Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of the central nervous system disorders in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the clinical course of cerebral toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The study included 90 HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis, who underwent inpatient treatment. In case of positive enzyme immunoassay, HIV infection was confirmed with the immunoblot test. The HIV-1 ribonucleic acid level was determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The flow cytometry was used for counting CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4 cells). Pathomorphological examination included the autopsy, gross and microscopic examination of internal organs, histological and other methods. The incidence of cerebral toxoplasmosis significantly increases at the CD4 count below 100 cells/μl, P < 0.001, and at the HIV viral load above 50 copies/ml, P < 0.05. The clinical picture of cerebral toxoplasmosis included focal symptoms, cognitive impairment, toxic syndrome, mild cerebral symptoms and a meningeal symptom. Given the absence of a specific clinical picture and the absence of abnormal laboratory and instrumental findings, the cerebral toxoplasmosis needs to be diagnosed with a number diagnostic methods combined: clinical examination, laboratory testing, immunological examination, molecular genetic testing and neuroradiological imaging.