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An investigation of sample 41647 from the Platinum Placer of Ugol'nyi Ruchei, Norilsk Cu–Ni deposit, Russia, stored in the systematic collection of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, revealed that it contained a mineral that can be identified as the original stannopalladinite described in 1947. As the literature information on the latter is controversial, the mineral was re-investigated using modern analytical techniques. Stannopalladinite occurs as spherical and ovoid-shaped grains up to 0.08 mm, closely intergrown with tetraferroplatinum as part of flattened, prismatic crystals up to 6 mm long. The micro-indentation hardness of stannopalladinite (VHN, 30 g load) is 244 kg/mm2 (range 233–266, n = 4), corresponding to a Mohs hardness of 4. The calculated density is 9.781 g/cm3. In reflected light, stannopalladinite is pale pink. The bireflectance is noticeable only in oil immersion. In crossed nicols the mineral exhibits strong anisotropy with colour effects changing from reddish purple to greyish blue and polysynthetic twinning of grains. The reflectance curves show distinct anomalous dispersion. The chemical composition (wt.%, electron microprobe data, mean of 11 analyses) is: Cu 8.48, Pd 61.21, Pt 0.89, Sn 25.87, Pb 3.70, total 100.15. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 4 atoms per formula unit is (Pd2.42Cu0.56Pt0.02)Σ3.00(Sn0.92Pb0.08)Σ1.00. The ideal chemical formula of stannopalladinite is therefore proposed as (Pd,Cu)3Sn instead of Pd3Sn2 used in the official IMA List of Minerals. The strongest powder X-ray diffraction lines are [dobs, Å (I, %) (hkl) ]: 2.292 (42) (231), 2.166 (100) (331), 2.034 (10) (710), 1.916 (15) (141) and 1.851 (15) (630). The powder X-ray data are indexed in the orthorhombic unit cell with a = 14.634(2), b = 8.5253(6), c = 4.5946(3) Å and V = 573.24(7) Å3 (Z = 8). Stannopalladinite can be reliably identified among all other minerals belonging to the binary Pd–Sn and ternary Pd–Cu–Sn systems by a combination of chemical, optical and X-ray data.
Lead sulfide (PbS) is having tremendous applications in the field of optoelectronics. Hence, a facile low temperature synthesis of PbS with different contents of terbium (Tb) has been achieved and investigated for structure–optic–dielectric–electrical properties. The structure confirmation was observed through the X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement process which approved a monophasic cubic structure. Rietveld refinement gives a best-fitting profile of the prepared products. The crystallite size was estimated to be in range of 15–21 nm. FT-Raman study also approved the single-phase PbS with all characteristic modes. For further confirmation of composition, homogeneity, and Tb in the final product, the EDX/SEM e-mapping was carried out. The morphological investigation was carried out through SEM which revealed that the shape and size are greatly influenced by Tb content addition in PbS. The energy gap (Eg) was estimated in the range of 1.42–1.62 eV for all Tb@PbS, and the largest Eg value was observed for 0.5 wt% Tb@PbS. The dielectric constant values are calculated in the range of 16–25 in the tested frequency region. The ac electrical conductivity was enhanced with frequency, and a charge transport mechanism is related to a correlated barrier hoping model in the prepared samples.
Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
Optical properties of massless Dirac electrons are considered. In particular, it is shown that they provide a universal, frequency-independent adsorption coefficient determined by fine structure constant. The possible effect of interelectron interaction on this property is discussed. Using a perturbation theory for density matrix, we derive Kubo formula for various response functions and use it to consider optics, magnetooptics, charge screening and diamagnetism of massless Dirac electrons. Graphene plasmonics is briefly reviewed.
