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To examine the potential effect on Fe intake of 7–8 months old infants if pre-packaged baby foods (PBF) were used as the sole source of complementary foods.
Based on the 7-d recommended feeding plan for 7–8 months old infants in Hong Kong (moderate Fe-fortified rice cereal with home-cooked meals), twenty-four modelling scenarios were created which comprised of two milk use modes (breastmilk v. infant formula), three modes of rice cereal use (no-rice cereal; non-Fe-fortified rice cereal and Fe-fortified rice cereal) and four baby foods usage modes (home-cooked meals; low-Fe PBF only; high-Fe PBF only and mixed PBF). The PBF were randomly selected in each of the models and substituted the original meals/snacks. The average daily Fe intakes of the modelled meal plans were compared with the Chinese estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for Fe.
In general, the infant-formula-based complementary feeding pattern (CFP) had higher average daily Fe intake when compared with breastmilk-based CFP. The Fe intakes of all scenarios under the breastmilk-based CFP were below the RNI and EAR, except for the fortified rice cereal meal plans with high-Fe or mixed PBF. For infant-formula-based CFP, the Fe intakes were close to or above the RNI regardless of types of PBF or rice cereal used.
The inclusion of fortified rice cereal was important in maintaining adequate Fe intake for infants, especially for breast-fed infants. The replacement of home-cooked meals by low-Fe PBF could potentially put infants at risk of Fe deficiency.
We introduce the blueprint of the Ontogenesis Model of the L2 Lexical Representation (OM) that focuses on the development of lexical representations. The OM has three dimensions: linguistic domains (phonological, orthographic, and semantic), mappings between domains, and networks of lexical representations. The model assumes that fuzziness is a pervasive property of the L2 lexicon: most L2 lexical representations are low resolution and the ontogenetic curve of their development does not reach the optimum (i.e., the ultimate stage of their attainment with optimal encoding) in one or more dimensions. We review the findings on lexical processing and vocabulary training to show that the OM has a potential to provide an interpretation for the results that have been treated separately and to move us forward in building a comprehensive model of L2 lexical acquisition and processing.
With the characteristics of full autonomy and no accumulated errors, polarisation navigation shows tremendous prospects in underwater scenarios. In this paper, inspired by the polarisation vision of aquatic organisms, a novel point-source polarisation sensor with high spectral adaptability (400 nm–760 nm) is designed for underwater orientation. To enhance the environmental applicability of the underwater polarisation sensor, a novel sensor model based on the underwater light intensity attenuation coefficient and optical coupling coefficient is established. In addition, concerned with the influence of light intensity uncertainty on sensor performance underwater, an antagonistic polarisation algorithm is adopted for the first time, to improve the accuracy of angle of polarisation and degree of polarisation in the low signal-to-noise ratio environment underwater. Finally, indoor and outdoor experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed polarisation sensor. The results show that the designed point-source polarisation sensor can acquire polarised light and be used for heading determination underwater.
While environmental reconstruction has been a staple in the study of past societies, underused tools from ecology, such as food webs, can enable a more thorough understanding of the human place within ecosystems. Drawing on two recent studies, this article describes the types of questions that can be addressed using this approach. The authors demonstrate how food webs that include archaeological data can provide insights into the effects of extinctions, invasion and ecosystem change on communities, and can address key questions of the structure and dynamics of past societies. This article highlights examples of best practice for the compilation of archaeo-ecological networks, and suggest ways of developing a synthetic understanding of past environments.
Given the high disease burden associated with the low intake of whole grains, modelling studies that estimate the impact of dietary strategies to increase more healthful grain foods consumption are essential to inform evidence-based and culturally specific policies. The current study investigated the potential nutritional impact of replacing staple grain foods with more healthful options.
Based on the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional, population-based study, we modelled the substitution of white rice and white bread with brown rice and whole-wheat bread. Outcomes included changes in more healthful grain foods, energy and nutrient intakes.
Urban area of São Paulo, Brazil.
Participants aged over 12 years who completed a semi-structured questionnaire and one 24-h recall (n 1741).
The substitution of all white rice and white bread with brown rice and whole-wheat bread, respectively, would result in more than 5 % increases in Zn (+9·1 %), Ca (+9·3 %), vitamin E (+18·8 %), dietary fibre (+27·0 %) and Mg (+52·9 %) intake, while more than a 5 % decrease would be seen for total carbohydrate (–6·1 %), folate (–6·6 %), available carbohydrate (–8·5 %), Fe (–8·6 %), vitamin B6 (–12·5 %), vitamin B2 (–17·4 %), and vitamin B1 (–20·7 %). A substantial increase in the amount of more healthful grain foods consumed would be seen (10 g/d to 220 g/d, or from 4 % to 69 % of total grain intake).
