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A 31-year-old nulligravida with a body mass index (BMI) of 42 kg/m2 is referred by her primary care provider to your high-risk obstetrics clinic for preconception counseling. Prior to the consultation, you highlight to your obstetric trainee that motivational interviewing with nonstigmatizing terminology avoids negative influences on mood and self-esteem, promoting patient uptake of weight management strategies and a healthy lifestyle.
We investigated the change in limbic structure volumes and intrinsic limbic network in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to healthy controls.
We enrolled 26 patients with OSA and 30 healthy controls. They underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 T MRI scanner. The limbic structures were analyzed volumetrically using the FreeSurfer program. We examined the intrinsic limbic network using the Brain Analysis with Graph Theory program and compared the groups' limbic structure volumes and intrinsic limbic network.
There were significant differences in specific limbic structure volumes between the groups. The volumes in the right amygdala, right hippocampus, right hypothalamus, right nucleus accumbens, left amygdala, left basal forebrain, left hippocampus, left hypothalamus, and left nucleus accumbens in patients with OSA were lower than those in healthy controls (right amygdala, 0.102 vs. 0.113%, p = 0.004; right hippocampus, 0.253 vs. 0.281%, p = 0.002; right hypothalamus, 0.028 vs. 0.032%, p = 0.002; right nucleus accumbens, 0.021 vs. 0.024%, p = 0.019; left amygdala, 0.089 vs. 0.098%, p = 0.007; left basal forebrain, 0.020 vs. 0.022%, p = 0.027; left hippocampus, 0.245 vs. 0.265%, p = 0.021; left hypothalamus, 0.028 vs. 0.031%, p = 0.016; left nucleus accumbens, 0.023 vs. 0.027%, p = 0.002). However, there were no significant differences in network measures between the groups.
We demonstrate that the volumes of several limbic structures in patients with OSA are significantly lower than those in healthy controls. However, there are no alterations to the intrinsic limbic network. These findings suggest that OSA is one of the risk factors for cognitive impairments.
Tonsillectomy is one of the commonest operations in children. Routinely collected national data were used to assess variations in the paediatric tonsillectomy rate across Scotland, and to determine if socio-economic deprivation is the cause.
The Scottish Morbidity Records were reviewed for all children (0–16 years) undergoing tonsillectomy from 2001 to 2018.
The mean annual tonsillectomy rate was 2.64 per 1000 children. Rates in each health board area varied from 1.24 to 3.9 per 1000. Half of this variation resulted from transfers between regions. There was a 1.75-fold difference between tonsillectomy rates in the most and least deprived population quintiles, but this did not account for the geographical variation.
Half the variance in paediatric tonsillectomy rates is associated with children being transferred between regions for treatment. After accounting for this, there is a 1.5-fold difference in rate between health board areas, which is not related to socio-economic deprivation and is currently unexplained.
This chapter describes some of the commonly occurring sleep disturbances in PWS patients through a case study. OSA can have serious consequences ranging from hypersomnia, hypertension and heart failure to obesity-hypoventilation syndrome and death. Major risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in PWS include craniofacial dysmorphism with small nasal and oropharyngeal spaces, obesity, and hypotonia. An attended, in-laboratory, nocturnal polysomnogram is recommended for the diagnosis of OSA in children. This case also highlights the critical importance of weight management in obese children with OSA and the initiation of continuous positive airway pressure in those individuals with OSA who are not appropriate surgical candidates. Hypersomnia in PWS is complex; is not always due solely to OSA and may not resolve with treatment of OSA alone. This suggests a central nervous system- or brain-related origin to hypersomnia in PWS. Central hypersomnias should be considered in those with persistent hypersomnia despite the therapeutic resolution of OSA. Diagnosis and treatment options for narcolepsy due to a medical condition are discussed.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It has been known for some time as a both a reproductive and a metabolic disorder but more recently, mainly as a result of large longitudinal population-based studies, is becoming recognized as a complex multisystem disorder with comorbidities and long-term health implications. PCOS is associated not only with reproductive and metabolic features but also with cardiovascular abnormalities, psychological illness and endometrial cancer. Data are also emerging about possible long-term health consequences for the offspring of women with PCOS. Their children are more likely to be obese with metabolic disorders and are more likely to develop neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, the long-term health consequences of PCOS for women and their offspring are described, together with a discussion on how they should best be managed.
Serious device-related complications for hypoglossal nerve stimulators are rare, but surgeons should implement a prompt and systematic approach to quickly troubleshoot a non-functioning device.
Records were queried at a single academic tertiary referral centre between January 2019 and June 2021.
The authors present four cases of non-functioning hypoglossal nerve stimulator devices: one case in which migration of the stimulation lead required a revision implantation, one in which the implantable pulse generator was found to be non-functional intra-operatively, one case of an intramuscular sensory lead tract causing pain and one case of implantable pulse generator failure that was probably triggered by implantable cardiac device discharge. In this study, computed tomography imaging was critical to the diagnosis for the first and third cases.