The computational tool integrating empirical tight binding and full configuration interaction method is utilized to study the structural and optical properties of spherical PbX (X = S, Se, and Te) nanocrystals under various diameters. The nanocrystal architecture plays an essential role in the control of the structural and optical properties. The appearance of the quantum confinement is caused by the reduction of the optical band gaps with the increasing diameters. By changing the chalcogenide types and diameters, the band gaps are modified, with their wavelengths from 380 to 2500 nm, technologically applying for the visible and near-infrared optical devices. The tight-binding band gaps agree well with previously published theoretical and experimental values. The atomistic electron–hole interactions are mainly influenced by the diameters and chalcogenide types. Using the Stokes shift and fine structure splitting, PbS nanocrystal with the immense size may be implemented as a source of entangled photon pairs and optical filter. Finally, the theoretical study reveals the distinctive properties of PbX (X = S, Se, and Te) nanocrystals by changing their architecture for applications in optoelectronic devices and microscopy.
Atomically thin 2D materials exhibit strong intralayer covalent bonding and weak interlayer van der Waals interactions, offering unique high in-plane strength and out-of-plane flexibility. While atom-thick nature of 2D materials may cause uncontrolled intrinsic/extrinsic deformation in multiple length scales, it also provides new opportunities for exploring coupling between heterogeneous deformations and emerging functionalities in controllable and scalable ways for electronic, optical, and optoelectronic applications. In this review, we discuss (i) the mechanical characteristics of 2D materials, (ii) uncontrolled inherent deformation and extrinsic heterogeneity present in 2D materials, (iii) experimental strategies for controlled heterogeneous deformation of 2D materials, (iv) 3D structure-induced novel functionalities via crumple/wrinkle structure or kirigami structures, and (v) heterogeneous strain-induced emerging functionalities in exciton and phase engineering. Overall, heterogeneous deformation offers unique advantages for 2D materials research by enabling spatial tunability of 2D materials' interactions with photons, electrons, and molecules in a programmable and controlled manner.
The present work investigates the influence of sodium doping on structural, morphological, photoluminescence, linear, nonlinear (NL), and optical limiting (OL) parameters of NaxCd1−xS thin films (where x= 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 wt%) deposited on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis route. X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses confirmed the hexagonal polycrystalline nature of films. Crystallite sizes were decreased from 30 to 17 nm with doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs also confirmed the nanocrystalline spherical growth. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and SEM mapping studies revealed the presence and homogeneous distribution of individual elements. Transmission of films is found to lie between 45 and 60%. Although the low doping caused the reduction of the effective band gap, higher doping caused a blue shift in band gap, with an associated reduction in crystallite sizes. The refractive index values are found within 1–2 in visible and their maximum values (in range 2.65–3.16) are observed at 2500 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed broad emission peak at ∼520 ± 10 nm. Dielectric and NL analyses were also carried out. OL results were promising for the systematic gradual decrease of intensity from 100 to 72%, with doping for power regulating applications.
In this contribution, we use heavy ion irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to demonstrate that defects can be used to tailor the optical properties of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Sonicated MoS2 flakes were deposited onto Si/SiO2 substrate and subjected to 3 MeV Au2+ ion irradiation at room temperature to fluences ranging from 1 × 1012 to 1 × 1016 cm−2. We demonstrate that irradiation-induced defects can control optical excitations in the inner core shell of MoS2 by binding A1s- and B1s-excitons, and correlate the exciton peaks to the specific defects introduced with irradiation. The systematic increase of ion fluence produced different defect densities in MoS2, which were estimated using B/A exciton ratios and progressively increased with ion fluence. We show that up to the fluences of 1 × 1014 cm−2, the MoS2 lattice remains crystalline and defect densities can be controlled, whereas at higher fluences (≥1 × 1015 cm−2), the large number of introduced defects distorts the excitonic structure of the material. In addition to controlling excitons, defects were used to split bound and free trions, and we demonstrate that at higher fluences (1 × 1015 cm−2), both free and bound trions can be observed in the same PL spectrum. Most importantly, the lifetimes of these states exceed trion and exciton lifetimes in pristine MoS2, and PL spectra of irradiated MoS2 remains unchanged weeks after irradiation experiments. Thus, this work demonstrated the feasibility of engineering novel optical behaviors in low-dimensional materials using heavy ion irradiation. The insights gained from this study will aid in understanding the many-body interactions in low-dimensional materials and may ultimately be used to develop novel materials for optoelectronic applications.
