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This systemic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the impact of dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-BCPR) on bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) probability, survival, and neurological outcomes with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
Electronically searching of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, along with manual retrieval, were done for clinical trials about the impact of DA-BCPR which were published from the date of inception to December 2018. The literature was screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, the baseline information, and interested outcomes were extracted. Two reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by STATA version 13.1.
In 13 studies, 235,550 patients were enrolled. Compared with no dispatcher instruction, DA-BCPR tended to be effective in improving BCPR rate (I2 = 98.2%; OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 4.58-7.46; P <.01), return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before admission (I2 = 36.0%; OR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.29; P <.01), discharge or 30-day survival rate (I2 = 47.7%; OR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.46; P <.01), and good neurological outcome (I2 = 30.9%; OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48; P = .01). However, no significant difference in hospital admission was found (I2 = 29.0%; OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.91-1.30; P = .36).
This review shows DA-BPCR plays a positive role for OHCA as a critical section in the life chain. It is effective in improving the probability of BCPR, survival, ROSC before admission, and neurological outcome.
This article presents the long-term results in terms of antipsychotic medication maintenance and factors influencing it in a representative sample of patients with schizophrenia recruited in the SOHO study within Spain.
The SOHO was a prospective, 3-year observational study of the outcomes of schizophrenia treatment in outpatients who initiated therapy or changed to a new antipsychotic performed in 10 European countries with a focus on olanzapine. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyse the time to treatment discontinuation and the Cox proportional hazards model to investigate correlates of discontinuation.
Results and conclusions
In total, 1688 patients were included in the analyses. Medication maintenance at 3 years varied with the antipsychotic prescribed, being highest with clozapine (57.6%, 95% CI 39.2–74.5), followed by olanzapine (48.3%, 95% CI 45.1–51.5); and lowest with quetiapine (19.0%, 95% CI 13.0–26.3). Treatment discontinuation was significantly less frequent with olanzapine than with risperidone (p = 0.015), depot typical (p = 0.001), oral typical antipsychotics (p < 0.001) or quetiapine (p < 0.001); but not than with clozapine (p = 0.309). Longer maintenance was also associated with higher social abilities and better cognitive status at baseline; in contrast, a shorter time to discontinuation was associated with the need for mood stabilisers during follow-up. This study emphasises the different value of antipsychotics in day-to-day clinical practice, as some of them were associated with longer medication maintenance periods than others. This study has some limitations because of possible selection and information biases derived from the non-systematic, non-randomised allocation to treatments and the existence of unobserved covariates that may influence the outcome.
To examine the 17-year clinical outcome of schizophrenia and its predictors in Bali.
Subjects were 59 consecutively admitted first-episode schizophrenia patients. Their clinical outcome was evaluated by standardized symptomatic remission criteria based on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores and operational functional remission criteria at 17-year follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) over 17 years was also calculated as another index of clinical outcome.
Among these 59 patients, 43 (72.9%) could be followed-up, 15 (25.4%) had died, and one (1.7%) was alive but refused to participate in the study. Combined remission (i.e. symptomatic and functional remission) was achieved in 14 patients (23.7% of original sample). Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was a significant baseline predictor of combined remission. Mean age at death of deceased subjects was 35.7, and SMR was 4.85 (95% CI: 2.4–7.3), indicating that deaths were premature. Longer DUP was associated with excess mortality.
The long-term outcome of schizophrenia in Bali was heterogeneous, demonstrating that a quarter achieved combined remission, half were in nonremission, and a quarter had died at 17-year follow-up. DUP was a significant predictor both for combined remission and mortality.
With people living longer, palliative care may be required for lengthier periods of time. This puts demands on healthcare organizations to provide optimal palliative care. Maintaining dignity is central for any person's health and quality of life, but especially for a person with palliative care needs. Dignity-conserving care needs to be evaluated to increase knowledge about outcomes and how to assess these. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify outcomes studied within dignity-conserving care and how these have been operationalized.
An integrative review was conducted in 26 quantitative or mixed-method studies and study protocols. Thematic synthesis with an abductive approach was used for analysis.
