have also been reported in pigs. The objective of this review was to update the current knowledge on nutrient chemosensing in pigs in light of recent advances in humans and laboratory rodents. A second objective relates to informing the existence of nutrient sensors with their functionality, particularly linked to the gut peptides relevant to the onset/offset of appetite. Several cell types of the intestinal epithelium such as Paneth, goblet, tuft and enteroendocrine cells (EECs) contain subsets of chemosensory receptors also found on the tongue as part of the taste system. In particular, EECs show specific co-expression patterns between nutrient sensors and/or transceptors (transport proteins with sensing functions) and anorexigenic hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), amongst others. In addition, the administration of bitter compounds has an inhibitory effect on GIT motility and on appetite through GLP-1-, CCK-, ghrelin- and PYY-labelled EECs in the human small intestine and colon. Furthermore, the mammalian chemosensory system is the target of some bacterial metabolites. Recent studies on the human microbiome have discovered that commensal bacteria have developed strategies to stimulate chemosensory receptors and trigger host cellular functions. Finally, the study of gene polymorphisms related to nutrient sensors explains differences in food choices, food intake and appetite between individuals.
Resistant starch can alter the intestinal nutrient availability and bulk of digesta, thereby modulating the substrate available for microbial metabolic activity along the gastrointestinal tract. This study elucidated the effect of transglycosylated starch (TGS) on the retention of digesta in the upper digestive tract, ileal flow and hindgut disappearance of nutrients, and subsequent bacterial profiles in pigs. Fourteen ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed either the TGS or control (CON) diet in a complete crossover design. Each period consisted of a 10-d adaptation to the diets, followed by 3-d collection of faeces and ileal digesta. Consumption of TGS decreased the retention of digesta in the stomach and small intestine, and increased ileal DM, starch, Ca and P flow, leading to enhanced starch fermentation in the hindgut compared with CON-fed pigs. TGS increased ileal and faecal total SCFA, especially ileal and faecal acetate and faecal butyrate. Gastric retention time positively correlated to Klebsiella, which benefitted together with Selenomonas, Lactobacillus, Mitsuokella and Coriobacteriaceae from TGS feeding and ileal starch flow. Similar relationships existed in faeces with Coriobacteriaceae, Veillonellaceae and Megasphaera benefitting most, either directly or indirectly via cross-feeding, from TGS residuals in faeces. TGS, in turn, depressed genera within Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiales and Christensenellaceae compared with the CON diet. The present results demonstrated distinct ileal and faecal bacterial community and metabolite profiles in CON- and TGS-fed pigs, which were modulated by the type of starch, intestinal substrate flow and retention of digesta in the upper digestive tract.
Weaning is a critical transition phase in swine production in which piglets must cope with different stressors that may affect their health. During this period, the prophylactic use of antibiotics is still frequent to limit piglet morbidity, which raises both economic and public health concerns such as the appearance of antimicrobial-resistant microbes. With the interest of developing tools for assisting health and management decisions around weaning, it is key to provide robustness indexes that inform on the animals’ capacity to endure the challenges associated with weaning. This work aimed at developing a modelling approach for facilitating the quantification of piglet resilience to weaning. A total of 325 Large White pigs weaned at 28 days of age were monitored and further housed and fed conventionally during the post-weaning period without antibiotic administration. Body weight and diarrhoea scores were recorded before and after weaning, and blood was sampled at weaning and 1 week later for collecting haematological data. A dynamic model was constructed based on the Gompertz–Makeham law to describe live weight trajectories during the first 75 days after weaning, following the rationale that the animal response is partitioned in two time windows (a perturbation and a recovery window). Model calibration was performed for each animal. Our results show that the transition time between the two time windows, as well as the weight trajectories are characteristic for each individual. The model captured the weight dynamics of animals at different degrees of perturbation, with an average coefficient of determination of 0.99, and a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99. The utility of the model is that it provides biologically meaningful parameters that inform on the amplitude and length of perturbation, and the rate of animal recovery. Our rationale is that the dynamics of weight inform on the capability of the animal to cope with the weaning disturbance. Indeed, there were significant correlations between model parameters and individual diarrhoea scores and haematological traits. Overall, the parameters of our model can be useful for constructing weaning robustness indexes by using exclusively the growth curves. We foresee that this modelling approach will provide a step forward in the quantitative characterisation of robustness.
