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The physics chapter by Klaus Wendt, Andreas Pysik and Johannes Lhotzky aims at promoting deeper understanding of the complex phenomenon of the rainbow and encourages learners to demonstrate and share their understanding through a Wikipedia article. In this deeper learning episode, learners carry out a number of experiments on spectral colours and colour sequences. They organise the information gathered and explain the physics concepts and processes underlying the phenomenon. The authors use innovative ways of scaffolding academic language development to increase the meaning-making potential of younger learners.
There have been a number of federal policies and guidance’s impacting diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility (DEI) in clinical research. While these are needed, they have not diminished the gaps related to clinical trial recruitment, research professional’s capacity for cultural competence, and clinical research professional role development. Mentoring and co-mentoring circles have traditionally been used in Medicine, but until now had not been used for workforce development of clinical research professionals (CRPs).
We designed a six-session, monthly co-mentoring circle to take place at two academic medical centers to pilot an interinstitutional co-mentoring circle centered on storytelling videos of Black Voices in Clinical Research. This provided a DEI framework for discussions on role experiences, cultural competence, and role progression.
Seven CRPs completed the DRC pilot. The participants positively evaluated the experience and made recommendations for future iterations. Discussion: Co-mentoring circles can be useful tools to connect CRPs across complex research medical centers and provide support that may have a positive impact on role satisfaction and retention.
This framework for developing co-mentoring circles can serve as a toolkit for future CRP co-mentoring circles within and across institutions for workforce development. The Black Voices in Clinical Research storytelling videos provide a rich foundation for future discussion on DEI issues for CRPs and collaborating with participants.
The purpose of this scoping review is two-fold: to assess the literature that quantitatively measures outcomes of mentorship programs designed to support research-focused junior faculty and to identify mentoring strategies that promote diversity within academic medicine mentoring programs.
Studies were identified by searching Medline using MESH terms for mentoring and academic medicine. Eligibility criteria included studies focused on junior faculty in research-focused positions, receiving mentorship, in an academic medical center in the USA, with outcomes collected to measure career success (career trajectory, career satisfaction, quality of life, research productivity, leadership positions). Data were abstracted using a standardized data collection form, and best practices were summarized.
Search terms resulted in 1,842 articles for title and abstract review, with 27 manuscripts meeting inclusion criteria. Two studies focused specifically on women, and four studies focused on junior faculty from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in medicine. From the initial search, few studies were designed to specifically increase diversity or capture outcomes relevant to promotion within academic medicine. Of those which did, most studies captured the impact on research productivity and career satisfaction. Traditional one-on-one mentorship, structured peer mentorship facilitated by a senior mentor, and peer mentorship in combination with one-on-one mentorship were found to be effective strategies to facilitate research productivity.
Efforts are needed at the mentee, mentor, and institutional level to provide mentorship to diverse junior faculty on research competencies and career trajectory, create a sense of belonging, and connect junior faculty with institutional resources to support career success.
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) students may face unique opportunities and challenges in their journey to become psychologists. The increasing visibility of LGBTQ+ identities highlights the need for SGM identity-specific professional mentorship in the field of psychology. Yet, for some, this can be challenging to find. This chapter is intended to serve as a guide for SGM students navigating graduate school and early career milestones. We review a variety of common professional development issues for SGM psychology trainees: openness and privacy about your SGM identity in professional settings, considering priorities when identifying a primary mentor and school, connecting with additional mentors, identifying and fostering an inclusive environment on campus and in the community, self-care, navigating interpersonal relationships, advocacy, and providing mentorship to junior colleagues. We also include specific resources for SGM students and professionals. In addition to serving as a guide specifically for SGM students, we hope this chapter can benefit allies including mentors and colleagues with education about common SGM experiences.
The chapter provides guidance on course design and pedagogical practices that are essential, not only for effective teaching but also for making the case to hiring and promotion committees regarding your ability to reach to students and help them learn. The chapter introduces approaches that are inclusive and broad-minded in their choice and framing of content as well as in their classroom practices. Readers will also find guidance for practicing their craft on remote and hybrid teaching platforms.
Diversification of the Translational Science workforce is a strategic goal for the National Center for the Advancement of Translational Science (NCATS) program. NCATS has identified the development of translational science education, training, and support for a diverse translational science workforce as key to advancing the growing field of translational science. An annual mixed-methods assessment has been conducted on Common Metrics data submitted by over 60 Clinical & Translational Science Awards (CTSA) programs nationwide and includes metrics addressing recruitment and retention of scientists with particular attention to underrepresented persons and women. This article describes a methodology for the development of From Insights to Action, a resource for guiding program implementation and strategic planning to develop a diverse clinical and translational science workforce. This was informed by the Common Metrics Initiative process and constituted of findings from qualitative interviews of a subset of CTSAs that participated. The dissemination of this guide had several impacts, including providing structural foci for the CTSA Fall 2020 program meeting centered on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in translational science; addressing NCATS’ goal of workforce diversity; and understanding the number of diverse graduates still engaged in research.