Seven themes of studied outcomes were identified, as well as four cluster themes: themes related to Illness-Related Concerns, themes related to the Dignity-Conserving Repertoire, themes related to the Social Dignity Inventory, and themes regarding Overarching Dignity Issues. Most outcomes studied dealt with Illness-Related Concerns within the themes of “Performance, symptoms and emotional concerns” and “End-of-life and existential aspects”. Themes linked to the Social Dignity Inventory had the lowest number of outcomes studied. Outcomes regarding overarching dignity issues such as “Dignity-related distress” and “Quality of life” were common. However, the results lacked concrete communication outcomes.
Significance of results
The results will underpin future research in which dignity-conserving care is implemented and evaluated, and contribute to the provision of evidence-based palliative care. A greater focus on outcomes within cluster themes related to the Dignity-Conserving Repertoire and the Social Dignity Inventory is needed, as is more focus on communication outcomes.
This study aimed to examine the impact of trainee involvement in performing tympanoplasty or tympano-ossiculoplasty on outcomes.
A retrospective analysis was performed of a prospective database of all patients undergoing tympanoplasty and tympano-ossiculoplasty in a single centre during a three-year period. Patients were divided into three primary surgeon groups: consultants, fellows and residents. The outcomes of operative time, surgical complications, length of hospital stay, and air–bone gap improvement were compared among the groups.
The study included 398 tympanoplasty and tympano-ossiculoplasty surgical procedures, 71 per cent of which were performed by junior trainees (residents). The junior trainee group was associated with a significantly longer surgical time, without adverse impact on outcomes.
Trainee participation in tympanoplasty and tympano-ossiculoplasty surgery was associated with longer surgical time, but did not negatively affect the peri-operative course or hearing outcome. Therefore, resident involvement in these types of surgery is safe.
This study reports the clinical outcomes of head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma treatment over a 20-year period.
The treatment outcome of 51 head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma patients treated between 1992 and 2013 were analysed. Patients were stratified into radical treatment and disease control groups.
A total of 40 patients underwent surgery and post-operative radiotherapy. The 10-year disease-specific survival rate was 93 per cent. Eleven patients had tumour recurrence: of these, nine were pulmonary metastases. The 11 patients in the disease control group had a median follow up of 21 months (range, 2–172 months); 5 underwent radical radiotherapy with palliative intent.
There was late tumour recurrence in over 25 per cent of patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma has a high tendency to relapse even after radical excision and adjuvant therapy. However, definitive radiotherapy should still be considered on an individual basis because it may provide local control and prolong patient survival.
Objectives: Various minimal clinically important difference (MCID) threshold estimation techniques have been applied to seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the difference in magnitude of alternative SAR MCID threshold estimates and (ii) evaluate the impact of alternative MCID estimates on health technology assessment (HTA).
Methods: Data describing change from baseline of the reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (rTNSS) for four intranasal SAR treatments were obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration-approved prescribing information. Treatment effects were then compared with anchor-based MCID thresholds derived by Barnes et al. and thresholds obtained from an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) panel.
Results: The change in rTNSS score from baseline, represented as the average of the twice-daily recorded scores of the rTNSS, was -2.1 (p < .001) for azelastine hydrochloride 0.10%, 1.35 (p = .014) for ciclesonide, and -1.47 (p < .001) for fluticasone furoate. The change in the rTNSS score from baseline, represented by sum of the AM and PM score, was -2.7 for MP-AzeFlu (p < .001). The rTNSS change from baseline for each product was compared with anchor-based MCID threshold and the AHRQ panel estimates. Comparison of the observed treatment effect to the anchor-based and AHRQ panel MCID thresholds results in different conclusions, with clinically important differences being inferred when anchor-based estimates serve as the reference point.
Conclusion: The AHRQ panel MCID threshold for the rTNSS was twelve times larger than the anchor-based estimates resulting in conflicting recommendations on whether different SAR treatments provide clinically meaningful benefit.
The Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory (CMDI) was developed to improve accuracy in measuring depression symptoms in individuals with non-psychiatric medical illness. Earlier psychometric evaluation of the CMDI has emphasized properties of items that measure negative affect and experience. In this study, we provide an initial evaluation of an outcome scale of positive items that are also included within the CMDI but have previously been excluded from calculation of the total score. Psychometric data for the CMDI negative and positive item subscales were determined in healthy adults and patients with multiple sclerosis. Analysis included measurements of factor structure, reliability, and validity in comparison with other established measures of depression and affect. Study findings indicate that in healthy and patient samples, the CMDI Positive scale has very good reliability and validity. The Positive scale score also appears to predict depression symptoms beyond the negative item scale scores. The CMDI Positive scale could be a valuable clinical and research tool. Inclusion of the Positive scale in the CMDI total score appears to improve the measure by further capturing symptoms of affect and experience that are important to diagnosis of depression and are not covered by the negative scales alone. (JINS, 2016, 22, 76–82)
The first cohorts to survive childhood lymphoid malignancies treated with cranial irradiation are now aging into adulthood, and concerns are growing about the development of radiotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in the aging brain. These deficits are hypothesized to increase over time. Their impact on daily functioning of older survivors, and the accompanying need for interventions, should be anticipated. By describing a detailed profile of executive function deficits and their associations with age, specific targets for neuropsychological intervention can be identified. Fifty survivors of childhood lymphoid malignancies and 58 related controls were assessed with the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program. The survivors were on average 31.1 (4.9) years old, treated with 22.5 (6.8) Gy cranial irradiation, and examined on average 25.5 (3.1) years after diagnosis. The survivors showed significantly decreased response speed, irrespective of the task at hand. Furthermore, we found deficits in working memory capacity, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, executive visuomotor control, attentional fluctuations, and sustained attention. Older age was associated with poorer performance on executive visuomotor control and inhibition. On executive visuomotor control, 50% of female survivors performed more than 1.5 SD below average, versus 15.4% of male survivors. The combination of visuospatial working memory problems and decreasing executive visuomotor control could result in difficulty with learning new motor skills at older ages, like walking with a cane. Deterioration of executive control and inhibition may result in decreased behavioral and emotional regulation in aging survivors. Especially the deficiency in executive visuomotor control in female survivors should be considered for (prophylactic) intervention. (JINS, 2015, 21, 657–669)
The Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II) is widely used in research on depression. However, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is unknown. MCID can be estimated in several ways. Here we take a patient-centred approach, anchoring the change on the BDI-II to the patient's global report of improvement.
We used data collected (n = 1039) from three randomized controlled trials for the management of depression. Improvement on a ‘global rating of change’ question was compared with changes in BDI-II scores using general linear modelling to explore baseline dependency, assessing whether MCID is best measured in absolute terms (i.e. difference) or as percent reduction in scores from baseline (i.e. ratio), and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) to estimate MCID according to the optimal threshold above which individuals report feeling ‘better’.
Improvement in BDI-II scores associated with reporting feeling ‘better’ depended on initial depression severity, and statistical modelling indicated that MCID is best measured on a ratio scale as a percentage reduction of score. We estimated a MCID of a 17.5% reduction in scores from baseline from ROC analyses. The corresponding estimate for individuals with longer duration depression who had not responded to antidepressants was higher at 32%.
MCID on the BDI-II is dependent on baseline severity, is best measured on a ratio scale, and the MCID for treatment-resistant depression is larger than that for more typical depression. This has important implications for clinical trials and practice.
Delirium has been associated with institutionalization, increased length of hospital stay, cognitive and functional decline and mortality. Research in the last thirty years has recognized that accurate diagnostic criteria allow for targeted interventions for those suffering from delirium. However, despite the advances made in understanding delirium, adverse outcomes persist.
This article will first review how the evolution of diagnostic criteria has fostered improvements in the recognition of delirium and facilitated the development of therapeutic strategies. Second, we discuss how this foundation in approach to delirium has influenced outcomes and the evidence for causality. Finally, the candidate factors responsible for propagating adverse events are considered and future research direction outlined.
