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The chapter adds to the discussion from chapter two by analyzing the roles of leaders and their ability to unleash the power of public service. The theoretical foundation for the role of leaders as visionaries and architects is examined and is complemented by a discussion of relevant empirical research. The chapter then follows two general paths to enhancing pubic service motivation through leadership. First, leaders should clearly articulate mission and vision, strengthening employee mission valence and helping them to achieve their aspirations. Further, leaders should develop leadership styles that inspire followers. Leadership styles should be authentic, but leaders can also develop their personal capacities to embrace optimal leadership strategies. Incorporating the principles of servant leadership by putting followers first and developing charisma are discussed as ways to build means-ends awareness. Leadership styles should be based around effective communication – communication that acknowledges the worth and collective efficacy of followers.
The chapter complements the discussion of attracting high public service motivation staff in chapter 3 by discussing how to provide opportunities for new employees to learn public service motivation and organizational public service values. The chapter begins with the benefits of employee socialization, which include increased integration of staff and organizational public service values, increased member-organizational fit, increased autonomy of member behavior, and increased mission valence and work effort. The chapter discusses the rationales for socializing employees, the impact of socialization and organizational outcomes, and the prevalence of socialization in public service motivation research. The chapter argues that employee needs and values require continuous attention and recommends strategies for tending to employee needs. The chapter concludes by examining strategies for socializing staff to public service values. Onboarding processes should be designed to align organizational and employee public service values from before an employee's first day beyond their first year. Creating effective mentoring partnerships and programs helps to reinforce public service values.
The chapter examines key theories driving public service motivation research. After discussing the origins of public service motivation, the discussion in chapter 2 is broken into three broad categories: theories related to predisposition-opportunity theory, theories related to self-determination theory, and theories related to goal-setting theory. First, the discussion related to predisposition-opportunity theory aims to answer the question of why people contribute different levels of personal resources to organizations. Predisposition-opportunity theory is then compared to attraction-selection-attrition theory and person-fit theory, and empirical research is examined. Second, self-determination theory adds to the discussion by positing that resource contributions can be explained by psychological needs and motivations. Commonalities between self-determination theory and public service motivation are analyzed before empirical research on motivation-crowding theory is discussed. Third, goal theory contends that differences in motivation and performance can be explained by differences in goals. Chapter 2 concludes with a discussion of the use of mission valence as a proxy for goals.
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