Dietary protein restriction is one of the effective ways to reduce post-weaning diarrhoea and intestinal fermentation in piglets, but it may also reduce growth performance. The compensatory growth induced by subsequent protein realimentation may solve the issue. However, little research has been done on the impact of protein realimentation on the gut. In this study, the effects of protein restriction and realimentation on ileal morphology, ileal microbial composition and metabolites in weaned piglets were investigated. Thirty-six 28-day-old weaned piglets with an average body weight of 6.47 ± 0.04 kg were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. The CP level in the diet of the control group was 18.83% for the entire experimental period. The piglets in the treatment group were fed 13.05% CP between days 0 and 14 and restored to a diet of 18.83% CP for days 14 to 28. On day 14 and 28, six pigs from each group were sacrificed and sampled. It was found that the abundance of Lactobacillus and Salmonella in the ileal digesta was significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group on day 14, whereas the abundance of Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Streptococcus, Halomonas and Pseudomonas significantly increased in the ileal digesta of the treatment group on day 14 compared with the control group. In addition, reduced concentrations of lactic acid, total short-chain fatty acids (total SCFAs), total branched chain fatty acids, ammonia and impaired ileal morphology and mucosal barrier were observed in the treatment group on day 14. However, diarrhoea levels decreased in the treatment group throughout the experiment. During the succedent protein realimentation stage, the treatment group demonstrated compensatory growth. Compared with the control group, the treatment group showed increased abundance of Lactobacillus and reduced abundance of Salmonella, Halomonas and Pseudomonas in the ileum on day 28. The concentrations of lactic acid and total SCFAs increased significantly, whereas the concentration of ammonia remained at a lower level in the treatment group on day 28 compared with the control group. Overall, protein realimentation could improve ileal morphology and barrier functions and promote ileal digestive and absorptive functions. In conclusion, ileal microbial composition and metabolites could change according to dietary protein restriction and realimentation and eventually influence ileal morphology and barrier functions.
Variations in feeding behaviour between animals result from individual variations in their metabolism as affected by diet composition. The study aimed to link the within-day dynamics of voluntary feed intake and those of blood metabolites and insulin in growing pigs having ad libitum access to feed and receiving diets differing in dietary fibre levels and aleurone supplementation. A total of forty pigs (body weight: 35 kg) had access to diets provided ad libitum, which differed by fibre content (13 or 18 % neutral-detergent fibre) and aleurone supplementation (0, 2 or 4 g/kg). Feeding behaviour was individually recorded for 1 week. The kinetic of plasma metabolites and insulin was followed for 1 h after a voluntary test meal. Dietary fibre level did not affect the daily feed intake but increased meal size and meal duration. Aleurone supplementation (4 g/kg) decreased the daily feed intake and number of meals. Dietary fibre level only decreased insulin concentration measured 15 min after meal beginning. Aleurone supplementation (4 g/kg) decreased glycaemia in the first hour after the meal and insulinaemia 15 min after the meal. Free access to feed led to high variability in pre-prandial metabolites and insulin concentrations, resulting in different test meal size irrespective of diet composition. Animals were then spread over different profiles combining feeding behaviour and fasted status to explain different profiles of regulation of feed intake. Plasma metabolites and insulin kinetics were affected by diet composition but also by animal characteristics. Individual variability should be considered when diet composition is used to modulate feeding behaviour.
The effects of subclinical Zn deficiency on depletion and redistribution of body Zn were studied in weaned piglets. Forty-eight weaned piglets (German-Large-White×Land-Race×Piétrain; 50 % female, 50 % male-castrated; body weight 8·5 (sd 0·27) kg) were fed restrictively (450 g/d) a basal maize–soyabean meal-based diet supplemented with varying amounts of ZnSO4.7H2O (analysed dietary Zn: 28·1, 33·6, 38·8, 42·7, 47·5, 58·2, 67·8, 88·0 mg/kg diet) for an experimental period of 8 d. Analyses comprised Zn concentrations in soft tissues. Statistical analyses included regression models and k-means cluster analysis. Jejunum and kidney Zn correlated positively with dietary Zn (P<0·05). Other Zn pools responded in a non-linear fashion by declining (colon, epidermis, spleen) or increasing (mesenteric lymph follicles, thymus, skeletal muscle) below 63·6, 48·0, 47·5, 68·0, 43·0 and 53·1 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively (P<0·01). Above these thresholds, Zn concentrations in epidermis, mesenteric lymph follicles and skeletal muscle plateaued (P<0·0001), whereas they exhibited a decrease in colon and thymus (P<0·01) as well as a numerical increase in spleen. Clustering by dietary Zn concentration indicated clusters of varying Zn supply status and pathophysiological status. Clustering by biological matrices revealed a discrimination between storage, transport and excretion media as well as soft tissues. Taken together, novel response patterns indicated compensation reactions in tissues that are essential for the acute survival of growing animals (heart, skeletal muscle, immune tissues). Furthermore, this is to our knowledge the first study that mapped the gross Zn requirement by clustering tissue Zn concentrations between treatment groups.