This Editorial addresses the crucial issue of which research methodology is most suited for capturing the complexity of psychosocial interventions conducted in ‘real world’ mental health settings. It first examines conventional randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology and critically appraises its strengths and weaknesses. It then considers the specificity of mental health care treatments and defines the term ‘complex’ intervention and its implications for RCT design. The salient features of pragmatic RCTs aimed at generating evidence of psychosocial intervention effectiveness are then described. Subsequently, the conceptualization of pragmatic RCTs, and of their further developments – which we propose to call ‘new generation’ pragmatic trials – in the broader routine mental health service context, is explored. Helpful tools for planning pragmatic RCTs, such as the CONSORT extension for pragmatic trials, and the PRECIS tool are also examined. We then discuss some practical challenges that are involved in the design and implementation of pragmatic trials based on our own experience in conducting the GET UP PIANO Trial. Lastly, we speculate on the ways in which current ideas on the purpose, scope and ethics of mental health care research may determine further challenges for clinical research and evidence-based practice.
Objectives: When a new health technology has been approved by a health system, it is difficult to guarantee that it is going to be efficiently adopted, adequately used, and that effectiveness, safety, and consumption of resources and costs are in line with what was expected in preliminary investigations. Many governmental institutions promote the idea that efficient mechanisms should be established aimed at developing and incorporating continuous evidence into health technologies management. The purpose of this article is to stimulate the discussion on systematic post-introduction observation of health technologies.
Methods: Literature review and input of HTA experts.
Results: The study addresses the key issues related to post-introduction observation and presents a summary of the guide commissioned by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality to the Galician HTA agency for the prioritization and implementation of systematic post-introduction observation in Spain. The manuscript describes the prioritization tool developed as part of this project and discusses the main aspects of protocol development, observation implementation, and assessment of results.
Conclusions: The observation of prioritized health technologies after they are introduced in standard clinical practice can provide useful information for health organizations. However, implementing the observation of health technologies can require specific policy frameworks, commitment from different stakeholders, and dedicated funding.
Breakdown of foster care has been defined as the situation in which one of the involved parties terminates the intervention before having achieved the goals established for the case plan. This work presents a study carried out with a Spanish sample of 318 closed cases of children who were placed in foster homes and kinship care. The data were collected through the exhaustive review of the child protection and foster placement files, complemented with interviews of the welfare workers in charge of each case. The rate of breakdown of the entire sample was 26.1%, although it was significantly different in kinship care (19.7%) and foster care (31.2%). The results of this study indicate that the variables related to breakdown depend on the placement modality, either in foster care or kinship care. In the first case, the variables related to the child's characteristics are noteworthy, especially behavior and academic problems, with special relevance in the 9-12-year-old group, and in children who were previously in residential care. In contrast, in kinship care, the parents' problems (prison, mental health) and having some measure of guardianship are the most important. The fact of undergoing foster placement after having lived in various residential homes is transcendental. Lastly, the availability of economic resources and even the foster carers' studies seem to be related to foster breakdown.
This chapter reviews methods of assessing outcomes following deep brain stimulation (DBS) and the approach to troubleshooting problems with DBS that may be responsible for poorer than expected outcomes. Assessment of outcome after DBS includes measurement of: impairment; disability; health-related quality of life (HRQL); and quality of life (QOL). A neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric examination should be performed in DBS candidates to identify problems and predisposing factors. An important concept in the evaluation and assessment of DBS patients is to utilize a multidisciplinary, or team, approach. Assessment and management of surgery-related issues and complications can be challenging in the acute time following DBS implantation surgery. Assessment of patients for DBS candidacy is best performed using a multidisciplinary team approach. Problems encountered with DBS surgery can be divided into four main categories: surgery-related; device-related; stimulation-related; and other issues, including disease progression, and poor DBS candidate/lack of the multidisciplinary team evaluation.
This study calculated the comparability of two throat symptom assessment scales devised to evaluate either laryngopharyngeal reflux or globus.
