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Infants’ high negative affectivity often initiates maladaptive parent-child relational processes that may involve both the parent’s and the child’s sides of the relationship. We proposed that infants’ high negative affectivity triggers distinct sequelae in dyads classified as avoidant, resistant, and disorganized, compared to secure dyads. In 200 community families, at 8 months, we observed infants’ negative affectivity; at 16 months, we assessed attachment organization and collected observations and reports of parent-related (responsiveness, resentment of child, power assertion, and intrusiveness) and child-related (social-emotional competence, opposition, and anger) constructs. In mother-child avoidant dyads, infants’ high negative affectivity was a significant precursor of mothers’ higher resentment and intrusiveness and children’s lower social-emotional competence. Those associations were significantly different than in secure dyads (in which none were significant). In father-child disorganized dyads, infants’ high negative affectivity was a significant precursor of fathers’ lower responsiveness and higher resentment; there were no association in secure dyads. Regardless of infants’ negative affectivity, compared to secure dyads, parents in resistant dyads expressed more resentment of child, and avoidant and resistant children were more oppositional to their fathers. The study illustrates multifinality in parent- and child-related processes that characterize unfolding early relational dynamics in dyads differing in just-emerging attachment.
Changes between diet quality and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) over 12 years were examined in men and women, in 2844 adults (46 % males; mean age 47·3 (sd 9·7) years) from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study with data at baseline, 5 and 12 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a seventy-four-item FFQ. Diet quality was estimated with the Dietary Guideline Index, Mediterranean-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Intervention for Neurological Delay Index (MIND) and Dietary Inflammatory Index. HR-QoL in terms of global, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) was assessed with the Short-Form Health Survey-36. Fixed effects regression models adjusted for confounders were performed. Mean MCS increased from baseline (49·0, sd 9·3) to year 12 (50·7, sd 9·1), whereas mean PCS decreased from baseline (51·7, sd 7·4) to year 12 (49·5, sd 8·6). For the total sample, an improvement in MIND was associated with an improvement in global QoL (β = 0·28, 95 % CI (0·007, 0·55)). In men, an improvement in MIND was associated with an improvement in global QoL (β = 0·28, 95 % CI (0·0004, 0·55)). In women, improvement in MIND was associated with improvements in global QoL (β = 0·62 95 % CI (0·38, 0·85)), MCS (β = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·29, 1·22)) and PCS (β = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·29, 1·22)). Positive changes in diet quality were associated with broad improvements in HR-QoL, and most benefits were observed in women when compared to men. These findings support the need for strategies to assist the population in consuming healthy dietary patterns to lead to improvements in HR-QoL.
The chapter explains the basic principles of linguistic change from a sociolinguistic variationist perspective. It begins with an explanation of the inextricable relationship between linguistic variation and change, and proceeds to demonstrate how language change can be observed, investigated, and explained. Sociolinguists can document and analyse language change using either the real-time method or the apparent-time construct; these methods and their advantages and pitfalls are explained and exemplified.
There is a paucity of long-term treatment outcome studies among children and adolescents after natural disasters. This chapter summarizes findings from three long-term studies among severely traumatized early adolescents after the 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia, including a twenty-five-year follow-up that represents the most extended prospective treatment outcome study to date after a disaster. School-based trauma-grief-focused psychotherapy was provided at 1.5 years post-earthquake. The intervention addressed trauma and loss experiences due to the earthquake; post-trauma distress reactions, including PTSD and grief; current problems and adversities; trauma and loss reminders, interpersonal conflicts, and developmental progression. The findings showed significant long-term benefits of treatment in reducing PTSD and depressive symptoms. We also present findings regarding differences in recovery trajectories among treated and not treated subjects and risk and protective factors associated with PTSD and depression. Despite the improvements, a sub-group of the students continued to experience earthquake-related chronic PTSD and depressive symptoms at twenty-five-year follow-up, indicating the need for ongoing surveillance of severely traumatized survivors. The findings underscore the benefit of post-disaster therapeutic intervention, social support by family members and friends, and the need for assistance by governmental and non-governmental agencies to mitigate post-disaster adversities that contributed significantly to the chronicity of symptoms.