Given the limited complication reporting available for hypoglossal nerve stimulators, these cases highlight management and unique imaging findings. The authors present an algorithm to work-up non-functioning hypoglossal nerve stimulator devices.
More young children are undergoing tonsillectomy, driven by sleep-disordered breathing concerns. Their specific risks are not well described.
A retrospective review was conducted of children aged 1–23 months undergoing tonsillectomy at one institution between 2014 and 2018.
A total of 157 children were identified (3.9 per cent of all tonsillectomies in those aged 0–16 years). Sixty-seven per cent were male. The youngest child was six months old; the smallest weighed 6.9 kg. Sixty-eight (43.3 per cent) had co-morbidities. The indication for tonsillectomy was sleep-disordered breathing in 94 per cent; 29.9 per cent had co-existing airway lesions, mostly laryngomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia. Of the children, 83.4 per cent were managed post-operatively on the surgical ward, and 63.7 per cent stayed 1 night. Emergency paediatric intensive care unit admission occurred in 3.8 per cent. Early respiratory complications and emergency paediatric intensive care unit admission were more common if the patient was medically complex, aged less than 18 months or weighed less than 12 kg. Re-operation for bleeding occurred in 1.9 per cent.
Most children stay 1 night on a general ward, with an uneventful course. Complications are occasionally severe, mostly in the very young and medically complex.
Behavioural modification through increasing nutritional awareness, along with customised dietary changes and education about physical inactivity, for obese snorers and mildly sleep apnoeic patients would help improve their quality of life.
A one-year prospective interventional study enrolled snorers and/or mild obstructive sleep apnoea sufferers, with 36 patients each in the test group and control group. Nutritional information and tailor-made diet charts were given to the 36 test subjects. The severity of snoring and daytime sleepiness after 6 and 12 months was compared using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Thornton Snoring Scale as measures of quality of life.
Subjective scores on both scales showed highly significant improvement (p ≤ 0.001) in the test group. No significant improvement was seen in the control group.
Awareness of basic nutrition and customised diet plans help to achieve behavioural modification in the long term, resulting in a better quality of life.
This study aimed to review the funding policies of clinical commissioning groups for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea in England.
Published policies from a randomly selected sample of 60 out of 190 clinical commissioning groups were reviewed.
Continuous positive airway pressure was funded based on a clinical assessment or according to criteria that were in line with national guidelines in most clinical commissioning groups (49 of 60), with 11 clinical commissioning groups offering no policy. Mandibular advancement devices, tonsillectomy and nasal surgery were funded based on a clinical assessment or certain criteria in 16, 25 and 16 clinical commissioning groups, respectively. In contrast, only one clinical commissioning group provided funding for soft palate, tongue base or mandibular surgery. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation was not mentioned in any clinical commissioning group's policy.
Although most clinical commissioning groups provide funding for the use of continuous positive airway pressure, the availability of funding for other obstructive sleep apnoea treatment modalities is heterogeneous, leaving continuous positive airway pressure intolerant patients with limited therapeutic options in some regions.
To describe the utility of sleep nasendoscopy in determining the level of upper airway obstruction compared to microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy.
A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary level paediatric hospital. Patients clinically diagnosed with upper airway obstruction warranting surgical intervention (i.e. with obstructive sleep apnoea or laryngomalacia) were included. These patients underwent sleep nasendoscopy in the anaesthetic room; microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy was subsequently performed and findings were compared.
Twenty-seven patients were included in the study. Sleep nasendoscopy was able to induce stridor or stertor, and to detect obstruction at the level of palate and pharynx, including tongue base collapse, that was not observed with microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy. Only 47 per cent of patients who had prolapse or indrawing of arytenoids on sleep nasendoscopy had similar findings on microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy. However, microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy was better in diagnosing shortened aryepiglottic folds.
This study demonstrates the utility of sleep nasendoscopy in determining the level and severity of obstruction by mimicking physiological sleep dynamics of the upper airway.
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) worsens over pregnancy, and obstructive sleep apnea is associated with serious maternal complications. Intrauterine exposures that provoke insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, or oxidative stress may have long-term offspring health consequences. In obesity, worsening maternal SDB appears to be an exposure that increases the risk for both small- or large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA, respectively), suggesting distinct outcomes linked to a common maternal phenotype. The aim of this paper is to systematically review and link data from both mechanistic rodent models and descriptive human studies to characterize the impact of maternal SDB on fetal development. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL (01/2000–09/2019). Data from rodent (9 studies) and human models (48 studies, 5 meta-analyses) were included and reviewed using PRISMA guidelines. Evidence from rodent models suggests that intermittent maternal hypoxia results in mixed changes in birth weight (BW) followed by accelerated postnatal growth, while maternal sleep fragmentation results in normal BW followed by later metabolic derangement. Human studies support that maternal SDB is associated with both SGA and LGA, both of which may predispose offspring to later obesity. Evidence also suggests a link between SDB, inflammation, and oxidative stress that may impact maternal metabolism and/or placental function. SDB is common in pregnancy and affects fetal growth and development. Given that SDB has significant potential to adversely influence the intrauterine metabolic environment, larger, prospective studies in humans are urgently needed to fully elucidate the effects of this exposure on offspring metabolic risk.