This contribution reports on the biosynthesis of nickel oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs & ZnO-NPs) via a natural extract from Moringa Oleifera leaves as an effective chelating and/or oxidizing/reduction agent of nickel nitrate hexahydrate and zinc nitrate hexahydrate. The structural and optical properties of these two types of semiconductors obtained in a similar procedure are investigated using X-rays Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR), diffuse reflectance UV-Visible-NIR and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The structural analysis shows the formation of pure cubic NiO-NPs and pure wurtzite ZnO-NPs with an average crystallite size of 17.80 nm and 10.81 nm respectively. Their band gaps, calculated from the diffuse reflectance analysis were found to be 4.28 eV and 3.35 eV respectively.
In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in powder and in thin film were successfully synthesized first time using an eco-friendly, simple and cost effective green synthesis method mediated by corn husk (Zea mays) extract as an effective chelating agent, and zinc nitrate hexahydrate as precursor. Diverse characterizations techniques such as High Resolution – Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM), Energy Dispersive X- rays Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), and UV – Vis – NIR spectroscopy as well as Photoluminescence (PL) were investigated to confirm ZnO NPs nature. For the ZnO NPs powder, highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) annealed at 500°C which are 48.635 nm in particles size were characterised by HR-SEM and XRD analysis. The structure morphology and the constituents of the resultant ZnO powder were investigated respectively by HR-SEM and EDS. UV – Visible spectroscopy analysis was investigated on the optical band gap of ZnO NPs, which was calculated to be 3.31 eV. This result indicates that ZnO NPs can be used in metal oxide semiconductor-based devices. For the ZnO NPs thin film, XRD patterns of hexagonal wurtzite structure with c/a ratio about of 1.60 and μ – parameter of 0.38 were obtained. PL measurements showed a broad emission band in the 380 – 800 nm range, centred at 481 nm. ZnO NPs thin film yielded relatively more intense photoluminescence spectra than the ZnO NPs powder. The intrinsic point defects and defect level transitions responsible for the broad emission are discussed.
Prevascularized medical devices can improve cell therapy. Such devices may replace whole organ transplantation with hosting only the necessary therapeutic cells. We have developed a noninvasive optical technology to study the vascularization into such medical devices. In our technique, oxygen partial pressure within a device is monitored by Oxygen Sensitive Tubes (OSTs), comprising oxygen permeable silicone tubing with inner luminal surfaces coated by an oxygen-sensitive porphyrin dye. OSTs were placed within a PDMS device and transplanted into the subcutaneous space of athymic nude mice. An optical probe placed over the skin excites the OSTs with a pulse of light and detects the luminescent lifetime of emitted light, which is uniquely related to oxygen partial pressure. Furthermore, we developed a Dynamic Inhalation Gas Test (DIGT) to determine the oxygen transport rate between the microvasculature and the device. DIGT works by monitoring oxygen partial pressure in a device following a step change in inhaled-gas oxygen content. We report DIGT oxygen dynamics measured intermittently over eight weeks. Our study shows DIGT dynamics are unique to each implant, supporting the important role of the host tissue response in the availability of oxygen over time.
In the last years, perovskite solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic (PV) research due to their possibility to become a highly efficient and low-cost alternative to silicon solar cells. Cells based on the widely used Pb-containing perovskites have reached power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of more than 20 %. One of the major hurdles for the rapid commercialization of perovskite photovoltaics is the lack of deposition tools and processes for large areas. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an appealing technique because it is scalable and furthermore features superior process control and reproducibility in depositing high-purity films. In this work, we present a novel showerhead-based CVD tool to fabricate perovskite films by simultaneous delivery of precursors from the gas phase. We highlight the control of the perovskite film composition and properties by adjusting the individual precursor deposition rates. Providing the optimal supply of precursors results in stoichiometric perovskite films without any detectable residues.
