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This article analyzes the efficacy of border enforcement against smuggling. We argue that walls, fences, patrols, and other efforts to secure porous borders can reduce smuggling, but only in the absence of collusion between smugglers and state agents at official border crossings. When such corruption occurs, border enforcement merely diverts smuggling flows without reducing their overall volume. We also identify the conditions under which corruption occurs and characterize border enforcement as a sorting mechanism that allows high-skilled smugglers to forge alternative border-crossing routes while deterring low-skilled smugglers or driving them to bribe local border agents. Combining a formal model and an archival case study of opium smuggling in Southeast Asia, we demonstrate that border enforcement has conditional effects on the routes and volumes of smuggling, depending on the nature of interactions between smugglers and border agents. By drawing attention to the technological and organizational aspects of smuggling, this article brings scholarship on criminal governance into the study of international relations, and contributes to debates on the effects of border enforcement and border politics more generally.
Accumulating shocks and long-term stresses, such as trade conflicts, climate change and deteriorating public trust in agricultural practices have raised concerns about the resilience of Europe’s diverse farming systems. The SURE-Farm approach aims to systematically assess the resilience capacities of farming systems, i.e. regional constellations of farms and other actors that provide a range of private and public goods, using local resources and traded inputs. This chapter introduces the key concepts and outlines the SURE-Farm approach to assess the resilience challenges and capacities of farming systems. It sets the scene for the empirical analyses and synthesizing assessments presented in the following chapters.
The aim of the study is (1) to assess the extent to which omnivores are willing to stop or reduce their consumption of red and processed meat in response to evidence-based information regarding the possible reduction of cancer mortality and incidence achieved by dietary modification; (2) to identify socio-demographic categories associated with higher willingness to change meat consumption and (3) to understand the motives facilitating and hindering such a change.
During an initial computer-assisted web interview, respondents were presented with scenarios containing the estimates of the absolute risk reduction in overall cancer incidence and mortality tailored to their declared level of red and processed meat consumption. Respondents were asked whether they would stop or reduce their average meat consumption based on the information provided. Their dietary choices were assessed at 6-month follow-up. Additionally, we conducted semi-structured interviews to better understand the rationale for dietary practices and the perception of health information.
The study was conducted among students and staff of three universities in Krakow, Poland.
Most of the 513 respondents were unwilling to change their consumption habits. We found gender to be a significant predictor of the willingness. Finally, we identified four themes reflecting key motives that determined meat consumption preferences: the importance of taste and texture, health consciousness, the habitual nature of cooking and persistence of omnivorous habits.
When faced with health information about the uncertain reduction in the risk of cancer mortality and incidence, the vast majority of study participants were unwilling to introduce changes in their consumption habits.
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of the Market to MyPlate (M2MP) program on participants’ reported farmers’ market (FM) attitudes and shopping behaviours, frequency of serving vegetables to their families, food resource management behaviours and food security. A secondary objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to shopping at FM and food waste reduction techniques used by low-income families.
The current study used a mixed methods evaluation embedded within a cluster randomised trial of the M2MP intervention.
The 7-week M2MP program was delivered at Extension offices and community centres in central Illinois.
Participants included 120 adults and their families. Class cohorts were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) nutrition education and cooking classes with produce allocations (PAE, n 39); (2) nutrition education and cooking classes only (EO, n 36) or (3) control group (n 45).
Compared with control participants, PAE participants were significantly more likely to report shopping at FM (P = 0·029) and reported serving more vegetables to their families (P = 0·010) (EO participants did not differ from the control group on any outcomes). There were no differences between conditions in survey-based measures of food security or food resource management behaviours. Interview results describe facilitators and barriers to shopping at FM and a variety of food waste reduction techniques (including food placement and food resource management).
These findings suggest that fresh produce provision coupled with nutrition and culinary education can positively impact shopping and dietary behaviours.
We explore whether including cultural reforms in an intra-state peace accord facilitates its success. We distinguish between accommodationist and integrationist cultural provisions and employ a mixed research method combining negative binomial regression on a data set of all intra-state political agreements concluded between 1989 and 2017, and an in-depth analysis of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement for Northern Ireland. We recognize the important reassuring effect of accommodationist cultural reforms in separatist conflicts. However, we also find that they have an important and hitherto overlooked reputational effect across all conflict types. By enhancing the reputation of negotiating leaders, accommodationist cultural provisions contribute to ending violence by preventing leadership challenges, rebel fragmentation and remobilization across all civil conflicts. By the same logic, and despite the overwhelming emphasis of peace agreements on integrationist cultural initiatives, integrationist cultural reforms problematize leaders' ability to commit to pacts and to ensure compliance among their rank and file.
