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In this article, the performing body is considered via a three-pronged approach involving affect theory and affective science, a scene from King Lear, and long-distance running. Inspired by the chiaroscuro of painting, this variety and mix of sources act as a methodological device to shed unfamiliar light (and shade) on the elusive topic of affect. While ‘body’ is viewed from the perspective of ‘bodyworld’ to denote constitutive and reciprocally shaping human–nonhuman relationalities, the ‘performance’ that occurs in bodies is analyzed in terms of a ‘drama of affect’ to signal the activity that germinates and circulates at various levels of consciousness in human behaviour, whether aesthetic, athletic, or daily. Frank Camilleri is Professor of Theatre Studies at the University of Malta and Artistic Director of Icarus Performance Project. He has performed, given workshops, and published various texts on performer training, theatre as a laboratory, and practice as research. He is the author of Performer Training Reconfigured: Post-Psychophysical Perspectives for the Twenty-first Century (Bloomsbury, 2019) and Performer Training for Actors and Athletes (Bloomsbury, forthcoming).
Stereotypies are frequently associated with sub-optimal captive environments and are used as welfare indicators. However, susceptibility to stereotypy can vary across individuals of the same group. As such, identifying which individuals are more susceptible to this behaviour may be helpful in managing this issue. We have investigated which sex-age class of semi-captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp) is more susceptible to stereotypic behaviours and evaluated whether or not they are also more affected by the social factors that typically influence and increase allostatic load. To accomplish this, we used instantaneous sampling to collect data on a group of capuchins kept on an island in an urban park in São Paulo, Brazil. We found that sub-adult males were the only sex-age class to display stereotypic behaviours and they all displayed pacing. Furthermore, 33% of sub-adult males also exhibited a second stereotypic behaviour associated with their pacing. Compared to the other sex-age classes, sub-adult males had a higher participation in social conflicts and experienced higher social isolation. Sub-adult males also demonstrated a lower level of positive social interactions. All of these factors typically increase allostatic load. We suggest that distal causation of the observed pacing behaviour would be the ecological/evolutionary need of sub-adult males to disperse from their natal group and that the proximal causation would relate to the high allostatic load from social sources. We recommend that managers of zoos and other facilities monitor changes in the social composition of captive groups and evaluate individuals’ age so that necessary alterations may be made, where appropriate, to reduce allostatic load and generate better welfare at individual and group levels.
Congenital heart block is a rare and lethal condition in paediatric population associated with maternal connective tissue disorders and rarely with structural cardiac disease like atrioventricular canal defects with or without left isomerism and congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries. Pacing in neonate if indicated is generally accomplished by epicardial pacing systems. However, in cases of significant bradycardia and haemodynamic instability, temporary pacemaker implantation via transvenous approach remains as a suitable option. Despite the advances in percutaneous catheter interventions, use of transvenous pacing in newborn is extremely challenging due to inadvertent risk of vessel injury, thrombus formation and mortality, and most of the time technical inability to place the lead within the right ventricular cavity. We report a case of congenital complete atrioventricular block in a premature male with birth weight of 1.51 kg who was managed with temporary pacemaker implantation through umbilical vein.
Cardiac strangulation is a rare and potentially deadly complication of epicardial pacemaker implantation. A young boy presenting with chest pain and tiredness almost 7 years after pacemaker implantation was found to have cardiac strangulation. Literature review revealed 22 cases reported to date with a worrying rise in the number of reports over the past 3 years. Strangulation is associated with implantation of leads at a young age and appears to be related to somatic growth. Serial assessment with chest X-ray and echocardiogram is recommended, at least until full adult growth is attained with further coronary artery imaging reserved for symptoms or suspicious echocardiographic findings. If cardiac strangulation is diagnosed prompt replacement of the offending system is needed.
Newborn atrial flutter can be treated by medications, pacing, or direct current cardioversion. The purpose is to compare the cost-effectiveness of digoxin, pacing, and direct current cardioversion for the treatment of atrial flutter in neonates.
Materials and methods
A decision tree model was developed comparing the efficacy and cost of digoxin, pacing, and direct current cardioversion based on a meta-analysis of published studies of success rates of cardioversion of neonatal atrial flutter (age<2 months). Patients who failed initial attempt at cardioversion progressed to the next methodology until successful. Data were analysed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these methods with cost estimates obtained from 2015 Medicare reimbursement rates.
The cost analysis for cardioversion of atrial flutter found the most efficient method to be direct current cardioversion at a cost of $10 304, pacing was next at $11 086, and the least cost-effective was digoxin at $14 374. The majority of additional cost, regardless of method, was from additional neonatal ICU day either owing to digoxin loading or failure to covert. Direct current cardioversion remains the most cost-effective strategy by sensitivity analyses performed on pacing conversion rate and the cost of the neonatal ICU/day. Direct current cardioversion remains cost-effective until the assumed conversion rate is below 64.6%.
The most cost-efficient method of cardioverting a neonate with atrial flutter is direct current cardioversion. It has the highest success rates based on the meta-analysis, shorter length of stay in the neonatal ICU owing to its success, and results in cost-savings ranging from $800 to $4000 when compared with alternative approaches.
Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes’ BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe–lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes’ milk yield, lambs’ BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes’ body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs’ BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes’ serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (P<0.005) and BCS (P<0.005) than the LPA ewes during pregnancy and postpartum (P<0.04), and had a greater milk yield than the LPA ewes (P<0.03). Treatments did not influence any behaviour at lambing, lambs’ BW, neither the ewes’ behavioural and physiological changes at weaning. HPA lambs paced and vocalized more than LPA lambs (P<0.0001). The variation of albumin concentration before and after weaning was greater in the HPA lambs than in the LPA lambs (P<0.0001). In conclusion, although ewes’ BW, BCS and milk production were affected by pasture allowance until late pregnancy, this did not affect the behaviours that lead to the establishment of the mother–young bond, nor the ewes’ behavioural responses at weaning. Lambs reared by ewes that grazed on low pasture allowance during pregnancy presented fewer behavioural changes and a lower decrease of albumin concentration after weaning. Lambs’ BW was not affected by the feeding received by their mothers.
Early weaning may be used in beef cattle production to improve reproduction rates in range conditions. However, weaning causes a stress response in cows, which may be especially strong in early weaning management, as the bond between the cow and the calf is still strong. We hypothesized that weaning calves in two steps, with the aid of anti-sucking devices (nose flaps) would reduce the behavioural stress response in the cows separated from their calves 2 months after parturition. We compared the behaviour frequency and weight change in cows that were weaned abruptly, by separation of the calf on day 0 of the study, or in two steps, consisting of the use of anti-sucking nose flaps for 5 days before permanent separation; a third group was not weaned to serve as control. Thirty-six crossbred multiparous Aberdeen Angus×Hereford cows and their calves (n=12/treatment) were managed in three paddocks with similar pasture availability, with four dyads from each treatment per paddock. Cows’ behaviour was observed by direct visual instantaneous sampling, at 10 min intervals from days −3 to 11. Weaning the calves in two steps clearly attenuated the behavioural stress response observed in abruptly weaned cows, which included reductions in grazing and lying, and increases in pacing, walking and vocalizing. Our results corroborate those previously shown for cows nursing older calves, and indicate that step weaning can reduce the behavioural stress response of cows at weaning, even when the calf is weaned shortly after birth, when the bond between the cow and calf is still very strong.
Abrupt weaning, a usual management in sheep productive systems, may provoke behavioural and physiological responses indicative of stress in ewes and lambs. Progesterone (P4) has anxiolytic and sedative effects through the union of its metabolites that contain 3α-hydroxyl group to the γ-aminobutyricacidA receptor. Our first aim was to determine whether P4 administration reduces the behavioural and physiological responses of ewes to abrupt weaning of lambs. A complementary aim was to determine whether P4 treatment affects the milk yield and composition of ewes, and the BW of their lambs. In experiment 1, seven ewes received P4 treatment for 32 days (group E1-P4), and eight ewes remained as an untreated control group (group E1-C). BW of the lambs was recorded during P4 treatment. Lambs were weaned at 59 days (Day 0 = weaning). The main behaviours of the ewes before and after weaning were recorded using 10 min scan sampling. The ewes’ serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning of the lambs. In experiment 2, milk yield and composition were determined in two different groups of six ewes treated with P4 (group E2-P4) for 16 days and in five untreated controls (group E2-C). The BW of lambs increased with time (P = 0.001) in both groups and did not differ. The percentage of observations in which the ewes were seen pacing on Day 0 was greater in the E1-C group than in the E1-P4 group (P = 0.0007). Similarly, the percentage of observations in which the ewes were recorded vocalizing on Day 0 was greater in the E1-C group than in the E1-P4 group (P = 0.04). The percentage of observations in which E1-C ewes were recorded lying did not change from Days 0 to 1; however, it increased in E1-P4 ewes. Total serum protein concentration did not change in E1-P4 ewes from Days 0 to 3, although a decrease was seen in E1-C ewes (P = 0.04). Serum globulin concentration was greater in E1-P4 ewes on Day 3 than in E1-C ewes (P = 0.0008). In experiment 2, there were no differences between E2-P4 and E2-C ewes in terms of milk yield, protein, fat and lactose content. Progesterone administration reduced the behavioural and physiological responses of ewes to abrupt weaning of lambs, and this effect was not mediated by changes in milk yield and composition, or by lambs’ BW.
Temporary percutaneous epicardial pacing wires are routinely placed in children following cardiac surgery. There is uncertainty in clinical practice about the optimum timing for their removal, and practice varies widely both within and between different institutions.
The aim of our study was to describe the use of temporary pacing in children undergoing cardiac surgery.
We performed a prospective audit of 140 children following cardiac surgery in two institutions. Information on diagnosis, surgical procedure, occurrence of arrhythmias, use of pacing wires, timing of removal of the wire, and complications related to removal was recorded on a daily basis from clinical records.
We studied 140 patients undergoing a total of 141 operations. Of these, 39 (28%) required pacing postoperatively. In 38, pacing was required within the first 24 hours. One patient, who was in nodal rhythm for the first 24 hours, required pacing on the second postoperative day, while 29 patients required pacing beyond the first 24 hours. No patient in sinus rhythm on the first postoperative day required new pacing after this time. The median time to removal of the pacing wires was 4.5 days, with an inter-quartile range from 2 to 9 days. Complications included malfunction of atrial wires in 2 patients.
Our study shows that no patient who was in sinus rhythm for the first 24 hours post-operatively required pacing before their discharge from hospital. This suggests that, in those patients in a stable state of sinus rhythm, and who have not required pacing within the first 24 hours, it may be safe to remove pacing wires after 24 hours. This could be timed to coincide with the removal of chest drains, thus avoiding the need for multiple distressing procedures.
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