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It is rare for an animal population to recover from near extinction, grow, and flourish at a time when so many species are going extinct. The remnant population of elephant seals increased slowly at first from approximately 30 individuals on a remote, volcanic island far from the coast of Mexico in 1890 to 300,000 animals breeding at 13 rookeries in Mexico and California today. The pattern of recovery is detailed. The settlement and growth of the Año Nuevo colony is described as well because of the concentrated study of the seals at this rookery from resettlement in 1961 to the present. The consequences of going through a population bottleneck and losing genetic variation implies that the present population is less adaptable to changes in the environment than the population that existed prior to 1800.
To what extent can an ethnographic sensibility enhance comparison? We argue that approaching comparison with an ethnographic sensibility – that is, being sensitive to how informants make sense of their worlds and incorporating meaning into our analyses – can strengthen comparative qualitative research. Adopting an ethnographic sensibility would enhance the quality of scholarly arguments by incorporating the processes through which actors ascribe meanings to their lived experiences and the political processes in which they are enmeshed. Because social science arguments often involve accounts of individual actors’ interests, ideas, or impressions, it is imperative to place such cognitive arguments in a broader cultural context. Adopting an ethnographic sensibility requires attention not only to that context but also to the political and social meanings which make that context intelligible. We elaborate these arguments through the lens of two comparative ethnographic works: a study of political mobilization in Bolivia and Mexico and a study of vigilantism in two South African townships.
Spatial capture–recapture models have been widely used to estimate densities of species where individuals can be uniquely identified, but alternatives have been developed for estimation of densities for unmarked populations. In this study we used camera-trap records from 2018 to estimate densities of a species that does not always have individually identifiable marks, Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii, in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, southern Mexico. We compared the performance of the spatial capture–recapture model with spatial mark–resight and random encounter models. The density of Baird's tapir did not differ significantly between the three models. The estimate of density was highest using the random encounter model (26/100 km2, 95% CI 12–41) and lowest using the capture–recapture model (8/100 km2, 95% CI 4–16). The estimate from the spatial mark–resight model was 10/100 km2 (95% CI 8–14), which had the lowest coefficient of variation, indicating a higher precision than with the other models. Using a second set of camera-trap data, collected in 2015–2016, we created occupancy models and extrapolated density to areas with potential occupancy of Baird's tapir, to generate a population estimate for the whole Sierra Madre de Chiapas. Our findings indicate the need to strengthen, and possibly expand, the protected areas of southern Mexico and to develop an action plan to ensure the conservation of Baird's tapir.
The Rio Grande marks the border between the United States and Mexico, which makes its management particularly complex. A century of engineering and binational governance has shaped the region; today there are multiple reservoirs, diversion channels, and irrigation canals. International and national river managers consider challenges from reservoir sedimentation, population growth, and land use change. Climate change, on the other hand, is barely addressed. Managers must plan for a Rio Grande that by mid-century will have lost 40–50 percent of current water levels. Urban population will have doubled. Irrigated agriculture and cities will continue to use the bulk of available water. The most promising response to meet human and ecological water needs with reduced dependable yield is conservation. To address water scarcity, IBWC/CILA should develop a sustainability plan that balances reduced dependable yield with human and ecological needs. Progress should be reviewed and necessary changes to water allocations be negotiated at 5-year intervals. Irrigation districts, municipal utilities, and environmental stakeholders should work with IBWC/CILA to develop drought management for their sub-basins.
In this paper, I take George Lakoff and Mark Johnson's thesis that metaphors shape our reality to approach the judicial imagery of the new criminal justice system in Mexico (in effect since 2016). Based on twenty-nine in-depth interviews with judges and other members of the judiciary, I study what I call the ‘dirty minds’ metaphor, showing its presence in everyday judicial practice and analysing both its cognitive basis as well as its effects in how criminal judges understand their job. I argue that the such a metaphor, together with the ‘fear of contamination’ it raises as a result, is misleading and goes to the detriment of the judicial virtues that should populate the new system. The conclusions I offer are relevant beyond the national context, inter alia, because they concern a far-reaching paradigm of judgment.
