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This chapter reviews the methods that psychologists have devised for measuring wisdom. There are two classical types of measures: self-report scales, where people rate themselves with respect to characteristics of wisdom, and performance measures, where people respond to descriptions of problems that require wisdom. Both types of measures have their problems. Self-report wisdom scales are susceptible to both unintentional distortions, if participants have inaccurate views of themselves, and intentional distortions, if participants want to present themselves as wiser than they are. Performance measures require a lot of effort for administration and scoring, and they measure what participants theoretically think about a problem, which is not necessarily what they would do if they were faced with that problem in real life. New approaches have tried to move the measurement of wisdom closer to real life. Some researchers ask people about difficult events from their own life. Other researchers use videos instead of real-life conflicts and written problem descriptions. There is still a lot of room for improvement of our wisdom measures.
When using QCA, we conceive of social phenomena as sets in which the cases have membership, and we look at social phenomena as complex combinations of different sets. For example, to allocate students to the set of ‘good students’, we need to define clear criteria for distinguishing ‘good’ from ‘not good’ students, and think about how different criteria combine to indicate that a student is ‘good’.
We first discuss how to attribute cases to sets: types of sets and ways to measure them, approaches to calibrating sets, and their implementation in R. We introduce good practices, practical tips, and some diagnostic tools for calibration. Second, we discuss how to combine sets with the Boolean operations AND, OR, and NOT. These techniques help us conceptualize social phenomena, including useful rules for combining and presenting set-theoretic expressions.
- Basic understanding of the notion of calibration and different calibration techniques.
- Familiarity with good practices and diagnostic tools for set calibration.
- Familiarity with basic Boolean operations on sets and the rules for attributing cases to combined sets.
- Familiarity with different techniques of aggregating sets into higher-order concepts.
- Ability to implement these calibration and concept formation tools in R.
Kant's Mathematical World aims to transform our understanding of Kant's philosophy of mathematics and his account of the mathematical character of the world. Daniel Sutherland reconstructs Kant's project of explaining both mathematical cognition and our cognition of the world in terms of our most basic cognitive capacities. He situates Kant in a long mathematical tradition with roots in Euclid's Elements, and thereby recovers the very different way of thinking about mathematics which existed prior to its 'arithmetization' in the nineteenth century. He shows that Kant thought of mathematics as a science of magnitudes and their measurement, and all objects of experience as extensive magnitudes whose real properties have intensive magnitudes, thus tying mathematics directly to the world. His book will appeal to anyone interested in Kant's critical philosophy -- either his account of the world of experience, or his philosophy of mathematics, or how the two inform each other.
Enns and Koch question the validity of the Berry, Ringquist, Fording, and Hanson measure of state policy mood and defend the validity of the Enns and Koch measure on two grounds. First, they claim policy mood has become more conservative in the South over time; we present empirical evidence to the contrary: policy mood became more liberal in the South between 1980 and 2010. Second, Enns and Koch argue that an indicator’s lack of face validity in cross-sectional comparisons is irrelevant when judging the measure’s suitability in the most common form of pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis. We show their argument is logically flawed, except under highly improbable circumstances. We also demonstrate, by replicating several published studies, that statistical results about the effect of state policy mood can vary dramatically depending on which of the two mood measures is used, making clear that a researcher’s measurement choice can be highly consequential.
Childhood adversities are major preventable risk factors for poor mental and physical health. Scientific advances in this area are not matched by clinical gains for affected individuals. We reflect on novel research directions that could accelerate clinical impact.
This chapter reflects on the generalizable lessons that our theoretical and empirical results generate. Two central ideas emerge. First, strategic interaction is a central component of political violence. Failure to account for it risks generating invalid theoretical mechanisms and ineffective policy recommendations. Second, there is no silver bullet for terrorism. Some policies may be more effective on average than others. But even some seemingly sensible solutions can backfire under the wrong circumstances. As such, policymakers wishing to influence political violence outcomes must have a strong understanding of the causal process that guides the violence before making interventions. We also unite various subthemes that have reoccurred throughout the book, such as the role international institutions play in affecting terrorism patterns.
Topic models, as developed in computer science, are effective tools for exploring and summarizing large document collections. When applied in social science research, however, they are commonly used for measurement, a task that requires careful validation to ensure that the model outputs actually capture the desired concept of interest. In this paper, we review current practices for topic validation in the field and show that extensive model validation is increasingly rare, or at least not systematically reported in papers and appendices. To supplement current practices, we refine an existing crowd-sourcing method by Chang and coauthors for validating topic quality and go on to create new procedures for validating conceptual labels provided by the researcher. We illustrate our method with an analysis of Facebook posts by U.S. Senators and provide software and guidance for researchers wishing to validate their own topic models. While tailored, case-specific validation exercises will always be best, we aim to improve standard practices by providing a general-purpose tool to validate topics as measures.
