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Altitude sickness was little understood in the early nineteenth century, and the inconsistency of symptoms led some to doubt a constant cause. This led to tensions when European travellers were forced to compare their bodily performance against their South Asian companions. This chapter begins by contextualising altitude sickness in relation to lowland colonial anxieties around health, acclimatisation and air. Next is a discussion of indigenous understandings of altitude and a consideration of the ways the performances of bodies were recorded in travel narratives. Finally, the chapter considers experimental approaches around quantification. The chapter argues that there was a politics of comparison that developed around altitude sickness at multiple scales: in the way bodies, European and South Asian, experienced altitude sickness; in the way comparisons affected interactions within expedition parties; in the way these were represented in written accounts to avoid upsetting supposed superiority; and in the way these ultimately constituted high mountains as aberrant environments in relation to lowland norms.
Behaviors typical of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders such as trichotillomania (TTM) and skin-picking disorder (SPD) are often associated with pleasure or relief, and with little or no physical pain, suggesting aberrant pain perception. Conclusive evidence about pain perception and correlates in these conditions is, however, lacking.
A multisite international study examined pain perception and its physiological correlates in adults with TTM (n = 31), SPD (n = 24), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 26). The cold pressor test was administered, and measurements of pain perception and cardiovascular parameters were taken every 15 seconds. Pain perception, latency to pain tolerance, cardiovascular parameters and associations with illness severity, and comorbid depression, as well as interaction effects (group × time interval), were investigated across groups.
There were no group differences in pain ratings over time (P = .8) or latency to pain tolerance (P = .8). Illness severity was not associated with pain ratings (all P > .05). In terms of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the main effect of group was statistically significant (P = .01), with post hoc analyses indicating higher mean DBP in TTM (95% confidence intervals [CI], 84.0-93.5) compared to SPD (95% CI, 73.5-84.2; P = .01), and HCs (95% CI, 75.6-86.0; P = .03). Pain perception did not differ between those with and those without depression (TTM: P = .2, SPD: P = .4).
The study findings were mostly negative suggesting that general pain perception aberration is not involved in TTM and SPD. Other underlying drivers of hair-pulling and skin-picking behavior (eg, abnormal reward processing) should be investigated.
This Element reviews literature on the physiological influences of music during perception and action. It outlines how acoustic features of music influence physiological responses during passive listening, with an emphasis on comparisons of analytical approaches. It then considers specific behavioural contexts in which physiological responses to music impact perception and performance. First, it describes physiological responses to music that evoke an emotional reaction in listeners. Second, it delineates how music influences physiology during music performance and exercise. Finally, it discusses the role of music perception in pain, focusing on medical procedures and laboratory-induced pain with infants and adults.
An individual’s recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD) occurs within the context of changes in drinking behavior as well as changes in physical and mental health. This chapter considers how drinking behavior change can arise from, and be supported by, functional improvements in the brain and in peripheral organ systems. The chapter proposes that arousal serves as a common process that can either support or hinder recovery through its link to executive control, negative emotionality, and cue salience; arousal is measurable through overt human behavior, physiological reactivity, and neural activation; and arousal modulation may serve as a holistic intervention target to help sustain recovery. The chapter considers how the arousal construct may be used to identify more homogeneous subgroups of persons in recovery, such as those who may benefit from arousal-modulation adjuvants to bolster executive cognitive control, affect regulation, and flexible responses to contextual cues.
Anxiety disorders are leading contributors to the global disease burden, highly prevalent across the lifespan and associated with substantially increased morbidity and early mortality.
The aim of this study was to examine age-related changes across a wide range of physiological measures in middle-aged and older adults with a lifetime history of anxiety disorders compared with healthy controls.
The UK Biobank study recruited >500 000 adults, aged 37–73, between 2006 and 2010. We used generalised additive models to estimate non-linear associations between age and hand-grip strength, cardiovascular function, body composition, lung function and heel bone mineral density in a case group and in a control group.
The main data-set included 332 078 adults (mean age 56.37 years; 52.65% females). In both sexes, individuals with anxiety disorders had a lower hand-grip strength and lower blood pressure, whereas their pulse rate and body composition measures were higher than in the healthy control group. Case–control group differences were larger when considering individuals with chronic and/or severe anxiety disorders, and differences in body composition were modulated by depression comorbidity status. Differences in age-related physiological changes between females in the anxiety disorder case group and healthy controls were most evident for blood pressure, pulse rate and body composition, whereas this was the case in males for hand-grip strength, blood pressure and body composition. Most differences in physiological measures between the case and control groups decreased with increasing age.