Conventional theories of ethnic politics argue that political entrepreneurs form ethnic parties where there is ethnic diversity. Yet empirical research finds that diversity is a weak predictor for the success of ethnic parties. When does ethnicity become a major element of party competition? Scholars have explained the emergence of an ethnic dimension in party systems as the result of institutions, mass organizations, and elite initiatives. But these factors can evolve in response to an emerging ethnic coalition of voters. The author advances a new theory: ethnic cleavages emerge when voters seek to form a parliamentary opposition to government policies that create grievances along ethnic identities. The theory is tested on rare cases of government policies in Prussia between 1848 and 1874 that aggrieved Catholics but were not based on existing policies or initiated by entrepreneurs to encourage ethnic competition. Using process tracing, case comparisons, and statistical analysis of electoral returns, the author shows that Catholics voted together when aggrieved by policies, regardless of the actions of political entrepreneurs. In contrast, when policies were neutral to Catholics, the Catholic party dissolved.
Implicitly or explicitly, sequence analysis is at the heart of research on routine dynamics. Sequence analysis takes many forms in many different disciplines, because sequence is central to temporality, process, language, and narrative. In this chapter, we focus on sequence analysis in routine dynamics research. The goal of this chapter is to help researchers use sequence analysis in their research on routine dynamics. Hence, the chapter reviews prior literature that has used sequence analysis, it shows how to carry out sequence analysis and it provides implications as well as an agenda for future research.
We introduce cognitive-affective maps (CAMs) as a novel tool to assess individual experiences and belief systems. CAMs were first presented by the cognitive scientist and philosopher Paul Thagard as a graphical representation of a mental network, visualizing attitudes, thoughts, and affective connotations toward the topic of interest. While CAMs were originally used primarily to visualize existing data, the recent release of the new software tool Valence has facilitated the applicability of CAMs for empirical data collection. In this article, we explain the concept and the theoretical background of CAMs. We exemplify how CAMs can be applied in research practice, including different options for analysis. We propose CAMs as a user-friendly and versatile methodological bridge between qualitative and quantitative research approaches and encourage incorporating the method into studies to access and visualize human attitudes and experience.
It significantly strengthens the inferences drawn based on QCA results if we connect these results to theoretical knowledge and within-case evidence before, during, and after the analysis. In this chapter, we discuss two prominent tools of doing so after the analytic moment – set-theoretic theory evaluation and set-theoretic multi-method research (SMMR) – and demonstrate their implementation within R. Theory evaluation is a form of re-assessing theoretical hunches based on the results generated by QCA. While it can also be used for the identification of interesting cases for follow-up case studies, this task is better achieved with set-theoretic multi-method research. The latter is a tool for identifying typical and deviant cases for comparative or single within-case analysis.
- Basic understanding of what theory-evaluation and set-theoretic multimethod research are.
- Familiarity with how to apply formal set-theoretic theory evaluation for re-assessing theoretical hunches based on the results generated by QCA.
- Familiarity with how to use set-theoretic multi-method research (SMMR) for the identification of cases for follow-up case studies after QCA.
- Ability to implement theory evaluation and SMMR in R.
Chapter 2 presents the three main research methods – observation, survey (interviews and questionnaires), and experiment. For each method, we outline a range of subtypes, including the consequences of various methodological decisions when methods have to be chosen in accordance with a specific research context. The chapter ends with short exercises which serve to gain experience with the different methods and recommendations for further reading.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Market to MyPlate (M2MP) program on fruit and vegetable consumption and cooking behaviours. Secondary objectives were to examine factors that affected participant retention and program completion, and analyse program feedback provided by participants.
This study conducted a mixed methods evaluation embedded within a cluster randomised controlled trial of the M2MP intervention. Adult participants completed a pre- and post-program survey reporting on their fruit and vegetable consumption and cooking behaviours. A subsample participated in structured interviews, providing feedback about M2MP and the impact of the program.
Seven weekly classes took place in community centres and extension offices in central Illinois.