Replacing white rice and white bread with their whole-grain versions has the potential to improve diet quality, suggesting they are prime targets for policy actions aiming at increasing intake of more healthful grain foods.
This paper describes a camera simulation framework for validating machine vision algorithms under general airborne camera imperfections. Lens distortion, image delay, rolling shutter, motion blur, interlacing, vignetting, image noise, and light level are modelled. This is the first simulation that considers all temporal distortions jointly, along with static lens distortions in an online manner. Several innovations are proposed including a motion tracking system allowing the camera to follow the flight log with eligible derivatives. A reverse pipeline, relating each pixel in the output image to pixels in the ideal input image, is developed. It is shown that the inverse lens distortion model and the inverse temporal distortion models are decoupled in this way. A short-time pixel displacement model is proposed to solve for temporal distortions (i.e. delay, rolling shutter, motion blur, and interlacing). Evaluation is done by several means including regenerating an airborne dataset, regenerating the camera path on a calibration pattern, and evaluating the ability of the time displacement model to predict other frames. Qualitative evaluations are also made.
Between 1998 and 2008, 450 inhumation burials of the fifth to eighth centuries ad were excavated in four separate but adjacent burial grounds within RAF Lakenheath airbase in Suffolk. Study of the evidence has been based on the typology of the national chronological framework of sixth- and seventh-century graves and grave goods published in 2013, and correlated also with a related East Anglian regional scheme. Fifty high-precision radiocarbon dates allow for thorough evaluation of the scope for applying the phase-structure and estimated date-boundaries of the national framework to this one large site. The results can be held to reproduce the core sequence of the national framework, albeit with necessary modifications that provide greater insights into the processes used to generate models of the data, besides significant modifications to the perceived date-ranges of certain artefact-types. The results have also been markedly influenced (and apparently improved) by a new standard calibration curve, IntCal20, launched in August 2020. This study thus suggests key agenda for further productive research into this contextually vital body of information.
This chapter expands on the principles of planning for teaching introduced in Chapter 7. Chapters 7 and 8 link together to interrogate what needs to be considered in planning for effective teaching and learning. Within this chapter, you will consider the processes and preparation undertaken by Hannah (a secondary pre-service teacher) and Matthew (a primary pre-service teacher) as they consider the learning needs of their students, select a suitable lesson plan template to guide their thinking, enact their lessons and reflect on practice. Hannah and Matthew are passionate and inspired pre-service teachers focused on making a commitment to challenge themselves and their learners to achieve success (Hattie, 2011). Factors related to effective teaching and learning, such as sound curriculum, knowing your students, selecting a range of teaching strategies, differentiation and embedding assessment to inform practice, are all considered within this chapter.
Amplifying the testing capacity and making better use of testing resources is a crucial measure when fighting any pandemic. A pooled testing strategy for SARS-CoV-2 has theoretically been shown to increase the testing capacity of a country, especially when applied in low prevalence settings. Experimental studies have shown that the sensitivity of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is not affected when implemented in small groups. Previous models estimated the optimum group size as a function of the historical prevalence; however, this implies a homogeneous distribution of the disease within the population. This study aimed to explore whether separating individuals by age groups when pooling samples results in any further savings on test kits or affects the optimum group size estimation compared to Dorfman's pooling, based on historical prevalence. For this evaluation, age groups of interest were defined as 0–19 years, 20–59 years and over 60 years old. Generalisation of Dorfman's pooling was performed by adding statistical weight to the age groups based on the number of confirmed cases and tests performed in the segment. The findings showed that when the pooling samples are based on age groups, there is a decrease in the number of tests per subject needed to diagnose one subject. Although this decrease is minuscule, it might account for considerable savings when applied on a large scale. In addition, the savings are considerably higher in settings where there is a high standard deviation among the positivity rate of the age segments of the general population.
It is widely accepted that it counts for a metaphysical theory when the theory is in accord with common sense and against a metaphysical theory when the theory clashes with common sense. It is unclear, however, why this should be the case. When engaging in metaphysics, why should we give common sense any weight? This chapter maintains that it is only against the backdrop of a particular metametaphysical stance that questions about metaphysical best practices become tractable. From the perspective of a metaphysics-as-modelling approach, common sense ought to play a significant, though defeasible, role in metaphysical theorizing. According with common sense is one of a number of theoretical virtues that metaphysicians should strive for. Nevertheless, it is important for the metaphysician to be cautious when appealing to common sense. She should distinguish what actually falls within the bounds of common sense as such from what a particular researcher happens to find intuitive. Furthermore, our best scientific theories may undercut the evidence provided by common sense. Finally, the metaphysician should attend to the context in which she invokes common sense. For some topics of inquiry, common sense ought to play a more expansive role in our metaphysical theorizing than for others.