Chapter 2 studies how personal self-transformations in exile triggered the rise of new social and hemispheric consciousnesses among Apristas who were deported abroad in the 1920s. It traces as a case study the rocky relationship that the young student activist and future APRA leader Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre maintained during his first years in exile with the foreign allies, specifically the Scottish Reverend John A. Mackay and the US internationalist Anna Melissa Graves, who assisted him, and who tried to politically influence him. Transnational solidarity networks, the chapter shows, would herein assist in crucial ways APRA’s early formation as a persecuted political group. But this reliance on foreign assistance came with a price for the movement’s autonomy: it cracked open a space for progressive US allies and Christian missionaries to peddle their own agenda to Latin American critiques of empire.
To examine differences in the availability, variety and distribution of foods and beverages sold at street food stands (SFS) across neighbourhood income levels in Mexico City.
Twenty neighbourhoods representing low-, middle- and high-income levels in Mexico City.
Direct observations of SFS (n 391).
The availability of healthy foods such as fruits/vegetables was high in middle- and high-income neighbourhoods, whereas the availability of unhealthy foods such as processed snacks was higher in low-income neighbourhoods. However, statistically significant differences in food availability across neighbourhoods were only observed for dairy and processed snack items (P < 0·05). Similarly, differences in variety were only observed for cereal and processed snacks (P < 0·05). No statistically significant differences were seen for variety of fruits/vegetable across neighbourhood income levels (P > 0·05). No statistically significant differences across neighbourhood income levels were observed for beverage availability and variety (P > 0·05). Although street foods and beverages were often distributed near homes, public transportation centres and worksites, no differences were observed across neighbourhood income levels (P > 0·05).
Findings suggest that SFS can be a source of both unhealthy foods and healthy foods for communities across neighbourhoods in Mexico City. Additional studies are needed to assess the relationship between street food and beverage availability, and consumption.
This article explores the role of informal customary institutions (usos y costumbres) in local public goods provision in Mexico. It argues that the presence of informal customary institutions offers submunicipal village communities considerable advantages in local distributive politics. Hamlet communities with dense customary institutions have higher collective action capacity to organize their citizens for small-scale protests in municipal centers, which grants them access to more social infrastructure projects controlled by municipal politicians. This article therefore suggests a novel theoretical mechanism through which customary institutions affect development outcomes: collective contentious action. The study tests the main empirical implications of this theory, drawing on an original survey of submunicipal community presidents in the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala and qualitative interviews.
The regulation of digital trade has become one of the key topics in trade law and policy.
The chapter focuses on one group of countries of the Latin American region, which have been the most important vectors of the inclusion of e-commerce and data rules in PTAs – a group that includes Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Panama. Besides highlighting the contribution that those countries have had in the creation and diffusion of this new rule-making, the goal is also to determine the level of regulatory convergence that Latin American countries (LACs) have on rules for digital trade and data flows, and the potential disparities between international obligations and domestic privacy protection regimes.
Although a growing body of research suggests that the constabularization of the military for domestic policing is counterproductive, this increasingly prevalent policy has nonetheless enjoyed widespread support in the developing world. This study advances our understanding of the consequences of militarization for perceptions of law enforcement: whether visual features shape perceptions of effectiveness, respect for civil liberties, proclivity for corruption and acceptance of militarization in one's own neighborhood. Based on a nationally representative, image-based, conjoint experiment conducted in Mexico, the authors find that military weapons and uniforms enhance perceptions of effectiveness and respect for civil liberties, and that the effect of military uniform becomes greater with increased military presence. The study also finds that gender shapes perceptions of civil liberties and corruption, but detects no effect for skin color. The findings suggest that a central feature of militarization linked to greater violence – military weapons – is paradoxically a key factor explaining favorable attitudes, and that women can play a crucial role in improving perceptions of law enforcement.