120 adults and their families participated. Class cohorts were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) nutrition education and cooking classes with produce allocations (PAE, n 39); (2) nutrition education and cooking classes only (EO, n 36) or (3) control group (n 45).
Compared to control, PAE participants reported larger increases from pre- to post-intervention in fruit (P = 0·001) and vegetable consumption (P = 0·002), with no differences in cooking frequency. Interview analyses identified key themes in behaviour changes due to M2MP, including reported increases in dietary variety, cooking self-efficacy and children’s participation in cooking.
PAE participants who received an intervention that directly increased their access to fresh produce (via produce allocations) increased their reported fruit and vegetable consumption. Though participants’ cooking frequency did not change, interviewees reported increased variety, cooking confidence and family participation in cooking.
There is a paucity of knowledge and understanding of medical error in opioid substitution treatment programmes.
To characterise patient safety incidents involving opioid-substitution treatment with methadone or buprenorphine in community-based care to identify the sources and nature of harm, describe and interpret themes and use this qualitative analysis to identify priorities to focus future improvement work.
We undertook a mixed-methods study examining incidents involving opioid substitution treatment with methadone or buprenorphine in community-based care submitted between 2005 and 2015 from the National Reporting and Learning System, a repository of incident reports from England and Wales. We analysed each report using four frameworks to identify incident type, contributory factors, incident outcome and severity of harm. Analysis involved detailed data coding and iterative generation of data summaries using descriptive statistical and thematic analysis.
2,284 reports were identified. We found that most risks of harm came from failure in one of four processes of care delivery: prescribing opiate-substitution (n=151); supervised dispensing errors (n=248); non-supervised dispensing errors (n=318); and monitoring and communication activities (n=1544). Most incidents resulting in harm involved supervised or non-supervised dispensing (n=91/127, 72%). Staff- (e.g. mistakes, not following protocols) and organisation-related (e.g. poor working conditions or poor continuity of care between services) contributory factors were present for over half of incidents.
We have identified four processes of care delivery and associated contributory factors, which represent potential target areas for healthcare systems worldwide to develop interventions to improve the safe delivery of opioid substitution treatment.
Chapter one introduces the puzzle of charismatic movement survival and proposes the explanation I advance in this book. First, I summarize the conventional wisdom, which suggests that charismatic movements must transform into institutionalized parties. Next, I present my alternative theory – that these movements can survive by sustaining, rather than discarding, their personalistic core – and argue that this new explanation better accounts for the spasmodic, stubbornly personalistic trajectories of Peronism and Chavismo. Subsequently, I introduce the multi-method research design this book uses to analyze the persistence and revival of charismatic movements in Argentina and Venezuela, which incorporates public opinion data, focus groups, and survey experiments with movement followers; interviews with leaders and political analysts; and archival research documenting each movement’s history. I then clarify and discuss the relationship between three concepts central to this book: charisma, populism, and charismatic movement. Finally, I justify my selection of the two cases of Peronism and Chavismo and lay out the organization of the book.
A fundamental question remains unanswered by theorists of civil war—do colonial institutions play a role in creating conditions for insurgency? In contrast to the scholarship on civil wars which tend to focus on proximate causes of rebellion, this book proposes that many insurgencies around the world -- in Colombia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Nigeria -- have origins in deep historical processes. Bringing history back into the study of civil wars can provide a deeper understanding of the roots of some insurgencies. It can also explain the persistence of conflict which theories of civil war that focus on more proximate determinants cannot. I outline the case of the Maoist insurgency in India, which exemplifies how different forms of colonial indirect rule and indirect revenue collection created land and ethnic inequalities that persisted and created the conditions for rebellion. Analysis of this case has lessons for the long-term legacies of historical institutions for insurgency and allows us to address endogeneity and explain recurrence of conflict. I outline several contributions of my theory to the literature on colonial legacies and political violence in South Asia, and describe the mixed methods nested analysis research design in the book.
This introductory chapter unpacks and integrates the study’s key concepts, theories, and fields to situate the analyses laid out in subsequent chapters. It devotes detailed attention to the inextricable and co-constitutive relationships linking societies, environments, and power. It connects Afro-Brazilian cultures with the myths of racial democracy that helped to shape their emergence in the twentieth century. It discusses concepts of cultural landscapes within economies of transatlantic exchange, and links theories of relational power with Afro-Brazilian resistance and environmental change. It frames the colonial plantation and its monocultures as the ongoing socioecological framework of coloniality, in contrast to the complex biodiverse palm oil landscapes of Northeast Brazil. Along the way, the chapter introduces the real and conceptual places involved in the study, and their interrelations, especially Bahia, the Atlantic World, and the African diaspora. It concludes with a discussion of methods and methodology and an outline of the book’s structure.