Multiple risk behaviours (MRBs), typically beginning in adolescence, are associated with increased risk of adverse health and social outcomes. The association between autism and MRBs is little understood.
Data were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an UK-based longitudinal, birth cohort study. Exposures were diagnosed autism and four autistic traits: social communication difficulties, pragmatic language, repetitive behaviours and reduced sociability. Outcomes were participation in up to 14 risk behaviours, including alcohol consumption, smoking, risky sexual behaviours and physical inactivity. Outcome data were collected at ages approximately 12, 14, 16 and 18.
Up to 4300 participants were included in latent basis growth curve analyses with adjustment for confounders. Social communication difficulties were associated with an above average level of MRBs engagement at ~12 years (mean difference β 0.26; 95% CI 0.13–0.40), and above average rate of engagement from ages ~12–18 (β 0.08; 95% CI 0.02–0.13). Repetitive behaviours were associated with above average levels of engagement in MRBs at ~12 years (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.09–0.38). Contrastingly, reduced sociability was associated with a reduced rate of engagement in MRBs from ages ~12–18 (β −0.06; 95% CI −0.11 to −0.02). In sex-specific analyses, persisting differences in MRB engagement patterns from ages ~12–18 were observed in males with social communication difficulties and females with reduced sociability temperament.
Having elevated levels of some autistic traits appear to have differentiated effects on MRB engagement patterns. These findings could reflect difficulties fitting in and/or coping mechanisms relating to difficulties with fitting in.
Ultra-processed foods (UPF) have been associated with cardiometabolic outcomes, but the literature has still not reported their association with the incidence of dyslipidaemias, one of the most important risk factors for the occurrence of CVD. The objective of this study was to verify the association between consumption of UPF and incidence of dyslipidaemia in Brazilian civil servants at a 4-year follow-up. The study used data from 5275 participants at baseline and on the first follow-up visit in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We applied a FFQ at baseline and identified UPF from NOVA classification of foods as to the extent and purpose of processing. The proportion (weight) of UPF in the total diet was calculated for each participant and categorised in tertiles, corresponding to low (first tertile), medium (second tertile) and high (third tertile) consumption. A mixed-effects logistic model was used to obtain the incidence of dyslipidaemia associated with the consumption of UPF. Individuals with medium and high consumption of UPF showed increases in the risks of development of isolated hypercholesterolaemia by 12 % (OR = 1·12, CI 1·00, 1·27) and 28 % (OR = 1·28, CI 1·12, 1·47), of isolated hypertriacylglycerolaemia by 14 % (OR = 1·14, CI 1·03, 1·26) and 30 % (OR = 1·30, CI 1·17–1·45), of mixed hyperlipidaemia by 21 % (OR = 1·21, CI 1·05, 1·39) and 38 % (OR = 1·38, CI 1·18, 1·62), and of low-HDL by 12 % (OR = 1·12, CI 1·00–1·24) and 18 % (OR = 1·18, CI 1·05, 1·32), respectively, compared with participants who consumed less UPF. Our findings showed important cardiovascular risk associated with the consumption of UPF and a gradient in the consumption’s effect, so these products should be discouraged.
This chapter explains how to design experiments to study black-box corporate surveillance systems. The chapter first examines the kinds of research questions that can be asked about corporate surveillance systems. Then, it describes different high-level study designs for transparency research, followed by a look at longitudinal studies and how they can be conducted. After examining the challenges that transparency researchers face in designing these experiments, the chapter focuses on input variables that are influenced and varied during an experiment, variables that are outside the experimenter's influence, and variables that are measured (response or output variables).
The course over time of religious delusions (RDs) in late-life schizophrenia and psychotic depression may be relevant to know how long certain aspects of RDs may affect treatment. The present study examines (1) the 1-year follow-up of RDs and other prevalent delusions, (2) the association between RDs and the clinical course of psychotic depression and schizophrenia compared to those without RDs, and (3) associations of RDs and other prevalent delusions with “indicators of complexity” (e.g., suicidality, refusing medication).
Prospective study (half year and 1-year follow-up combined).