Survey methods that randomly sample respondents from populations abstract their subjects out of the settings where social phenomena form and develop. By measuring the egocentric networks that surround respondents, surveys can re-incorporate these interpersonal contexts. This chapter reviews approaches to egocentric measurement implemented within the U.S. General Social Survey (GSS). Among these are global items that obtain direct reports about network properties (e.g. size, composition), short sets (aggregated relational data, position generators) that allow estimation of certain network properties, and longer name generator instruments that obtain more granular data on the individual contacts (“alters”) and relationships within a respondent’s egocentric network. The review gives particular attention to the “important matters” name generator for measuring “core” networks, first administered in the 1985 GSS. It covers that instrument’s origins and subsequent use in both substantive and methodological research. Substantive studies show how networks vary by (e.g.) age, socioeconomic standing, gender and residential setting, and offer suggestive evidence about how they shape outcomes including well-being, political activity, and sociopolitical attitudes. Methodological studies reveal that the important matters name generator can be sensitive to several aspects of survey settings, and call for care in its administration.
Test automation is used to make software testing must be reliable, fast, and repeatable. This chapter uses an exemplar test framework (TestNG) to demonstrate typical automation features. The handling of timeouts and exceptiomns is examined. A mode advanced look at inheritance testing is presented. The chapter ends with a further look at examining different types of application: web-based, desktop, and mobile.
There has been a proliferation of research with human participants in violent contexts over the past ten years. Adhering to commonly held ethical principles such as beneficence, justice, and respect for persons is particularly important and challenging in research on violence. This letter argues that practices around research ethics in violent contexts should be reported more transparently in research outputs, and should be seen as a subset of research methods. We offer practical suggestions and empirical evidence from both within and outside of political science around risk assessments, mitigating the risk of distress and negative psychological outcomes, informed consent, and monitoring the incidence of potential harms. An analysis of published research on violence involving human participants from 2008 to 2019 shows that only a small proportion of current publications include any mention of these important dimensions of research ethics.
To enable new research on local ideology and representation in Canada, we construct a latent measure of the policy ideology of 37,500 Canadian Election Study respondents using 56 policy-relevant questions and then use multilevel regression and poststratification to estimate the average ideological position of each of Canada's 338 federal electoral districts and 250 largest municipalities. We use these local ideology estimates to examine ideological representation in Canadian municipal politics. Combining our municipal ideology estimates with elite survey data from more than 900 Canadian municipal politicians, we find evidence of a strong relationship between mass and elite ideology. This relationship is consistent across differing municipal population sizes and institutional structures. We conclude with additional detail on our publicly available individual and aggregate measures and describe their potential uses for future research on ideology and representation in Canadian politics at all levels.
Chapter 3 focuses on relationships and accountability and looks at the role of colonial rule in contributing to continuing state fragility in Africa today. This chapter also considers colonialism from the perspective of internal and external relationships. The implications of colonial governance and legal structures for accountability and recourse in instances of harm are also discussed.
Models for converting expert-coded data to estimates of latent concepts assume different data-generating processes (DGPs). In this paper, we simulate ecologically valid data according to different assumptions, and examine the degree to which common methods for aggregating expert-coded data (1) recover true values and (2) construct appropriate coverage intervals. We find that the mean and both hierarchical Aldrich–McKelvey (A–M) scaling and hierarchical item-response theory (IRT) models perform similarly when expert error is low; the hierarchical latent variable models (A-M and IRT) outperform the mean when expert error is high. Hierarchical A–M and IRT models generally perform similarly, although IRT models are often more likely to include true values within their coverage intervals. The median and non-hierarchical latent variable models perform poorly under most assumed DGPs.
The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a widely used measure of depression in primary care. It was, however, originally designed as a diagnostic screening tool, and not for measuring change in response to antidepressant treatment. Although the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomology (QIDS-SR-16) has been extensively validated for outcome measurement, it is poorly adopted in UK primary care, and, although free for clinicians, has licensing restrictions for healthcare organisation use.
We aimed to develop a modified version of the PHQ-9, the Maudsley Modified PHQ-9 (MM-PHQ-9), for tracking symptom changes in primary care. We tested the measure's validity, reliability and factor structure.
A sample of 121 participants was recruited across three studies, and comprised 78 participants with major depressive disorder and 43 controls. MM-PHQ-9 scores were compared with the QIDS-SR-16 and Clinical Global Impressions improvement scale, for concurrent validity. Internal consistency of the scale was assessed, and principal component analysis was conducted to determine the items’ factor structure.
The MM-PHQ-9 demonstrated good concurrent validity with the QIDS-SR-16, and excellent internal consistency. Sensitivity to change over a 14-week period was d = 0.41 compared with d = 0.61 on the QIDS-SR-16. Concurrent validity between the paper and mobile app versions of the MM-PHQ-9 was r = 0.67.
These results indicate that the MM-PHQ-9 is a valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms in paper and mobile app format, although further validation is required. The measure was sensitive to change, demonstrating suitability for use in routine outcome assessment.
