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We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ni40Cu10Mn35Ti15 all-d-metal Heusler alloy with a B2 cubic crystal structure by an arc melting process and investigated its structural, magnetic, electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties under the influence of a single-step thermal annealing. The compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic ordering accompanied by thermal hysteresis indicating a first-order magneto-structural transition. Curie–Weiss molecular field analysis reveals the presence of ferromagnetic interactions competing with long-range antiferromagnetic ordering. Thermal annealing leads to the appearance of a heat capacity sharp peak around antiferromagnetic transition. Electrical resistivity measurements display abrupt changes close to the magneto-structural transition revealing the strong coupling among spin, lattice, and charge degrees of freedom characteristic of a martensitic transition (MT). We have also evaluated its mechanical properties from microhardness measurements, and the results indicate that this alloy exhibits ductile behavior. The occurrence of MT associated with improved ductility is an essential combination for technological application as shape-memory alloys.
Cerium-doped lanthanum magnesium bulk aluminate (La1–xCexMgAl11O19, x = 0.03–0.50; abbreviated as LMA) was prepared via the Pechini sol–gel method after heating at 1200 °C for 2 h. The resulting single-phase ceramics was studied in terms of its structure using X-ray diffraction and optical properties using photoluminescence, its decay time, and radioluminescence spectroscopy. The diffraction and electron microscopy demonstrated LMA's plate-shaped nanocrystals with structure anisotropy and relatively broad particle size distribution. The optical measurements fully manifested the complexity of the LMA crystal structure. The radioluminescence study of cerium-doped LMA is here presented for the first time and, thus, contributes to the basic knowledge of Ce-doped materials. Additionally, the magnetic susceptibility exhibiting paramagnetic behavior of Ce3+ ions is presented. The magnetic data were interpreted in terms of local atomic Hamiltonian involving the crystal field and the Zeeman effect applied on the ground state J = 5/2 multiplet.
In this study, the Ni/rGO hollow microspheres were synthesized and combined with epoxy foam to prepare structural absorbing materials. The diameter of obtained rGO hollow microspheres loaded with Ni nanoparticles was around 10 μm and the thickness of the spherical wall was about 70 nm. The Ni/rGO/EP composite foam exhibited better microwave absorption properties than that of rGO/EP and Ni/EP composite foam. The minimum reflection loss value (RLmin) could reach −58.23 dB at 8.4 GHz with a thickness of 2.5 mm, and the effective bandwidth with RLmin lower than −10 dB is 2.21 GHz ranging from 7.46 to 9.67 GHz. The porous structure of Ni/rGO hollow microspheres and their filled epoxy foam can refract and absorb the electromagnetic waves repeatedly, which equals to extend the propagation path of microwave, thus, electromagnetic loss capacity was improved obviously.
Chiral magnets in the B20 crystal structure host a peculiar spin texture in the form of a topologically stable skyrmion lattice. However, the helical transition temperature (TC) of these compounds is below room temperature, which limits their potential in spintronics applications. Here, a data-driven approach is demonstrated, which integrates density functional theory (DFT) calculations with machine learning (ML) in search of alloying elements that will enhance the TC of known B20 compounds. Initial DFT screening led to the identification of chromium (Cr) and tin (Sn) as potential substituents for alloy design. Then, trained ML models predict Sn substitution to be more promising than Cr-substitution for tuning the TC of FeGe. The magnetic exchange energy calculated from DFT validates the promise of Sn as an effective alloying element for enhancing the TC in Fe(Ge,Sn) compounds. New B20 chiral magnets are recommended for experimental investigation.
In this study, the magnetic properties of Fe39.8Co19.92Mn20.52Cr14.77Si5 multi-principal element alloy in both bulk and thin films were studied. X-ray diffraction measurements show coexisting face centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close packed phases in the bulk and the 500 nm thin films, while only FCC phase is observed in the 65 nm thin film. A four orders of magnitude increase in the magnetic moment is observed for 65 nm thin film compared with the bulk sample. Evolution of magnetization as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field shows multiple magnetic transitions. A paramagnetic to spin glass transition is detected at TS ∼ 390 K for all samples. Further cooling results in a spin glass to ferromagnetic (FM) transition, and the transition temperature, TF, is dependent on the film thickness. Higher saturation magnetization and transition temperature observed for the thin film samples indicate the stabilization of FM ordering due to thickness confinement.
Nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride loaded with various amounts of γ-Fe2O nanoparticles, with an average size ranging between 20 and 40 nm, have been obtained by melt mixing and investigated using various experimental techniques [Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, Mössbauer, and Thermogravimetric Analysis]. Magnetic and Mössbauer measurements confirmed the presence of maghemite and a trace of a paramagnetic iron compound. Magnetic data are consistent with a blocking temperature close to room temperature (RT), showing a decrease in the coercive field as the temperature is increased. A weak exchange bias was noticed in all nanocomposites investigated at all temperatures and tentatively ascribed to surface spin disorder. The temperature dependence of the coercive field obeys the Kneller law. The nanocomposites exhibit superparamagnetic behavior near RT. Most magnetic measurements have been performed below the blocking temperature, revealing thus a complex behavior. The dependence of the mass loss derivative versus temperature, as obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, exhibits a single peak due to the thermal degradation of the polymeric matrix. A weak increase in the thermal stability of the polymeric matrix upon loading with maghemite is reported.
Nanocomposite hydrogels of poly-n-isopropyl were prepared by incorporating gold and magnetite nanoparticles. The nanocomposite-based hydrogels formed were geometrical, ∼7.3 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick (in the swollen state). Morphological analysis was characterized by a scanning electron microscope. Drug-loaded hydrogels were subjected to laser heating at 1 W, 1.5 W and 2 W for 20 min in each laser cycle. The metabolic activities of the cells were analysed. The photothermal conversion efficiency of the nanocomposite hydrogels was also evaluated for P(NIPA)-AuNP-PG and P(NIPA)-MNP-PG to be 36.93 and 32.57 %, respectively. The result was then discussed for potential applications whereby metal-based hydrogels can be employed in microfluidic devices for targeted cancer drug delivery.
Toroidal (ring-like) structures are common in organic chemistry, but at the nanoscale level, the inorganic nanorings and nanotori are limited and represented mainly by carbon, several p- and noble metals (Ag, Au, Al, and Au/Co/Au), metal and nonmetal oxides (ZnO, MoO2, Fe2O3, and SiO2), hydroxides (Co(OH)2), and salts (PbI2 and metal selenides), and some combinations of carbon nanotori with fullerenes and carbon chains, as well as doped nanorings, are known. The nanotori are closely related to ball-type nanostructures as nano-onions, nanoballs, and nanospheres. Despite their relative low existence, they possess several useful properties and respective applications as isolators, sensors, optoelectronics, as traps for atoms and ions, and counterparts in lubricants, thus causing a certain interest in their development. The properties of nanotori have been studied mainly by DFT calculations. Several nanorings possess stabilities up to 3000 K before unfolding, multiresonant properties and magneto–optical activity, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism. The carbon nanorings are studied considerably better, being compared with other compounds. This review summarizes the state of the art of all available inorganic toroidal nanostructures, believing that a considerable higher number of inorganic systems might be prepared in this form, taking into account their unusual properties.
The global market requirement of ultra-fine iron powder (UFIP), with a range size of 0.1–1 μm, is more than 20,000 tons per annum. However, no low-cost nontoxic synthesis route of UFIP is known. In this study, we used the low-cost, rapid, and scalable flame aerosol synthesis (FAS) method to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles with different size and morphology. Combining with a postreduction heat treatment process, a feasible synthesis route of UFIP which meets the commercial production criteria has been developed. By optimizing the precursor concentration and postreduction heat treatment parameters, the final particle size of UFIP can be controlled. The evolution of the microstructure, phase formation, and magnetic properties during the postreduction heat treatment are systematically investigated, and a feasible reaction model has been established. This work provides an important starting point for the facile commercial synthesis of UFIP and can be readily expanded to other pure metals.
Equimolar mixtures of zero-dimensional graphene (SkySpring Nanomaterials, 1-5 nm particle size) and zinc ferrite nanoparticles (Alfa Aesar, 50 nm particle size) were exposed to mechanochemical activation by high-energy ball milling for time intervals of 0-12 hours. Their structural and magnetic properties were analyzed by Mӧssbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The spectra of zinc ferrite milled without graphene were fitted with one quadrupole-split doublet (quadrupole splitting 0.5 mm/s, isomer shift 0.23 mm/s) and indicated that zinc ferrite was superparamagnetic. The line width of the doublet increased from 0.41 to 0.64 mm/s, which correlates with a reduction in particle size as effect of the ball milling processing performed. When graphene was added to the milling powders, the Mӧssbauer spectra showed the appearance of another quadrupole doublet, with a quadrupole splitting of 0.84 mm/s and an isomer shift of -0.38 mm/s. Its abundance to the spectrum remained constant to 4.48% while the milling time was increased. This second doublet could be related to carbon atoms occupying neighborhoods in the proximity of iron atoms. Hysteresis loops were recorded in an applied magnetic field of 5 T at a temperature of 5 K. A change in the approach to saturation of the loop was observed, with saturation being achieved for the sample milled for 12 hours with graphene. Zero-field-cooling-field-cooling (ZFC-FC) was performed on all samples between 5-300 K with an applied magnetic field of 200 Oe. Graphene was found to stabilize the magnetic properties of the milled system of powders to a blocking temperature of about 90 K.