Outpatients and inpatients in Geriatric Psychiatry Institution of Yulius, South-Holland, the Netherlands.
One hundred and thirty seven older adult patients, mean age 76.3 (s.d. 8.1).
Natural follow-up study.
Diagnostic interview measures included Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN 2.1), positive psychosis items of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-42 (CAPE), and the 20-item measures from the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
Although RDs in older adults decline in the clinical course of psychotic depression, the course is unfavorable compared to psychotic depression without RDs with regard to depressive symptom severity as measured by CES-D. No significant differences were noted in relation to clinical course of positive psychotic symptoms for both psychotic depression and schizophrenia. In schizophrenia, RDs persist more frequently compared to the most prevalent delusions. No significant difference was observed between patients with RDs compared to patients without RDs regarding indicators of clinical complexity.
RDs predicting a less favorable course over time in psychotic depression. In schizophrenia, RDs appears to be relatively pervasive.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is highly heritable, and AD polygenic risk scores (AD-PRSs) have been derived from genome-wide association studies. However, the nature of genetic influences very early in the disease process is still not well known. Here we tested the hypothesis that an AD-PRSs would be associated with changes in episodic memory and executive function across late midlife in men who were cognitively unimpaired at their baseline midlife assessment..
We examined 1168 men in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA) who were cognitively normal (CN) at their first of up to three assessments across 12 years (mean ages 56, 62, and 68). Latent growth models of episodic memory and executive function were based on 6–7 tests/subtests. AD-PRSs were based on Kunkle et al. (Nature Genetics, 51, 414–430, 2019), p < 5×10−8 threshold.
AD-PRSs were correlated with linear slopes of change for both cognitive abilities. Men with higher AD-PRSs had steeper declines in both memory (r = −.19, 95% CI [−.35, −.03]) and executive functioning (r = −.27, 95% CI [−.49, −.05]). Associations appeared driven by a combination of APOE and non-APOE genetic influences.
Memory is most characteristically impaired in AD, but executive functions are one of the first cognitive abilities to decline in midlife in normal aging. This study is among the first to demonstrate that this early decline also relates to AD genetic influences, even in men CN at baseline.
To investigate the associations of physical-activity trajectories with the level of cognitive performance (CP) and its decline in adults 50 years of age or older.
We studied 38 729 individuals (63 ± 9 years; 57% women) enrolled in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Physical activity was self-reported and CP was assessed based on immediate recall, verbal fluency and delayed recall. Physical-activity trajectories were estimated using growth mixture modelling and linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the associations between the trajectories and CP.
The models identified two trajectories of physical activity: constantly high physical activity (N = 27 634: 71%) and decreasing physical activity (N = 11 095; 29%). Results showed that participants in the decreasing physical-activity group exhibited a lower level of CP compared to the high physical-activity group (immediate recall: ß = 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92–0.95; verbal fluency: ß = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97–0.98; delayed recall: ß = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.94–0.97). Moreover, compared with participants in the constantly high physical-activity group, participants in the decreasing physical-activity group showed a steeper decline in all cognitive measures (immediate recall: ß = −0.04; 95% CI = −0.05 to −0.04; verbal fluency: ß = −0.22; 95% CI = −0.24 to −0.21; delayed recall: ß = −0.04; 95% CI = −0.05 to −0.04).
Physical-activity trajectories are associated with the level and evolution of CP in adults over 50 years. Specifically, our findings suggest that a decline in physical activity over multiple years is associated with a lower level and a steeper decline in CP.
Little is known about which factors exacerbate and buffer the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related adversities on changes in thinking about and engaging in self-harm over time.
To examine how changes in four social factors contribute to changes in self-harm thoughts and behaviours over time and how these factors in turn interact with adversities and worries about adversities to increase risk for these outcomes.
Data from 49 227 UK adults in the UCL COVID-19 Social Study were analysed across the first 59 weeks of the pandemic. Fixed-effects logistic regressions examined time-varying associations between social support quality, loneliness, number of days of face-to-face contact for >15 min and number of days phoning/video calling for ≥15 min with self-harm thoughts and behaviours. We then examined how these four factors in turn interacted with the total number of adversities and worries about adversity and how this affected outcomes.