Findings in individuals with a lifetime history of anxiety disorders differed from a healthy control group across multiple physiological measures, with some evidence of case–control group differences by age. The differences observed varied by chronicity/severity and depression comorbidity.
This chapter outlines important theoretical and methodological facets of elite medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and traces some developments in each, highlighting their significance for the history and philosophy of the Scientific Revolution. The chapter looks first at “theoretical” questions (centered on medical physiologia), tracing interactions between various Galenic, chymical, and mechanical streams of thought. It then turns to “methodological” issues, examining changing understandings of and roles for observation, experience, and experiment, with some special attention on method in anatomy. Throughout the Scientific Revolution, these theoretical and methodological developments interacted in complex and productive ways. Indeed, it is perhaps best to see medical efforts to develop the science of the living body in this period as an exploration of the changing space of possibilities defined by varying theoretical commitments and a broadening commitment to, expectation of, and attention to discovery by experience and experiment.
William Harvey’s demonstration of the circulation of the blood is one of the Scientific Revolution’s most influential and lasting achievements. But in spite of Harvey’s innovation, and paradoxically given the extent to which he came to be represented as a founder of modern science, he tied himself to ancient authorities and sought to insulate natural philosophy and the art of medicine from the new mechanical-corpuscular and chemical philosophies of the period. The reception of Harvey’s work, both in physiology and later in embryology, shows that Harvey’s research program won numerous early converts, who used his program for their own ends, including support for the new philosophies, in the cases of René Descartes and Robert Boyle. Untethered from his preferred Scholastic framework, Harvey’s conceptual foundations, techniques, and conclusions led to new discoveries, and unresolved questions in Harvey’s account about the movement of the heart, nature of the blood, and respiration would motivate intense inquiry. The circulation of the blood and later physiology therefore provide an essential perspective for the examination of early modern disputes about experimentation and its limits, the rhetoric of novelty, the unity of nature, and the very notion of life.
In this chapter, we provide an overview of past and current research on developmental phonetics. We situate our work within the body of literature on child language phonetics and phonology, which describes speech production patterns, often in the context of other aspects (e.g. phonological, lexical) of the child’s larger linguistic system. Research on phonetic development poses unique challenges, in particular concerning the modelling of the child’s constantly evolving linguistic abilities, which take place in the context of other aspects of the child’s development. We discuss areas of interaction between phonology and other aspects of children’s linguistic behaviours, including how issues affecting speech articulation may influence the emergence of phonological processes, covert contrasts in production, and individual patterns of lexical selection and avoidance. Throughout this discussion, we review methodological approaches to developmental phonetics, from traditional, corpus-based investigations to more recent developments in instrumental studies of child speech, and discuss their contributions to our understanding of phonetic and phonological development in child language.
Hypersexuality is defined under various terms in the DSM and ICD diagnostic classifications. However, it can be challenging to differentiate between hypersexuality as one of the symptoms of a mental disorder and hypersexual disorder as a primary diagnosis. In this article, we explore the physiology, assessment and treatment of hypersexual disorder, and consider its aetiology and epidemiology. In addition, we highlight the paucity of evidence in the literature about licensed or specific pharmacological recommendations for its treatment and the poor awareness of hypersexuality in clinical and research practice. Further research is recommended to identify more precise guidance for the pharmacological management of hypersexuality.
The uterus serves as an incubator for the fetus during pregnancy. Within this incubator, the placenta is the main connection between the mother and the fetus and is integral to the survival of the fetus as it is an important source of fetal nutrients and oxygen. The proper development of the placenta allows it to support the fetus throughout pregnancy and expulsion or removal of a normal placenta following delivery, helps prevent postpartum complications. Maintenance of uteroplacental flow during pregnancy and during fetal surgery is important for the survival of the fetus and especially for the remainder of the pregnancy following fetal surgery. Serial monitoring of umbilical artery flow, a marker for uteroplacental insufficiency, is helpful to monitor fetal well-being. Physiology of the fetus correlates with the different stages of development in different organs and in many instances changes at delivery. The prevention of pain or the effects of noxious stimuli during fetal surgery serves many benefits, which include but are not limited to, prevention of release of stress hormones which can play a role in preterm labor and also prevention of long-term neurodevelopmental effects in the fetus.