Primates are one of the most threatened groups of mammals. Understanding their patterns of population occurrence and abundance, especially in response to threats, is critical for informing conservation action. The crested black macaque Macaca nigra is the only Critically Endangered species of Sulawesi's seven endemic macaques. Little is known about its distribution or its response to deforestation and hunting. We conducted a camera-trap survey across the entire species range using an occupancy-based analytical approach to (1) establish the first range-wide baseline of occurrence, (2) investigate how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence occurrence, (3) identify priority conservation subpopulations, and (4) test the efficacy of the sampling and analytical protocol for temporal monitoring of M. nigra using occupancy as the state variable. From 9,753 camera-trap days, M. nigra was detected on 473 days at 77 of the 111 camera locations. Species occupancy was 0.66 and highest inside protected areas and closed canopy forest. We identified eight distinct subpopulations, based on distribution and forest fragment size. To inform future monitoring, we used a power analysis to determine if our effort would allow us to detect inter-annual occupancy declines of 10%, and found that 90 camera locations surveyed for 3 months (8,100 camera days) across three consecutive seasons is the effort required to detect such change with 80% certainty. Our study underscores the importance of well-managed protected areas and intact forests for the long-term survival of the crested black macaque, and tests the effectiveness of camera traps to monitor primates at the landscape scale.
The time dispersion effect affects the accuracy of solar time difference of arrival (TDOA) navigation. In this celestial autonomous navigation, Mars's moons are reflecting celestial bodies, and their shape affects the TDOA dispersion model. In the modelling process of traditional methods, the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos) are regarded as points, which causes the model to be inaccurate. In order to solve these problems, we simplified the Mars's moons into ellipsoids or solid diamonds, and then established a TDOA model with the nonspherical Mars's moons as reflecting celestial bodies through differential geometry and geometric optics. Finally, we analysed the time dispersion caused by the Mars's moons in theory. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the point model error is 5·66 km, and the 3D model error is within 70 m. Thus, the 3D TDOA model established in this paper is meaningful. In addition, the Sun–Mars-moons–spacecraft angle, solar flare, three-axis length, and attitude of the Mars's moons have a great effect on the dispersion profile, while the Mars's moons-to-spacecraft distance has a small effect.
With the uncertain physical and mental health implications of COVID-19 infection, companies have taken a myriad of actions that aim to reduce the risk of employees contracting the virus, with most grounded in reducing or eliminating in-person interactions. Our preliminary analysis indicates that while there is some data to support modelling absenteeism, there are gaps in the available evidence, requiring the use of assumptions that limit precision and efficacy for decision support. Improved data on time-to-recovery after hospitalization, absenteeism due to family or other household member illness, and mental health’s impact on returning to work will support the development of more robust absenteeism models and analytical approaches.
This study aimed to dynamically model and quantify expected health effects of four scenarios: (i) a reference scenario with an unchanged fruit and vegetable intake, (ii) the removal of value-added tax (VAT) on fruits and vegetables, (iii) the implementation of a 20 % subsidy on fruits and vegetables and (iv) a guideline scenario with a population-wide fruit and vegetable intake of five portions per day.
Baseline fruit and vegetable intake data was derived from the GEDA 2012 study. We used price elasticities for Germany to calculate the change in fruit and vegetable consumption under the zero VAT and the 20 % subsidy scenario. All scenarios were modelled over a 10-year projection period using DYNAMO-HIA.
A projected real-life population.
Cumulated over the 10-year projection period, an estimated 4450 incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD) cases, 7010 stroke cases and 13 960 deaths would be prevented under the zero VAT scenario. Under the 20 % subsidy scenario, 17 990 incident IHD cases, 27 390 stroke cases and 54 880 deaths would be averted. Although this corresponds to only a fraction of the incidents that would occur under the reference scenario, the averted cases translate to 2 % (for the zero VAT scenario) and 9 % (for the 20 % subsidy scenario) of IHD, stroke and death cases that would be prevented if the whole population consumed the recommended five portions of fruits and vegetables per day.
Fiscal policies on fruits and vegetables provide a non-negligible step towards the removal of the health burden induced by low fruit and vegetable intake.
This paper deals with modelling the performance of an air transport network operated by existing subsonic and the prospective supersonic commercial aircraft. Analytical models of indicators of the infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, and social performance of the network relevant for the main actors/stakeholders involved are developed. The models are applied to the given long-haul air route network exclusively operated by subsonic and supersonic aircraft according to the specified “what-if” scenarios.