In recent times, nanotechnology has drawn the attention of the scientific community because of the wide variety of applications that can be done with it, from food packaging to targeted drug delivery; the use of nanoparticles has been a breakthrough in science that has now reached the market. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have unique properties due to the oscillation of electrons in the superficial plasmon. These nanostructures have been used in different applications in the area of nanomedicine, such as: targeted drug delivery, sensing and imaging, anti-fungal, anti-cancerous and biosensors. It has become evident that pathogenic bacteria are resisting antibiotics such as Penicillin becoming one of the most worrying topics in the world. People in the science community fear the day when we no longer can use these antibiotics, because the resistance of bacteria became too great, leaving us defenceless against any type of pathogens and possibly causing a catastrophe. However, we theorize that the possible solution to this problem could be the use of silver nanoparticles, given that there has not been a documented bacterial adaptation strategy that could give them resistance to Ag NPs. The purpose of this study is to find how the water-stable silver nanoparticles interact with different strains, including Gram negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The main objectives of our research were to synthesize and characterize water stable silver nanoparticles and test their potential bactericidal activity. We synthesized our Ag NPs using sodium citrate as a reducing agent. After synthesizing the nanoparticles, their optical properties were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis); crystalline structure was evaluated with Electron Diffraction (ED) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD); morphology was assessed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to indicate functional groups involved in the nanoparticle capping. Cultures were prepared with agarose and inoculated with the following bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (Gram +), Micrococcus luteus (Gram +), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram +), Escherichia coli (Gram -), Citrobacter freundii (Gram -), Enterobacter aerogenes (Gram -), Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram -), Proteus mirabilis (Gram -), Proteus vulgaris (Gram -) and Serratia marcescens (Gram -). Preliminary tests showed an inhibition diameter that surpassed 1.0 cm in all bacterial strains. We expect our Ag NPs to have a potential antibacterial activity towards all types of bacteria, due to oxidation of silver (Ag0 to Ag+).
The need to achieve a uniform distribution of concentrated solar flux in the photovoltaic, thermal or any other receivers is a common problem; therefore, the optical characterization of the concentration system is necessary to determinate the physical characteristics of the receptors. In this work, a parabolic dish concentrator of 1.65x1.65 m2, developed by research from the University of Arizona, is optically characterized under normal operating conditions, also known as environmental conditions that refer to non-controlled conditions as solar radiation, environmental temperature and wind velocity that could affect slightly, by thermal and mechanical efforts, the distribution profiles of the concentrated solar radiation. The set used for the evaluation consisted of the parabolic mirror and Chilled Lambertian Flat Surface installed in the focal point on the optical axis of the mirror. The evaluation was divided into two parts: a theoretical part that consist on using ray tracing simulation and an experimental part that corresponds to image analysis. The used methodology in this work has been stablish in many researches, so this is a reliable method. The global optical error was 2.3 mrad under normal operating conditions.
Silicon telluride (Si2Te3) is a silicon-based 2D chalcogenide with potential applications in optoelectronics. It has a unique crystal structure where Si atoms form Si-Si dimers to occupy the “metal” sites. In this paper, we report an ab initio computational study of its optical dielectric properties using the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE). Strong in-plane optical anisotropy is discovered. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant in the direction parallel to the Si-Si dimers is found to be much lower than that perpendicular to the dimers. The optical measurement of the absorption spectra of 2D Si2Te3 nanoplates shows modulation of the absorption coefficient under 90-degree rotation, confirming the computational results. We show the optical anisotropy originates from the particular compositions of the wavefunctions in the valence and conduction bands. Because it is associated with the Si dimer orientation, the in-plane optical anisotropy can potentially be dynamically controlled by electrical field and strain, which may be useful for new device design. In addition, BSE calculations reduce GW quasiparticle band gap by 0.3 eV in bulk and 0.6 eV in monolayer, indicating a large excitonic effect in Si2Te3. Furthermore, including electron-hole interaction in bulk calculations significantly reduces the imaginary part of the dielectric constant in the out-of-plane direction, suggesting strong interlayer exciton effect in Si2Te3 multilayers.