A homogeneous structured CoCrNi medium-entropy alloy was synthesized by gas atomization and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and magnetic properties were reported in this study. The as-atomized CoCrNi MEA powder, with a spherical morphology in shape and a mean particle diameter of 61 μm, consisted of a single face-centered cubic (FCC) phase with homogeneous distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni elements. Also, the cross-sectional microstructure of powder particles gradually transformed from fully cellular structure into equiaxed-type structure with increasing particle size. After being sintered by SPS, the CoCrNi MEA consisted of a single FCC phase with a mean grain size of 20.8 μm. Meanwhile, the CoCrNi MEA can capable of offering an ultimate tensile strength of 799 MPa, yield strength of 352 MPa, elongation of 53.6%, and hardness of 195.3 HV. In addition, this MEA showed superior corrosion resistance to that of 304 SS (stainless steel) in both 0.5 mol/L HCl and 1 mol/L NaOH solutions. The magnetization loop indicated that this MEA has good soft magnetic properties.
Density functional theory (DFT) has proved to be exceptionally successful in rationalizing trends in activity and functionality for electrochemical functional materials. With continued increases in computing power, there has been an increased interest in “high-throughput” materials discovery and design based on a few descriptors to scan the phase space en masse for thousands of potential candidates, which could be made technologically and commercially viable. However, given fundamental accuracy limitations associated with DFT, the success of high-throughput material discovery efforts has been limited. In this review, we suggest an additional dimension to aid in high-throughput material discovery related to uncertainty quantification and propagation, which provides a more realistic picture of the likelihood of new candidate materials to improve upon known materials. We demonstrate the approach and its utility through two case studies: (1) electrocatalyst materials for their activity and selectivity for the oxygen reduction reaction, and (2) cathode materials for Li-ion batteries based on Ni-Mn-Co oxides. The ease with which uncertainty quantification and propagation can be incorporated into traditional high-throughput material discovery with almost no additional computational cost allows for its proposed wide usage.
This work studied the relationship between embedded particle volume fraction and magnetic particle orientation distribution in aligned 325 mesh barium hexaferrite (BHF) and polydimethylsiloxane (Sylgard 184; Dow Corning) magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) composites. BHF particles were aligned within the elastomer in the out-of-plane direction, as the material cured. Particle orientation distribution was defined herein by observations of the population of directions at which particle magnetizations resided; magnetization coincides with the physical crystallographic c-axis of BHF. The work used results of vibrating sample magnetometry experiments on MAEs with increasing volume concentrations of embedded ferromagnetic particles (10–30 v/v%) to determine changing widths of analytical particle distribution functions used to describe the range of particle orientations. With over 80% confidence, results showed that MAE composites having the intermediate 15 v/v% had the highest degree of magnetic (and thereby physical) alignment as well as magnetic remanence.
Lithium substituted magnesium ferrites (LixMg1-xFe2O4, where x = 0.1 to 0.5) were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Various characterization techniques viz. X - Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the effect of lithium substitution. Differences in particle size, crystallinity and magnetic parameters of the ferrites synthesized with difference in composition were observed. XRD patterns of the synthesized samples confirmed phase purity and showed that the lattice parameter decreases with increase in Li content in magnesium ferrite. Decrease in coercivity with increase in lithium concentration was observed from magnetic analysis (VSM). Through FTIR, it was observed that Li+ ions occupy B – sites. FTIR spectrum peaks obtained in the region 1620 – 1670 cm-1 supported water molecule dissociation. It is the required characteristic of the lithium substituted magnesium ferrite to be used in various applications like humidity sensor and hydroelectric cell.
Dicationic cobalt(II) complexes of the type [Co(fterpy)2]c(X)2·nH2O·mCH3OH (fterpy = 4′-(2-furyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine; 1: X = PF6-, n = 1.5, m = 0; 2: X = ClO4-, n = 1, m = 1) have been isolated using self-assembly method and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In crystalline states both compounds exhibit gradual and incomplete spin crossover (SCO) behaviour in the temperature range 2-320 K. Various spin states of cobalt(II) in 1 have been confirmed by crystallographic evidences at 150 K and 293 K. A variation in counter anions and solvent molecules from 1 to 2 substantially improves the cooperativity among the spin active metal centres and thereby changing the nature of SCO behaviour.