The pregnant patient may present for fetal intervention at any time from the second trimester until near delivery. Physiological changes of pregnancy occur in every organ system in a dynamic fashion, with changes occurring to different degrees at specific periods during gestation. The maternal-fetal anesthesiologist must be familiar with expected changes. The decrease in diastolic pressure and mean arterial pressure, which nadir in the second trimester, often need to be addressed during mid-gestation fetal interventions. Other changes may need to be addressed earlier than typically expected during pregnancy. For example, the pregnant patient’s airway is characterized by mucosal edema and the need for a smaller than expected endotracheal tube. This is typically of concern at the time of delivery or non-obstetric surgery if endotracheal intubation is required. As the majority of fetal intervention procedures are performed during the mid-gestation period, the maternal-fetal anesthesiologist is often faced with managing the pregnant airway, not uncommonly in rapidly changing situations as planned sedation may be converted to general anesthesia for a variety of reasons during the procedure. All the physiologic changes of pregnancy are important to keep in mind as one approaches the clinical care of the pregnant patient.
The fourth chapter offers an extended conclusion that examines an international controversy ignited by the guillotine that revolved around the relationship between cognition and sensation, the evidentiary authority of bodily experience, and the limitations of human perception. It argues that the works of Fuseli, Girodet, and de Loutherbourg point to the radical remapping of an Enlightenment empirical framework that used the human body as a privileged source of knowledge. The controversies that circulated around the guillotine heralded, instead, a world in which “appearance” and “truth,” “seeing” and “knowing,” were radically decoupled – a world where scientists began removing direct sensory observation from their experimental procedures and where the idealized nude body no longer stabilized pictorial meaning. It proposes that this shift had significant implications for the epistemological status of experience for Romanticism, more broadly.
World literary studies appears caught between several competing models, each privileging the determining force of a given spatial scale – the global versus the local, national, or regional, - or a specific patterning of space – vertical structure versus horizontal network. This article seeks to test a multiscalar and transregional method of analysis which might place these models in sharper dialogue. It does so by addressing the physiology, a popular quasi-journalistic nineteenth-century genre dedicated to the taxonomic description of mores, customs and social types found in the everyday life of the modern city. Arising in Paris and other metropolises of western Europe, the physiology was soon adapted to the very different circumstances of the Russian capital St. Petersburg, before shifting to the Russian colonial administrative centre of Tiflis (Tbilisi), today the capital of Georgia. This article explores the poetics and cultural politics of the physiology’s adaptation to three distinct urban contexts, in what might be seen as a movement from centre to colonial periphery via the Russian semi-periphery. In doing so it seeks to link genre theory to debates within critical geography on spatial scale, while also entering debates in urban studies and the sociology of culture on metropolitan and peripheral modernization, particularly as it relates to the correlation between the state, the market, and the literary public sphere. Drawing on the work of Henri Lefebvre and Harry Harootunian on the uneven spatio-temporal rhythms of the urban everyday, the article also addresses the limits of such canonical interventions as Walter Benjamin’s critique of the Parisian flâneur and Jürgen Habermas’s account of the bourgeois public sphere.
Individuals with mental disorders, on average, die prematurely and may experience accelerated biological ageing.
We examined sex-specific associations between age and physiological measures in individuals with lifetime depression and healthy controls.
UK Biobank recruited >500,000 participants, aged 37-73, between 2006–2010. Generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to examine associations between age and multiple cardiovascular, body composition, grip strength and lung function measures. Analyses were conducted separately in males and females with lifetime depression compared to healthy controls.
Analytical samples included up to 342,393 adults (mean age = 55.87 years, SD = 8.09; 52.61% females). We found statistically significant differences between individuals with lifetime depression and healthy controls for most physiological measures, with standardised mean differences between -0.145 and 0.156. There was some evidence that age-related changes in body composition, cardiovascular measures, lung function and heel bone mineral density followed different trajectories in individuals with lifetime depression. However, these differences did not uniformly narrow or widen with age. For example, BMI in females with lifetime depression was approximately 1.1 kg/m2 higher at age 40 and this difference narrowed to about 0.4 kg/m2 at age 70. In males, systolic blood pressure was approximately 1 mmHg lower in individuals with lifetime depression at age 45 and this difference widened to about 2.5 mmHg at age 65.
Evidence of differences in ageing trajectories between individuals with lifetime depression and healthy controls was not uniform across physiological measures and differed by sex.
JM receives studentship funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Eli Lilly and Company Limited. CML is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Myriad Neuroscience.