What are the conditions underlying successful implementation of participatory security mechanisms? Drawing on the case of Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl and from the notion of social embeddedness, we argue that participatory security reforms that aim to include citizens in defining security priorities allow for better adoption of reforms in practice. Local level reforms are not implemented in a social vacuum but rather in pre-existing social networks that are key to their adoption in practice by citizens. However, not all social networks are equal, nor do they operate in the same manner. In ‘Neza’, it is through existing clientelistic networks and socially embedded local brokers that the redes vecinales were implemented and adopted by citizens, leading to varied reform adoption patterns at the very local level.
Sea of Cortez is part travelogue and part marine biology textbook that Steinbeck coauthored with his friend Ed Ricketts. This chapter examines Steinbeck’s interest in science, in species, and in the possibility of a shift in human consciousness offered by his encounter with Mexico. Placing Steinbeck’s book in the context of theories of the borderland and ideas of the Global South, together with his education in biology and “non-teleological thinking” gained from Ricketts, we uncover Steinbeck’s ecological vision that rejects progressive, goal-directed thinking. Sea of Cortez imagines an ideal of humanity, in harmony with its environment, found in moments of deep observation and passive description of other species. This descriptive method enables a complete understanding of other animals, an ecological sense of species interrelationship, and the possibility for new ways of being on the planet in the face of human extinction. The chapter ends by tracing Steinbeck’s understanding of Mexico’s indigenous population, which offers the potential of a holisitc, non-teleological existence, even as Steinbeck cannot fully transcend the barriers and prejudices of race.
Negative interactions between people and crocodilians have increased worldwide, but in Mexico there have been few systematic reports and no rigorous evaluation of this problem. We compiled information on negative interactions between people and the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus and American crocodile Crocodylus acutus from the Worldwide Crocodilian Attack Database for 1993–2018, and we investigated interactions in greater depth, through interviews with people in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve. We examined the relationship between the occurrence of negative interactions between people and C. acutus and the species' nesting season and abundance, and presence records. In Mexico, the frequency of negative interactions increases when anthropogenic activities occur close to nesting sites (< 30 km) and during the nesting season (February–September). In La Encrucijada, following negative interactions with crocodiles, the local inhabitants killed 30 crocodiles measuring > 2.5 m long in 2011–2012. The frequency of negative human–crocodilian interactions was not correlated with the abundance of crocodilians but was correlated with the number of presence records of crocodiles. Strategies to minimize these interactions include warnings at nesting sites, increased monitoring of anthropogenic activities during the nesting season, and management of nests to prevent them being destroyed by people.
The Spanish conquest of the Basin of Mexico largely succeeded in eradicating its indigenous religion. The Nahua responded by worshipping the Catholic saints, embracing the Day of the Dead, and turning to figures like the Virgin of Guadalupe, who appeared to a poor Indian peasant. The chapter also points to Nahua empowerment through education and a written vernacular that the missionaries provided. The Maya and Inca are also briefly considered.
Given the high prevalence of multiple non-communicable chronic diseases in Mexico, the aim of the present study was to assess the association between dietary patterns and sleep disorders in a national representative sample of 5076 Mexican adults (20–59 years) from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Through a cross-sectional study, we used the Berlin sleep symptoms questionnaire to estimate the proportion of adults with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and other related problems such as daytime symptoms and inadequate sleep duration. Dietary data were collected through a seven-day semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were determined through cluster analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and sleep disorders were assessed by multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, well-being, rural/urban area type, geographical region, tobacco use, physical activity level and energy intake. Three dietary patterns were identified: traditional (high in legumes and tortilla), industrialised (high in sugar-sweetened beverages, fast foods, and alcohol, coffee or tea) and mixed (high in meat, poultry, fruits and vegetables). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the industrialised pattern yielded higher odds for daytime symptoms (OR 1⋅49; 95 % CI 1⋅12, 1⋅99) and OSA (OR 1⋅63; 95 % CI 1⋅21, 2⋅19) compared with the traditional pattern. In conclusion, dietary patterns are associated with sleep disorders in Mexican adults. Further research is required to break the vicious cycle of poor-quality diet, sleep symptoms and health.