The relationships between both dietary and empty body fatty acid composition and the morphometry, densitometry, geometry and biomechanical properties of the femur of growing pigs were analysed. A total of thirty-two pigs aged 115 d were divided into four groups (n 8 per group). The pigs were fed either a control diet (group C) or a diet supplemented with linseed oil (rich in α-linolenic acid (C18 : 3n-3), group L), fish oil (rich in EPA (C20 : 5n-3) and DHA (C22 : 6n-3), group F) and beef tallow (rich in SFA, group T). The diets differed in n-3 PUFA contents (0·63–18·52 g/kg) and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios (0·91–14·51). At 165 d of age, the pigs were slaughtered and the fatty acids in the empty body were determined. Moreover, the left femur was dissected. The cortical wall thickness, cross-sectional area, cortical index, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, maximum elastic strength and maximum strength were lower (P<0·05) in the femurs of pigs from groups C and T than in those from groups F and L. Significant positive correlations were found between the densitometry, geometry and biomechanical properties of the femur and both dietary and empty body n-3 PUFA content, whereas significant negative correlations were observed between the same properties and both dietary and empty body n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. The results of the present study suggest that in growing pigs α-linolenic acid has a similar positive effect on bone health to that of EPA and DHA.
The current study describes the results obtained from clinical examination of over 4700 suckling piglets from 19 individual herds in Germany. In this cohort the prevalence of inflammation and necrosis in the tails, ears, claw coronary bands, heels and teats was determined using a pre-defined scoring system. Results show that already in the 1st days of life, piglets were affected by inflammation and necrosis of the heels (80%), claw coronary bands (50%) and tail base (20%). The praevalences of these alterations in piglets were influenced by genetics (P <0.001) and age, decreasing gradually in the 2nd week of life (P <0.001). Moreover, a correlation between tail length after tail docking and the prevalence of tail necrosis (P⩽0.04) was found. Tail and ear biting as a behavioural trait was not detected during this study. The early onset, appearance and multiple locations of clinical signs of inflammation and the positive correlation with the genetic background of the piglets may suggest an impairment of the innate immune system by infectious and non-infectious agents. This is in contrast to previously described behavioural abnormalities seen in fattening pigs. Considering the obvious reduction of animal welfare due to the described lesions, there is a need to create awareness among pig farmers and to understand the multifactorial causality involved in this inflammation and necrosis syndrome in piglets.
A feeding trial involving growing piglets was undertaken to establish whether feed supplemented with whey protein concentrate (WPC), exhibiting antioxidant properties, had any effects on welfare and meat quality. For that purpose, 48 weaned piglets (20-days-old) were assigned to two experimental groups receiving standard or experimental diet for 30 days. Blood and tissue collection were performed at various time-points. The following oxidative stress markers were assessed: reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (CARB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposition activity. The effects on bacterial growth and the fatty acid profile of meat were also assessed. Results showed that piglets fed with the WPC-supplemented diet had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in almost all tissues tested, as indicated by increases in GSH, H2O2 decomposition activity and TAC compared with the control group. Piglets fed with the experimental diet exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins, as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB in the WPC group compared with the control group. In addition, the experimental diet enhanced growth of facultative probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria and inhibited growth of pathogen populations. In addition, WPC inclusion in piglets' diet increased n-3 fatty acids significantly and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio significantly compared with the control group. The current study showed that WPC inclusion in the diet had a significant effect on welfare and meat quality of growing piglets.
A total of eight ileal and caecal cannulated Yorkshire barrows were used to determine the interactions of dietary fibre (DF) and lipid types on apparent digestibility of DM and fatty acids (FA) and FA flows in gastrointestinal segments. Pigs were offered four diets that contained either pectin or cellulose with or without beef tallow or maize oil in two Youden square designs (n 6). Each period lasted 15 d. Faeces, ileal and caecal contents were collected to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID), apparent caecal digestibility and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary components. The interactions between DF and lipid types influenced (P <0·05) the digestibility of DM and FA flows. The addition of maize oil decreased (P <0·05) AID of DM in pectin diets, and the addition of beef tallow depressed (P <0·001) ATTD of DM in cellulose diets. Dietary supplementation with beef tallow decreased (P <0·05) the AID of FA in pectin-containing diets but had no effects in cellulose-containing diets. Dietary supplementation with beef tallow increased (P <0·05) AID of SFA and PUFA and the flow of ileal oleic, vaccenic, linolenic and eicosadienoic acids and reduced the flow of faecal lauric, docosatetraenoic and docosapentaenoic acids in pectin- and cellulose-containing diets. In conclusion, the interaction between DF type and lipid saturation modulates digestibility of DM and lipids and FA flows but differs for soluble and insoluble fibre sources, SFA and unsaturated fatty acids and varies in different gastrointestinal segments.