Many assessors assume that it is always better to have physiological data to assess people because it is more accurate, subtle and less prone to errors like faking and impression management. The argument is ‘the body does not lie’. This chapter looks at four techniques that measure different aspects of behaviour: the EEG, the fMRI, the lie detector and voice analysis. There is some overlap in what these different techniques measure, but they all assume that physical data can give powerful clues into a person’s ability, personality and motivation. Whilst there has been a slowing down in research on the EEG and the polygraph because of weak and mixed results, there is a great deal of interest in the fMRI. Many claims have been made for what the fMRI measures though the cost of this research has meant it remains limited and, as yet, totally inappropriate for the assessment of people for jobs. There has also been a long-standing interest, mostly by law enforcement and insurance companies, in voice stress analysis to reveal the emotional state of speakers. The chapter is concerned with the validity of this sort of data and whether it could or should be used in job selection and general person assessment.
Late-Victorian novelists responded variously to experimental physiology during a period of disciplinary upheaval in the mental sciences. In the 1860s, leaders in this field included polymathic philosophers such as Herbert Spencer and George Henry Lewes. By contrast, later researchers tended to be university-trained scientists using specialized techniques. In the 1870s, British neurologist David Ferrier and John Hughlings Jackson used clinical studies and controversial animal experiments to link parts of the brain with specific movements, emotions, and behaviors.
Some novelists reacted positively to these scientific developments. French naturalist Émile Zola embraced both evolutionary theory and experimental physiology, opining that novelists must ‘dissect piece by piece’ their fictional characters. Zola’s British admirers and imitators included George Gissing, George Moore, and Thomas Hardy.
Authors of genre fiction responded more ambivalently. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Grant Allen, and H. G. Wells favored literary forms that mimicked the scientific method. Wells’s scientific romances tested an imaginary hypothesis (say, human invisibility) against a series of controls, while Allen’s and Doyle’s detective fiction borrowed diagnostic techniques from Victorian medicine. Late-Victorian Gothic novels, meanwhile, explored anxieties accompanying scientific ‘progress’. Taken together, these examples suggest how Victorian fictions responded productively, if sometimes critically, to experimental practices.
Interpersonal processes influence our physiological states and associated affect. Physiological arousal dysregulation, a core feature of anxiety disorders, has been identified in children of parents with elevated anxiety. However, little is understood about how parent–infant interpersonal regulatory processes differ when the dyad includes a more anxious parent.
We investigated moment-to-moment fluctuations in arousal within parent-infant dyads using miniaturised microphones and autonomic monitors. We continually recorded arousal and vocalisations in infants and parents in naturalistic home settings across day-long data segments.
Our results indicated that physiological synchrony across the day was stronger in dyads including more rather than less anxious mothers. Across the whole recording epoch, less anxious mothers showed responsivity that was limited to ‘peak’ moments in their child's arousal. In contrast, more anxious mothers showed greater reactivity to small-scale fluctuations. Less anxious mothers also showed behaviours akin to ‘stress buffering’ – downregulating their arousal when the overall arousal level of the dyad was high. These behaviours were absent in more anxious mothers.
Our findings have implications for understanding the differential processes of physiological co-regulation in partnerships where a partner is anxious, and for the use of this understanding in informing intervention strategies for dyads needing support for elevated levels of anxiety.
If antivivisection was alive in America before the mid-1880s, it had very little to aim at. Slowly, that changed, and from the outset, American antivivisectionists targeted both state and federal legislation as the most likely way to generate support and to secure change. Medical scientists, and Henry P. Bowditch chief among them, found themselves having to work beyond the laboratory, making a case for laboratory work in the legislature. This chapter details the early defence of experiment in the United States in Massachusetts, New York and Washington, DC.
The medical-scientific establishment’s approach to the Second Royal Commission on vivisection was brilliantly contrived to ensure success before Parliament. But insofar as they set out to persuade Parliament to let sleeping dogs lie and be cut, a clear need to win over public support to the cause had re-emerged. Even if the medical community could easily sway a public enquiry, it nevertheless took a great deal of energy, time and money. Ernest Starling and his peers across the research community would have much preferred to be left alone to get on with their jobs. Thus, a whole new communication strategy had to be carved out, so that scientists might get their message across to polite society, and from there to the population at large. The coordination of this strategy was also better handled by parties beyond the world of scientific practice, lest this too drain the energy of medical research and divert its attention to the detriment of the pursuit of knowledge. Hence the need for the Research Defence Society, founded in 1908 and led by Stephen Paget.