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The initial assessment of the critically ill patient should begin with a brief, targeted history and an appraisal of the patient's vital signs to identify life threatening abnormalities that merit immediate attention. The goals of resuscitation are usually achieved by the use of supplemental oxygen, fluid or red blood cell transfusion, inotropic support or antibiotics as needed. Physiological Scoring Systems (PSS) developed from the recognition that critically ill patients, and in particular patients who suffered cardiac arrests, often had long periods of deterioration before the crisis or medical emergency occurred. Medical emergency teams (METs) and critical care outreach (CCO) teams aim to provide critical care skills rapidly to critically ill patients. Referrals to the critical care services may happen from any level, but the final decision to admit a patient to a critical care bed should be made by an experienced critical care physician.