United Kingdom hospital out-patient departments.
A total of 334 subjects, with and without throat symptoms, completed the Reflux Symptom Index and/or the Glasgow and Edinburgh Throat Scale. The following were calculated for the resultant data: Cronbach's α coefficient, principal component analysis, Kaiser normalisation, varimax and oblimin rotation, and eigenvalues.
Analysis of data from the Reflux Symptom Index and the Glasgow and Edinburgh Throat Scale revealed clearly similar symptom domains regarding (1) coughing and blockage, and (2) globus or postnasal drip or throat-clearing, as did combined analysis of their amalgamated items. Both instruments had good overall internal consistency (α = 0.75 and 0.81, respectively). The ‘heartburn or reflux’ item in the Reflux Symptom Index mapped poorly to each underlying factor.
The most commonly used laryngopharyngeal reflux and globus assessment questionnaires appear to detect very similar symptom clusters. The management of throat disorders may previously have been over-reliant on the presenting pattern of throat symptoms. Our findings indicate a need to revisit the traditional clinical classification of throat symptoms.
This systematic review examined the psychometric properties and application of assessments used to evaluate participation outcomes and environmental factors for children with acquired brain injury (ABI). An electronic search of eight databases for articles published up to June 2009 revealed reference to 98 outcome measures. According to inclusion criteria based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF: Child and Youth version), five were identified as measures of participation (Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment [CAPE], Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation [CASP], Assessment of Life Habits for Children [LIFE-H], Participation Index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index [M2PI], and the Participation Subscale of the School Function Assessment [SFA-PS]). Six were identified as measures of environment (Child and Adolescent Scale of Environment [CASE], Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors [CHIEF], European Child Environment Questionnaire [ECEQ], Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes [FILE], HOME Inventory, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale [MSPSS]). The measures were critiqued in relation to content, validity, reliability, clinical utility, responsiveness, and overall strengths/weaknesses. These measures need to be evaluated more extensively with children who have ABI to further determine their psychometric properties and clinical usefulness with this population.
Imaging studies have tried to identify morphological outcome measures of schizophrenia in the last two decades. In particular, longitudinal studies have reported a correlation between larger ventricles, decreased prefrontal volumes and worse outcome. This would potentially allow to isolate subtypes of schizophrenia patients with a worse prognosis and more evident biological impairments, ultimately helping in designing specific rehabilitation interventions.
Balloon sinuplasty is a new technology which has only recently been introduced in the UK. We review the current literature, and we present our first year's results for the technique together with a description of indications, outcomes and problems.
Retrospective case note review of 27 consecutive patients undergoing sinuplasty alone in the first year in which this procedure was performed. The main outcome measures used were subjective improvement and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) score.
Dilatation was successful in 98 per cent of sinuses in which it was attempted; however, subjective improvement was noted in only 62 per cent of patients thus treated.
We believe that balloon sinuplasty has a place in routine rhinology practice but that its applications are limited, and that its additional costs must be considered. We present advantages and possible limitations of the technique.
To evaluate patient satisfaction and symptom improvement following treatment of Ménière's disease with the Meniett® device.
Retrospective, questionnaire-based audit and analysis of unilateral Ménière's disease patients’ records, following on from a previous study from our departments on intra-tympanic gentamicin for Ménière's disease, using the Vertigo Symptom Scale and Glasgow Benefit Inventory as outcome measures.
Of 33 consecutive patients treated with the Meniett® device for four to six weeks, 30 responded to the questionnaires (90.9 per cent). Respondents’ mean Vertigo Symptom Scale score was 0.7 (range 0–2.1), and their mean Glasgow Benefit Inventory general subscale score was 24.1. Nineteen (63.3 per cent) patients felt that the device had alleviated their vertigo and tinnitus.
This is the first UK study of the effectiveness of the Meniett® device in treating Ménière's disease. It shows that the Meniett® device is a well tolerated, useful and minimally invasive means of treating Ménière's disease after medical treatment has failed, and before more potentially cochleo- and vestibulo-toxic therapies and invasive procedures are utilised.