Chapter 8 introduces the principles of experimental methods to determine various transport properties in multiphase flows. Typical properties include geometric characteristics of dispersed phase, phase volume fractions, mass fluxes or flow rates, velocities, and electrostatic charges. Specifically, the particle size and morphology are measured via the optical image, sieving, sedimentation, cascade impaction, and laser-scattering method. The volume fraction can be determined by the beam-attenuation, permittivity, and tomography principles. The mass flow rate can be determined from the isokinetic sampling and ball probe method. Phase velocities can be measured using the cross-correlation, LDV, and PIV methods. The electrostatic charge is typically measured by Faraday cup and induction probe. The introduction is focused on the basic mechanisms and applicability of the measurement techniques. The chapter also discusses the data analysis methods describing the particle size distribution from overlapped size sampling, such as the deconvolution method. It is also important to identify the equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles that a size measurement reveals.
Although covert warfare does not readily lend itself to scientific inquiry, new technologies are increasingly providing scholars with tools that enable such research. In this note, we examine the effects of drone strikes on patterns of communication in Yemen using big data and anomaly detection methods. The combination of these analytic tools allows us to not only quantify some of the effects of drone strikes, but also to compare them to other shocks. We find that on average drone strikes leave a footprint in their aftermath, spurring significant but localized spikes in communication. This suggests that drone strikes are not a purely surgical intervention, but rather have a disruptive impact on the local population.
In the neuroHIV literature, cognitive reserve has most often been operationalized using education, occupation, and IQ. The effects of other cognitively stimulating activities that might be more amenable to interventions have been little studied. The purpose of this study was to develop an index of cognitive reserve in people with HIV, combining multiple indicators of cognitively stimulating lifetime experiences into a single value.
The data set was obtained from a Canadian longitudinal study (N = 856). Potential indicators of cognitive reserve captured at the study entry included education, occupation, engagement in six cognitively stimulating activities, number of languages spoken, and social resources. Cognitive performance was measured using a computerized test battery. A cognitive reserve index was formulated using logistic regression weights. For the evidence on concurrent and predictive validity of the index, the measures of cognition and self-reported everyday functioning were each regressed on the index scores at study entry and at the last follow-up [mean duration: 25.9 months (SD 7.2)], respectively. Corresponding regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed.
Professional sports [odds ratio (OR): 2.9; 95% CI 0.59–14.7], visual and performance arts (any level of engagement), professional/amateur music, complex video gaming and competitive games, and travel outside North America were associated with higher cognitive functioning. The effects of cognitive reserve on the outcomes at the last follow-up visit were closely similar to those at study entry.
This work contributes evidence toward the relative benefit of engaging in specific cognitively stimulating life experiences in HIV.
Irritability is a transdiagnostic feature of diverse forms of psychopathology and a rapidly growing literature implicates the construct in child maladaptation. However, most irritability measures currently used are drawn from parent-report questionnaires not designed to measure irritability per se; furthermore, parent report methods have several important limitations. We therefore examined the utility of observational ratings of children's irritability in predicting later psychopathology symptoms. Four-hundred and nine 3-year-old children (208 girls) completed observational tasks tapping temperamental emotionality and parents completed questionnaires assessing child irritability and anger. Parent-reported child psychopathology symptoms were assessed concurrently to the irritability assessment and when children were 5 and 8 years old. Children's irritability observed during tasks that did not typically elicit anger predicted their later depressive and hyperactivity symptoms, above and beyond parent-reported irritability and context-appropriate observed anger. Our findings support the use of observational indices of irritability and have implications for the development of observational paradigms designed to assess this construct in childhood.
Behaviour is the actions and reactions of an organism or group of organisms. Living organisms, robots and virtual agents all exhibit measurable forms of behaviour. Measuring behaviour involves assigning numbers to direct observations of behaviour using specified rules. Direct observation means collecting data that relates directly to the performance of the behaviour pattern in question. Measuring behaviour accurately and reliably is important because behaviour is central to answering many questions in the biological and social sciences. Measuring behaviour is challenging because behaviour has a temporal component, does not always occur in discrete bouts, is generally complicated, can be influenced by stimuli undetectable to humans and varies both within and between individuals. Studying behaviour can be broken down into a series of steps that starts with asking a question and ends with communicating findings.
Political scientists are paying increasing attention to understanding the role of sexist attitudes on predicting vote choices and opinions on issues. However, the research in this area measures sexist attitudes with a variety of different items and scales. In this paper, I evaluate some of the most prominent contemporary measures of sexism and develop an approach for identifying optimal items based on (1) convergent validity, (2) predictive validity, and (3) distance from politics. I find that a subset of items from the hostile sexism scale exhibit the most desirable measurement properties and I conclude by recommending a simple two- to five-item reduced hostile sexism battery that will allow scholars to efficiently, validly, and consistently measure sexism.