To evaluate the upper airway morphology changes associated with ageing in adult Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
A total of 124 male patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea by overnight polysomnography, who underwent upper airway computed tomography, were enrolled. The linear dimensions, cross-sectional area and volume of the upper airway region and the surrounding bony frame were measured. The association between ageing and upper airway morphology was analysed.
Soft palate length, minimum cross-sectional area of the retroglossal region, lateral dimensions at the minimum cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions, nasopharyngeal volume, and average cross-sectional area of the nasopharyngeal region were found to significantly increase with ageing in all patients, while the upper airway shape flattened with ageing. The volume of the retropalatal region increased with ageing among the patients with a body mass index of less than 24 kg/m2. The volume of parapharyngeal fat pad increased with ageing among patients with a body mass index greater than 28 kg/m2.
A number of dimensional, cross-sectional and volumetric parameters of the pharynx increased with age, indicating that non-anatomical factors may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea in aged patients.
Defining the risk factors for Eustachian tube dysfunction can facilitate its prevention. It is hypothesised that Eustachian tube dysfunction as measured by the Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire-7 is associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.
The questionnaire was systematically translated into Hebrew and validated in the accepted manner. This questionnaire was applied to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients before and after expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty, in pre-set time intervals. The results were compared to those of controls from the general population.
Thirty-one patients (males:females = 19:12) were enrolled in the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome group. Mean age was 43 years (range, 31–55 years) and mean body mass index was 28 kg/m2 (range, 27–30 kg/m2). Median apnoea-hypopnea index (pre-operatively) was 34 events per hour. The questionnaire scores in expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty candidates were significantly worse than in controls (p < 0.001). Expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty did not change Eustachian tube function in the long term, but was associated with additional self-limiting Eustachian tube dysfunction in the first two post-operative months.
Eustachian tube dysfunction is significantly worse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome compared to controls. Expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty is not associated with Eustachian tube function improvement.
Wake-up stroke (WUS) or ischemic stroke occurring during sleep accounts for 14%–29.6% of all ischemic strokes. Management of WUS is complicated by its narrow therapeutic time window and attributable risk factors, which can affect the safety and efficacy of administering intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This manuscript will review risk factors of WUS, with a focus on obstructive sleep apnea, potential mechanisms of WUS, and evaluate studies assessing safety and efficacy of IV t-PA treatment in WUS patients guided by neuroimaging to estimate time of symptom onset. The authors used PubMed (1966 to March 2018) to search for the term “Wake-Up Stroke” cross-referenced with “pathophysiology,” ‘‘pathogenesis,” “pathology,” “magnetic resonance imaging,” “obstructive sleep apnea,” or “treatment.” English language Papers were reviewed. Also reviewed were pertinent papers from the reference list of the above-matched manuscripts. Studies that focused only on acute Strokes with known-onset of symptoms were not reviewed. Literature showed several potential risk factors associated with increased risk of WUS. Although the onset of WUS is unknown, a few studies investigated the potential benefit of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in estimating the age of onset which encouraged conducting clinical trials assessing the efficacy of MRI-guided thrombolytic therapy in WUS.
Barbed pharyngoplasty aims to reduce lateral retropalatal obstruction by pulling up the soft palate anterolaterally. However, barbed pharyngoplasty can be less efficient in some cases of obstructive sleep apnoea, especially in the presence of an elongated uvula with redundant tissues over it. This paper describes an attempt to overcome this drawback by modifying barbed pharyngoplasty, using a single continuous suture technique.
Thirty-four patients were assigned to two groups based on the surgical procedure performed. Those with an elongated uvula were treated with modified barbed pharyngoplasty (n = 17); the others were treated with barbed pharyngoplasty (n = 17). Pre- and post-operative quality of life questionnaires, and questionnaires concerning diet, pain and return to activity, were completed. Pre- and post-operative polysomnography was performed as an objective measurement.
There was no significant difference between barbed pharyngoplasty and modified barbed pharyngoplasty in terms of outcomes. However, reductions in the apnoea/hypopnea index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and snoring visual analogue scale scores were greater in the modified barbed pharyngoplasty group.