Thematic analysis of personal networks involves identifying regularities in network structure and content, and grouping networks into types/clusters, to allow for a holistic understanding of social complexities. We propose an inductive approach to network thematic analysis, applying the learnings from qualitative coding, fused mixed-methods analysis, and typology development. It involves framing (changing focus by magnifying, aggregating, and graphical configuration), pattern detection (identification of underlying dimensions, sorting, and clustering), labeling, and triangulating (confirmation and fine-tuning using quantitative and qualitative approaches); applied repeatedly and emergently. We describe this approach utilized in two cases of studying support networks of caregivers.
Amidst persistently high unintended pregnancy rates and lags in contraceptive use, novel methodological approaches may prove useful in investigating sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the Philippines. Systematic Anomalous Case Analysis (SACA) – a mixed-methods technique – was employed to examine predictors of women’s lifetime contraceptive use. First, multivariable, longitudinal Poisson regression models predicted fertility and sexual debut using the 1998–2009 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Surveys (CLHNS), then regression outliers and normative cases were used to identify 48 participants for in-depth interviews (2013–2014) for further examination. Qualitative findings from 24 women highlighted ‘control over life circumstances’ was critical, prompting the addition of two items to the original quantitative models predicting any contraceptive use (n=532). Each of the items, ‘what happens to [them] is their own doing’ and ‘[I] do not [have] enough control over direction life is taking [me]’, significantly and independently predicted any contraceptive use (aOR: 2.37 (CI: 1.24–4.55) and aOR: 0.46 (CI: 0.28–0.77), respectively). The findings demonstrate the utility of SACA to improve the understanding and measurement of sexual and reproductive health outcomes and underscore the importance of integrating psychosocial constructs into existing models of fertility and reproductive behaviour in the Philippines to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes.
Why do some rebel groups undertake costly, burdensome governing projects that undermine their legitimacy, and even trigger resistance and violence that could put their own combatants at risk, while other rebel groups do not? The introductory chapter uses the contemporary cases of three rebel groups’ control of the city Raqqa in Syria to illustrate the empirical puzzle that motivates the book. The chapter then outlines existing works related to rebel governance and details why these approaches cannot explain rebel governance in Raqqa. Specifically, research generally assumes that rebel governance is popular and desirable in ways that confer material and organizational benefits to rebel groups. This chapter then puts forth an alternative conceptualization of rebel governance as varied in terms of its costs and benefits such that rebel leaders make decisions about whether to introduce more or less burdensome governance institutions during war. The chapter then outlines the central argument of the text: that rebel groups’ goals determine their governance strategy. It then describes how the book empirically tests this argument before concluding with a discussion of the importance of the topic.
This chapter begins by outlining the mixed-methods approach used to test the argument. To assess causal mechanisms, it relies on process-tracing techniques drawing on archival and primary data, in addition to secondary sources, within a paired case comparison framework. To assess generalizability, the chapter tests an observable implication of the theory using a large-n quantitative analyses with an original dataset. Next, it delineates the observable implications of theoretical contentions, then it discusses three rival explanations that are simultaneously evaluated in each chapter. The chapter explains the case selection strategy and presents an overview of the results. It concludes with a discussion of data and measures for the key variables.
Prevailing views suggest rebels govern to enhance their organizational capacity, but this book demonstrates that some rebels undertake costly governance projects that can imperil their cadres during war. The origins for this choice began with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the Chinese Civil War. The CCP knowingly introduced challenging governance projects, but nevertheless propagated its strategy globally, creating a behavioural model readily available to later rebels. The likelihood of whether later rebels' will imitate this model is determined by the compatibility between their goals and the CCP's objectives; only rebels that share the CCP's revolutionary goals decide to mimic the CCP's governance fully. Over time, ideational and material pressures further encouraged (and occasionally rewarded) revolutionary rebels' conformity to the CCP's template. Using archival data from six countries, primary rebel sources, fieldwork and quantitative analysis, Governing for Revolution underscores the mimicry of and ultimate convergence in revolutionary rebels' governance, that persists even today, despite vast differences in ideology.