Performance and poetry, song composition and music, and other cultural activities are popular as strategic ways to revitalize minoritized languages. Language activists may both reclaim forsaken linguistic art forms, like traditional storytelling, song and oratory performances, and also experiment with new forms of artistic expression. When music, literary traditions and film are employed in innovative ways by language and cultural promoters, language is embodied and becomes present, not just in everyday life but in larger public spaces – e.g. in plays, performances and festivals, on TV and online. The chapter discusses examples, principles and guidelines, and challenges involved in working with arts, music and other cultural activities. The capsules give examples of language transmission through the arts: the fest-noz night festivals in Breton have become a significant revitalization tool; modern music genres are prominent in grassroots efforts in Latin America; and the Jersey Song Project facilitates collaborative songwriting between local musicians and Jèrriais speakers. Wymysiöeryś, Ainu and Mexican examples are also given.
The chapter presents case studies from Mexico and Spain of policy interventions that regulate groundwater extraction and use. The cases involve pricing, quotas, and removal of subsidies aimed at reducing negative externalities associated with groundwater over-pumping. The examples demonstrate the use of different policy instruments and their effects on the behavior of groundwater users in addressing negative externalities. The example from Mexico shows how a subsidy of electricity for pumping groundwater leads to perverse effects resulting in depletion of the aquifer. The example from Spain shows the negative effects of unregulated groundwater extracted for irrigation purposes on groundwater-dependent wetlands that contribute to ecosystem services.
The chapter presents an economy-wide modeling framework that enables analyzing the direct and indirect impacts of policy interventions on sectors in the economy. The chapter reviews studies that model various policy interventions aimed at improving water allocation decisions within an economy-wide context. It focuses on the “macro-micro linkage” framework that facilitates assessment of various linkages among policies and their impacts within individual sectors and on the entire economy. Drawing on country-based studies in Morocco, South Africa, Turkey, and Mexico, the analysis reveals trade-offs among various policy objectives, including priorities placed on different sectors, regional advantages, and general economic efficiency gains versus broader social impacts.
Chapter 6 turns to the disintegration of the political unity of the Iberian World, and addresses the role of the classical rhetorical tradition in spreading new and even revolutionary ideas in both the Atlantic and the Pacific (c. 1750–1850). It begins by showing that new Enlightenment wine was frequently put in post-humanist bottles, focusing on the orations delivered in the Patriotic Economic Societies (sociedades de amigos del país) in Spain and the Philippines. It then shows that a similar pattern can be seen in the oratory of the Age of Revolutions in Mexico. While the public ceremonial oratory of the early Mexican Republic is often portrayed as having arisen spontaneously to fulfill the needs of the new nation, this chapter argues that this was merely the last in a long line of applications in the Iberian World of a tool of social ordering inherited from Mediterranean antiquity.
Chapter 5 argues that the classical rhetorical tradition was not only a means to disseminate Iberianized Catholicism or the “negotiated” political ideology of the Hispanic Monarchy, but also shaped the expression of local identities, including creole patriotism (patriotismo criollo) in New Spain. In particular, this chapter focuses on a little-known late humanist Latin oration delivered in 1745 at the Royal and Pontifical University in Mexico City, which represents the first “Mexican” reaction to the Bibliotheca Mexicana controversy, a transatlantic debate started by a prominent Spanish antiquarian Manuel Martí (1663–1737) who claimed that the New World was an intellectual desert. Foregrounding this largely unknown episode in the most important intellectual controversy of the eighteenth-century Iberian Atlantic allows us to interrogate how membership in the Iberian World was constructed, and in particular how local patriotisms interacted with larger Iberian political and cultural identities. In the end, it seems that the identity of so-called creoles (American-born Spaniards) was constructed within a larger pan-Hispanic and pan-Catholic identity centered on membership in the larger space of the Iberian World and the “Republic of Letters.”