Ten salient practices drawn from a large-scale literature review of mentoring practice over the last two decades are described. Then, the findings from interviews with 32 award-winning mentors from around the world are used to exemplify particular practices and highlight the characteristics and values of award-winning mentors. In so doing a database of award-winning mentors and the nature of the awards processes around the world is used to explore recognition and reward in relation to academic careers. Disciplinary differences in practices are discerned where possible at the broad subject level, e.g., in STEM the limitations for lab-based disciplines on facilitating open-ended inquiry with large classes, countered by excellent use of layered lab models for creating a sense of research community and vertical, peer and near-peer mentoring opportunities. In addition, the practices that mentors find particularly challenging are described. The implications of these findings for mentor training are outlined and a brief review of mentor training schemes provided. The way that mentors view the future of their mentoring practice concludes the chapter.
Undergraduate Research (UR) can be defined as an investigation into a specific topic within a discipline by an undergraduate student that makes an original contribution to the field. It has become a major consideration among research universities around the world, in order to advance both academic teaching and research productivity. Edited by an international team of world authorities in UR, this Handbook is the first truly comprehensive and systematic account of undergraduate research, which brings together different international approaches, with attention to both theory and practice. It is split into sections covering different countries, disciplines, and methodologies. It also provides an overview of current research and theoretical perspectives on undergraduate research as well as future developmental prospects of UR. Written in an engaging style, yet wide-ranging in its scope, it is essential reading for anyone wishing to broaden their understanding of how undergraduate research is implemented worldwide.
Undergraduate research in mathematics is growing and has become a standard practice in some countries. However, for a novice there is much to learn about mentoring students in mathematics research. In this chapter, we discuss the state of undergraduate research in mathematics and detail a set of best practices for successfully mentoring undergraduate students. Also, we explore some needs and future directions that would help improve undergraduate research in mathematics. Throughout the chapter, we include resources for more information on various topics.
Undergraduate research needs to be rooted in a specific disciplinary context, such as geography. Depending on the disciplinary tradition, training students as researchers requires a research-based curriculum that involves students in the research process instead of merely confronting them with the outcome of previous research. Walkington (2019) stresses that significant progress is already visible in the field, yet myriad aspects, such as mentoring, the role of research in teacher training, or research skills and employability require further attention. This chapter takea up Willison and O’Regan’s (2007) inclusive definition of student research as “[…] a continuum of knowledge production, from knowledge new to the learner to knowledge new to humankind, moving from the commonly known, to the commonly not known, to the totally unknown.” The chapter explores possible curricular architectures for geography undergraduate programs followed by a brief discussion of geography’s special formats to foster undergraduate research.
This is the general introduction to the Cambridge Handbook of Undergraduate Research. It deals with the history of the university as an institution (which has been a research institution only since the nineteenth century); with the concept of undergraduate research and its dimesions (e.g., student- or staff-initiated research); with possible alternative concepts (e.g., critical thinking or lifelong learning); with research on undergraduate research (e.g., increased retention rate but necessary mentoring); and with implementation challenges (for universities and faculty). We see a new role for students: that in ever more differentiated modern societies, collaborative, cross-segmental knowledge production becomes a new necessity, the educational means to which might be undergraduate research.
In many undergraduate psychology programs, students gain research experience through intentional scaffolded experiences throughout the undergraduate curriculum and in some cases by joining a faculty member’s research program outside of the classroom. In sustained undergraduate research experiences, students benefit from developmentally appropriate mentoring as they gradually develop and master skills, an approach often compared to an apprenticeship model. Many psychology faculty use evidence-based mentoring practices, such as the Salient Practices Framework, which was developed by an international, multi-institutional research team. Examples include setting clear and incremental expectations and supporting students as they transfer more basic skills learned in the classroom to conducting community or field-based research. There are creative and evidence-based ways to improve access for all students by being more intentional about embedding research experiences in the psychology curricula, or by further considering ways to recruit and retain UR students from historically underserved groups.
Part II describes how undergraduate research is put into practice. The first five chapters present implementation models of undergraduate research programs at the curricular and co-curricular level that are common in European and US institutions. Subsequent chapters outline key characteristics of these models as they relate to student mentoring, phases of research-based learning, assessment of student learning, and dissemination of scholarly work.