Biosynthesized Zincite nanoparticles have been successfully demonstrated by a completely green process mediated aqueous extract of rosemary leaves acting as both reducing and stabilizing agents and zinc nitrate hexahydrate as the precursor. The synthesis was free of solvents and surfactants to adhere to green chemistry principles and the impartation of environmental benignity. To achieve our objective, structural and optical investigations of ZnO annealed at 500°C for 2hrs were carried-out using complementary techniques. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed the self-assembled, highly agglomerated quasi-hexagonal shaped NPs and the average particle size was found to peak at 15.62 ± 0.22 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) exhibited several diffraction rings with clear diffraction spots confirming their polycrystallinity and the purity of ZnO NPs with a wurtzite structure. Furthermore, the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) substantiated the presence of Zn and O in the sample and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) illustrated the Zn-O chemical bonds. From UV-Vis-NIR, the optical band gap was amounted to 3.2 eV and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum to 2.9eV with high surface defects and oxygen vacancies. Through these results, the use of rosemary leaves extract is hereby shown to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to synthesize Zincite nanoparticles (ZnO NPs).
This paper discusses new components and approaches to make stretchable optical fiber sensors better meet the power and washability requirements of wearables. First, an all-polymer quick connector allows the light source and photosensor to be quickly detached for washing. Second, the paper investigates the possibility of driving the sensors using ambient light instead of an onboard light source. While optical strain sensors and touch sensors have advantages over electronic ones in wet environments, and the intrinsic stretchability of the fibers is useful for soft robotics and highly conformal wearables, the typical light-emitting diode (LED) light source consumes more power than an electronic resistive or capacitive strain sensor. In this work, ambient light of uniform but unknown intensity is demonstrated to drive an elastomeric optical touch sensor in a differential configuration.
Pairs of conjugate donor-acceptor fluorescent probes have proven themselves useful in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy in recent years. For instance, it has been shown that the lifetime of said probes directly correlates to the resolution of the microscope. However, once the lifetimes of the probes have been optimized, it is desirable to control their fluorescence in order to improve the resolution further. Here, we propose combining model-free control with sliding mode control to track nanosecond pulses of red-shifted acceptor fluorescence in order to inhibit visible light emitted from the image plane, shrink the point spread function, and subsequently improve the resolution of the microscope. This is achieved by automatic adjustment of the STED laser beam pump power. This controller is numerically simulated against a generic model created from Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory. However, since it is data-driven, it can be easily applied to various physical systems with drastically different dynamics. This work provides a reliable theoretic control solution to modern super resolution microscopy for biological imaging.
Bio-reduction agents are being explored to synthesised nanoparticles to minimize the effects of toxic chemicals. The present study was focused on green approach for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using aqueous seeds extract of Papaver somniferum. The biosynthesised ZnO NPs (27.8nm) were characterized by using of spectroscopy and microscopy instruments. The surface morphology and the structural analysis confirms the formation of hexagonal nanostructure and a pure zincite nature of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) respectively. The EDS spectrum confirms pure ZnO NPs were synthesised. From electrochemical properties, the CV indicates both anodic and cathodic sweep are quasi-reversible properties whose intensity increases with the scan rates. The bode plot shows the maximum angles of 74o which is an indication of a higher conductivity of ZnO NPs.
We report a significant advance in thermally insulating transparent materials: silica-based monoliths with controlled porosity which exhibit the transparency of windows in combination with a thermal conductivity comparable to aerogels.
The lack of transparent, thermally insulating windows leads to substantial heat loss in commercial and residential buildings, which accounts for ~4.2% of primary US energy consumption annually. The present study provides a potential solution to this problem by demonstrating that ambiently dried silica aerogel monoliths, i.e., ambigels, can simultaneously achieve high optical transparency and low thermal conductivity without supercritical drying. A combination of tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, and post-gelation surface modification precursors were used to synthesize ambiently dried materials with varying pore fractions and pore sizes. By controlling the synthesis and processing conditions, 0.5–3 mm thick mesoporous monoliths with transmittance >95% and a thermal conductivity of 0.04 W/(m K) were produced. A narrow pore size distribution, <15 nm, led to the excellent transparency and low haze, while porosity in excess of 80% resulted in low thermal conductivity. A thermal transport model considering fractal dimension and phonon-boundary scattering is proposed to explain the low effective thermal conductivity measured. This work offers new insights into the design of transparent, energy saving windows.