Modified barbed pharyngoplasty is a safe and feasible method, and eliminates the need for surgical resection of the redundant soft tissues around the uvula while lifting up the uvula base.
Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common chronic sleep disorder characterised by collapse of the upper airway during sleep. The nasal airway forms a significant part of the upper airway and any obstruction is thought to have an impact on obstructive sleep apnoea. A systematic review was performed to determine the role of rhinological surgical interventions in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea.
A systematic review of current literature was undertaken; studies were included if they involved comparison of a non-surgical and/or non-rhinological surgical intervention with a rhinological surgical intervention for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea.
Sixteen studies met the selection criteria. The pooled data suggest that there are reductions in the apnoea/hypopnea index and respiratory disturbance index following nasal surgery. However, the current body of studies is too heterogeneous for statistically significant meta-analysis to be conducted.
Nasal surgery may have limited benefit for a subset of patients based on current evidence.
The benefit of mandibular advancement devices in patients with sleep-disordered breathing and as a potential option for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is well recognised. Their use in the setting of epilepsy or other seizure disorders is typically contraindicated.
A 48-year-old patient with a history of poorly controlled epilepsy and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was referred for ENT review for possible tracheostomy. The patient was wheelchair-bound with 24-hour continuous positive airway pressure, but sleep studies demonstrated persistent, severe episodes of apnoea and notable sleep disturbance. Sleep nasendoscopy demonstrated marked improvement on capnography with the laryngeal mask airway in situ, and this was maintained with mandibular advancement using jaw thrust following removal of the laryngeal mask airway. A mandibular advancement device was subsequently trialled; this had no subjective benefit for the patient, but the seizures resolved and control of apnoea was achieved with the combination of a mandibular advancement device and continuous positive airway pressure.
This paper highlights a novel application of mandibular advancement devices, used in combination with continuous positive airway pressure, which resulted in complete resolution of sleep deprivation and apnoea-induced epileptic events.
Multimorbidity is common but little is known about its relationship with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress Study participants underwent polysomnography. Chronic diseases (CDs) were determined by biomedical measurement (diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity), or self-report (depression, asthma, cardiovascular disease, arthritis). Associations between CD count, multimorbidity, apnea-hyponea index (AHI) and OSA severity and quality-of-life (QoL; mental & physical component scores), were determined using multinomial regression analyses, after adjustment for age.
Of the 743 men participating in the study, overall 58% had multimorbidity (2+ CDs), and 52% had OSA (11% severe). About 70% of those with multimorbidity had undiagnosed OSA. Multimorbidity was associated with AHI and undiagnosed OSA. Elevated CD count was associated with higher AHI value and increased OSA severity.
We demonstrate an independent association between the presence of OSA and multimorbidity in this representative sample of community-based men. This effect was strongest in men with moderate to severe OSA and three or more CDs, and appeared to produce a greater reduction in QoL when both conditions were present together.
This study aimed to screen young adults for sleep-disordered breathing, and compare those with high and low risk for sleep-disordered breathing.
A survey based on the Berlin questionnaire was completed by 330 university students, and the results were used to divide them into sleep-disordered breathing positive and sleep-disordered breathing negative groups. A representative group was selected from each cohort (positive group, n = 16; negative group, n = 21), and assessed with sleep study, ENT examination, the Nose Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
Sleep-disordered breathing prevalence was 11.2 per cent in the questionnaire and 24 per cent according to the sleep study. The sleep-disordered breathing positive and negative groups significantly differed in terms of coexisting sleep-disordered breathing symptoms. There were no significant differences between the positive and negative groups with regard to sleep study parameters (apnoea/hypopnoea index, respiratory disturbance index, oxygen desaturation index, snoring intensity) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
Subjective and objective diagnostic tools revealed that sleep-disordered breathing is a common problem among young adults.
To investigate the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance – T helper 1/T helper 2 ratios – in obstructive sleep apnoea patients, before and after treatment.
Twenty-eight patients received continuous positive airway pressure treatment and 29 patients who could not tolerate continuous positive airway pressure were scheduled for surgery. Serum levels of interleukins 2, 4 and 10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon gamma were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays before and three months after treatment.
The success rate of surgical treatment was 65.5 per cent. Mean compliance for the continuous positive airway pressure group was 40.9 per cent. The apnoea/hypopnoea index significantly decreased in both groups after treatment (p < 0.001). The interferon gamma/interleukin-4 ratio decreased following surgical treatment (p = 0.014), and the interleukin-2/interleukin-4 ratio decreased after treatment in 57 patients in the overall cohort (p = 0.032).
After treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea, some ratios reflecting T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine balance favoured the T helper 2 direction, suggesting a shift to an anti-inflammatory state. Successful surgery and better continuous positive airway pressure compliance can help ameliorate inflammation in obstructive sleep apnoea patients, which may reduce associated morbidities.