The results from application of the models indicate that supersonic flights powered by LH2 (Liquid Hydrogen) could be more feasible than their subsonic counterparts powered by Jet A fuel, in terms of about three times higher technical productivity, 46% smaller size of the required fleet given the frequency of a single flight per day, 20% lower sum of the aircraft/airline operational, air passenger time, and considered external costs, up to two times higher overall social-economic feasibility, and 94% greater savings in contribution to global warming and climate change. These flights could be less feasible in terms of about 70-85% higher aircraft/airline operational costs, 70% and 19% higher fuel consumption and emissions of Green House Gases, respectively, and 6-13% higher noise compared to the specified acceptable levels.
Precision feeding using real-time models to estimate daily tailored diets can potentially increase nutrient utilization efficiency. However, to improve the estimation of amino acid requirements for growing–finishing pigs, it is necessary to accurately estimate the real-time body protein (BP) mass. The aim of this study was to predict individual BP over time in order to obtain individual daily protein content of the gain (i.e., protein deposition/daily gain, PD/DG) to be integrated into a real-time model used for precision feeding. Two databases were used in this study: one for the development of the equations for the model and the other for model evaluation. For the equations, data from 79 barrows (25 to 144 kg BW) were used to estimate the parameters for a Gompertz function and a mixed linear-quadratic regression. Individual BP predictions obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry were regressed as a function of BW. Individual pig BP estimates were obtained by linear-quadratic regression using the MIXED procedure of SAS, considering pig measurements repeated in time. Individual Gompertz curves were obtained using the NLMIXED procedure of SAS. Both procedures generate an average or a general model, which was assessed for accuracy with the database used to generate the equations. Coefficients of concordance and determination were both 0.99, and the RMSE was 0.21 kg for the linear-quadratic regression. The Gompertz curve coefficients of concordance and determination were both 0.99, and the RMSE was 0.36 kg. In sequence, the linear-quadratic regression and Gompertz curve were evaluated in an independent data set (488 observations; 21 to 126 kg BW). The linear-quadratic regression to predict BP mass was accurate (mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) = 2.5%; bias = 0.03); the Gompertz model performed worse (MAPE = 3.9%; bias = 0.04) than the linear-quadratic regression. When using the derivative of these equations to predict PD/DG, the linear-quadratic regression was more accurate (MAPE = 4.8%, bias = 0.17%) compared to the Gompertz (MAPE = 10.6%, bias = −0.99%) mainly due to the linear decrease in PD/DG in the observed data. Further analysis using individual pig data showed that the goodness of fit of PD/DG curve depends on the individual shape of the growth curve, with either the Gompertz or the linear-quadratic regression being more accurate for specific individuals. Therefore, both approaches are provided to allow end users to select the model that best fits their needs. The proposed update of the empirical component of the original model, using either linear-quadratic regression or the Gompertz function, is able to predict BP in real-time with good accuracy.
Similitude theory helps engineers to investigate system properties and behaviour with scaling methods. The application of such methods reduces the time for product development and production of prototypes. With increasing component size, the impact of size effects and nonlinear phenomena becomes more important in reduced scale model testing. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the scaling methods and their applicability with regard to size effects and nonlinear phenomena as well as a procedure to support the selection of a suitable method for the scaling task of structures.
As the complexity of the systems increases, so does the complexity of designing a suitable engineering IT architecture. Challenges reach from the definition of required and consistent functionalities and interfaces to the evaluation, which combination of IT tools fulfils the required functionality, usability and interoperability in the best way. Thus, we provide a procedure, methodology and modelling support for the definition of functional and logical engineering IT architectures and their holistic evaluation. The approach is part of an overall procedure and demonstrated in an example.
A Product Service System of Systems (PSSoS) is a set of products, services, infrastructure, and a network where its constituent elements exhibit operational and managerial independence. As such, a PSSoS shows PSS characteristics of heterogeneity and evolvability and SoS characteristics of emergence and diversity. Neither existing PSS nor SoS development approaches fully address these characteristics. Thus, PSSoS development raises new challenges. In this paper, we propose a PSSoS meta-model that integrates PSS and SoS key concepts, to provide a basis for future PSSoS development methods.
In this paper, a method is presented, that supports the developer in the development of hybrid electrical vehicle drivetrains. The developer gets support in the early stage of product generation engineering, beginning with the definition of the system of objectives, via the automated synthesis and investigation of the drivetrain topologies, ending with a topology ranking, which is related to the system of objectives, and a similarity analysis. As the method is implemented in a tool, the results of the tool and its usability are investigated within two comprehensive descriptive studies.