The bulk van der Waals crystal Mn3Si2Te6 (MST) has been irradiated with a proton beam of 2 MeV at a fluence of 1×1018 H+ cm-2. The temperature dependent magnetization measurements show a drastic decrease in the magnetization of 49.2% in the H//c direction observed in ferrimagnetic state. This decrease in magnetization is also reflected in the isothermal magnetization curves. No significant change in the ferrimagnetic transition temperature (75 K) was reflected after irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy shows no magnetically active defects present after irradiation. Here, experimental findings gathered from MST bulk crystals via magnetic measurements, magnetocaloric effect, and heat capacity are discussed.
La3+ doped yttrium iron garnet films have been grown on (111) oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates via Liquid phase epitaxy technique as a basic material for ISHE device fabrication. Pt as a material with a large spin hall angle was used as a spin detection layer. We investigated the dependence of the spin pumping effect on the power and frequency of the excitation microwaves in La:YIG/Pt bilayers by measuring the ISHE voltage. We demonstrated that the area under the ISHE curve(SISHE) across a wide power range had a nearly linear correlation with the input microwave power (Pin). The parameter SISHE can be used to describe the spin current energy in a Pt layer which can be a useful parameter for a microwave rectifier.
Amorphous alloy Fe68.5Co5Nb3Cu1Si15.5B7 was obtained by melt spinning. Samples cut from the foil were annealed at 450, 550, 650 and 750 °C in a vacuum furnace. 57Fe Mӧssbauer spectroscopy was used to identify the crystalline phases formed and the orientation of the magnetic moments based on the refined values of the hyperfine parameters. The spectra of the samples annealed at 550, 650 and 750 °C were indicative of nanocrystallization, with the magnetic moments reoriented out-of-plane for the last sample. This behavior is in contradistinction to that of the Co-rich system, which was totally crystallized at these annealing temperatures. Our results show that small Co additions can lead to the formation of nanostructures over a whole range of annealing temperatures. A new series of Mӧssbauer spectra was obtained by recording simultaneously the intensity transmitted by a superposition of the sample with the stainless steel etalon, based on the dual absorber method previously introduced by us. The values of the recoilless fraction could be derived from the relative spectral areas. The f factor maintained values close to 0.7 for all samples measured, but dropped to 0.37 for the sample annealed at 750 °C. This behavior could be related to the presence of elastic stresses in the system, which caused the out-of-plane reorientation of the magnetic moment directions.
van der Waals (vdW) magnetic materials show promise in being the foundation for future spintronic technology. The magnetic behavior of Fe2.7GeTe2 (FGT), a vdW itinerant ferromagnet, was investigated before and after proton irradiation. Proton irradiation of the sample was carried out at a fluence of 1×1018 cm-2. The magnetization measurements revealed a small increase of saturation magnetization (Ms) of about 4% upon proton irradiation of the sample, in which, the magnetic field was applied parallel to the c-axis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for pristine and irradiated FGT revealed a general decrease in intensity after irradiation for Ge and Te and an increase in peak intensity of unavoidable surface iron oxide. Furthermore, no noticeable change in the Curie temperature (TC =152 K) is observed in temperature dependent magnetization variation. This work signifies the importance of employing protons in tuning the magnetic properties of vdW materials.
Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) and La-, Nd- and Gd-substituted bismuth ferrite of the Bi1-xLaxFeO3, Bi1-xNdxFeO3, and Bi1-xGdxFeO3 types with the atomic part of the substitution element x equal up to 0.20 were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method using powders of oxides Bi2O3, Fe2O3, and La2O3, or Nd2O3, or Gd2O3 of pure grade quality and investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis. The magnetization was measured in the magnetic field up to 6.5⋅106 A/m at 5 and 300 K. It was found that the total substitution up to 0.20 atomic part of Bi by La, Nd, and Gd leads to the paramagnetic behavior of the doped bismuth ferrite at low temperatures in a wide range of magnetic field. Strong nonlinear dependence of magnetization on the magnetic field was detected and a ferromagnetic-like dependence of magnetization was observed for small magnetic fields. This can be explained by the exchange interaction between doping magnetic ions, as well as by the exchange interaction of these ions with ions of iron. The enhancement of magnetic properties with the increase of the content of the substitution is monotone and is more pronounced for the Bi1-xGdxFeO3 ceramics.