The discipline of medicine advances through research. The medical education community worldwide recognizes that the evolving field of medicine and its progress requires that medical students participate in research. Undergraduate research during premedical and/or medical studies influences the practice of clinical medicine and facilitates the development of physician-scientists. The essential nature of the discipline, the structures and length of medical education worldwide, and the opportunities for research activity are important to understand. Implementation programs that use a competency-based medical education approach find that research is important for meeting medical board competencies. Curricular and research participation barriers exist, but models that integrate research and provide mentored experiences within the academic and training environment can decrease these barriers. Further growth of research preparation in medicine and enhancement of competencies is possible through assessment and continuous quality improvement.
“Humboldt reloaded” is a cross-faculty teaching program for undergraduate research experiences established in 2011 at the University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. The overall goal is to provide students with the opportunity to experience and conduct research at a very early stage in the undergraduate curriculum. The program is named after the educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, the founder of the modern German university, who advocated the unity of research and teaching and the development of critical thinking skills (the Humboldtian education ideal).
As threats facing wildlife and protected areas across Africa increase, demand for innovative and transformational leadership to tackle the challenges remains high. Traditional academic training programmes are playing a critical role in meeting capacity development needs, yet opportunities for strengthening leadership capabilities are limited. This was the rationale behind Mentoring for ENvironmental Training in Outreach and Resource conservation (MENTOR), initiated in 2007 by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service through a collaborative effort with various partners to support conservation leadership and capacity development across sub-Saharan Africa. Five independent programmes were implemented over a decade, each designed to combine rigorous academic and field-based training with mentoring and experiential learning for teams of 8–9 fellows selected through a competitive process. It was envisioned that this approach to leadership and capacity development would strengthen the resolve, capabilities and competences of the fellows and position them as conservation leaders. Using data from interviews and online surveys, we assessed three key aspects of the programmes: strategic relevance and design; progress, effectiveness and impact; and sustainability. Overall, we found that all five programmes successfully delivered the objective of strengthening leadership for conservation in Africa, with the cadre of professionals acquiring new skills and expertise to advance their careers, and developing life-long relationships and networks. We discuss the potential of this approach for developing African conservation leaders.
The Mountain West Clinical Translational Research – Infrastructure Network (MW CTR-IN), established in 2013, is a research network of 13 university partners located among seven Institutional Development Award (IDeA) states targeting health disparities. This is an enormous undertaking because of the size of the infrastructure network (encompassing a third of the US landmass and spanning four time zones in predominantly rural and underserved areas, with populations that have major health disparities issues). In this paper, we apply the barriers, strategies, and metrics to an adapted educational conceptual model by Fink (2013). Applying this model, we used four tailored approaches across this regional infrastructure network to: (1) assess individual faculty specific needs, (2) reach out and engage with faculty, (3) provide customized services to meet the situational needs of faculty, and (4) utilize a “closed communication feedback loop” between Professional Development (PD) core and MW CTR-IN faculty within the context of their home institutional environment. Summary statement results from participating faculty show that these approaches were positive. Grounded in best educational practice approaches, we have an opportunity to refine and build from this sound foundation with implications for future use in other CTR-IN networks and institutions in the IDeA states.
Researchers have begun to change their approach to training in the biomedical sciences through the development of communities of practice (CoPs). CoPs share knowledge across clinical and laboratory contexts to promote the progress of clinical and translational science. The Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs’ (CDMRP) Ovarian Cancer Academy (OCA) was designed as a virtual CoP to promote interactions among early career investigators (ECIs) and their mentors with the goal of eliminating ovarian cancer.
A mixed-methods approach (surveys and interviews) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the OCA for the eight ECIs and five mentors. Quantitative analysis included internal reliability of scales and descriptive statistics for each measure, as well as paired sample t-tests for Time 1 and Time 2. Qualitative data were analyzed for themes to discern which aspects of the program were useful and where more attention is needed.
Preliminary analyses reveal several trends, including the importance of training in grant writing to the ECI’s productivity, as well as the value of peer mentorship.
The results show that the OCA was an innovative and effective way to create a CoP with broad implications for the field of ovarian cancer research, as well as for the future of biomedical research training.
The goal for many PhD students in archaeology is tenure-track employment. Students primarily receive their training by tenure-track or tenured professors, and they are often tacitly expected—or explicitly encouraged—to follow in the footsteps of their advisor. However, the career trajectories that current and recent PhD students follow may hold little resemblance to the ones experienced by their advisors. To understand these different paths and to provide information for current PhD students considering pursuing a career in academia, we surveyed 438 archaeologists holding tenured or tenure-track positions in the United States. The survey, recorded in 2019, posed a variety of questions regarding the personal experiences of individual professors. The results are binned by the decade in which the respondent graduated. Evident patterns are discussed in terms of change over time. The resulting portraits of academic pathways through the past five decades indicate that although broad commonalities exist in the qualifications of early career academics, there is no singular pathway to obtaining tenure-track employment. We highlight the commonalities revealed in our survey to provide a set of general qualifications that might provide a baseline set of skills and experiences for an archaeologist seeking a tenure-track job in the United States.