Increases in the quality of social support were associated with decreases in the likelihood of both outcomes, whereas greater loneliness was associated with an increase in their likelihood. Associations were less clear for telephone/video contact and face-to-face contact with outcomes. Social support buffered and loneliness exacerbated the impact of adversity experiences on self-harm behaviours.
These findings suggest the importance of the quality of one's social support network, rather than the mere presence of contact, for reducing the likelihood of self-harm behaviours in the context of COVID-19 pandemic-related adversity and worry.
There is concern that the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath will result in excess suicides by increasing known risk factors such as self-harm, but evidence on how pandemic-related risk factors contribute to changes in these outcomes is lacking.
To examine how different COVID-19-related experiences of and worries about adversity contribute to changes in self-harm thoughts and behaviours.
Data from 49 324 UK adults in the University College London COVID-19 Social Study were analysed (1 April 2020 to 17 May 2021). Fixed-effects regressions explored associations between weekly within-person variation in five categories of adversity experience and adversity worries with changes in self-harm thoughts and behaviours across age groups (18–29, 30–44, 45–59 and 60+ years).
In total, 26.1% and 7.9% of respondents reported self-harm thoughts and behaviours respectively at least once over the study period. The number of adverse experiences was more strongly related to outcomes than the number of worries. The largest specific adversity contributing to increases in both outcomes was having experienced physical or psychological abuse. Financial worries increased the likelihood of both outcomes in most age groups, and having had COVID-19 increased the likelihood of both outcomes in young (18–29 years) and middle-aged (45–59 years) adults.
Findings suggest that a significant portion of UK adults may be at increased risk for self-harm thoughts and behaviours during the pandemic. Given the likelihood that the economic and social consequences of the pandemic will accumulate, policy makers can begin adapting evidence-based suicide prevention strategies and other social policies to help mitigate its consequences.
Previous work using a US sample has shown that an index of social deprivation (SoDep Index) is associated with cognitive functioning and decline in older adults. This study aimed to replicate these findings using a European sample (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, SHARE).
We analyzed data of 51,630 respondents aged 50 years and older (M: 63.5 years, standard deviation [SD]: 9.1) with at least two cognitive assessments (follow-up M: 6.06 years, SD: 3.86). Cognitive scores were transformed to Z-scores. Multiple growth curve modeling was used to model cognitive status and decline as predicted by the SoDep Index. In a sensitivity analysis, we constructed a new SoDep Index (SoDep Indexnew) including further social deprivation domains.
Adjusting for covariates, a unit increase in SoDep Index was associated with a cognitive score of 0.037 SDs smaller (p < .001) and a decline 0.003 SDs per year faster (p < .001). Of the covariates, depressive symptoms, chronic disease burden, male gender, and widowhood were also associated with poorer cognition. Being divorced was associated with better cognition. Sensitivity analysis confirmed findings. Compared to the SoDep Index, the SoDep Indexnew showed a more pronounced association with both cognition and cognitive decline.
We were able to replicate results showing an association between SoDep Index and cognitive function and decline. The sensitivity analysis further emphasizes the relevance of financial security. This strengthens the implication that preventing social deprivation can contribute to reducing the dementia burden by raising cognitive functioning in the older population. The findings are relevant to policy-makers and health care practitioners.
Recent network models propose that mutual interaction between symptoms has an important bearing on the onset of schizophrenic disorder. In particular, cross-sectional studies suggest that affective symptoms may influence the emergence of psychotic symptoms. However, longitudinal analysis offers a more compelling test for causation: the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC) provides data suitable for this purpose. We predicted that the persistence of psychotic symptoms would be driven by the continuing presence of affective disturbance.
EuroSC included 1208 patients randomly sampled from outpatient services in France, Germany and the UK. Initial measures of psychotic and affective symptoms were repeated four times at 6-month intervals, thereby furnishing five time-points. To examine interactions between symptoms both within and between time-slices, we adopted a novel technique for modelling longitudinal data in psychiatry. This was a form of Bayesian network analysis that involved learning dynamic directed acyclic graphs (DAGs).
Our DAG analysis suggests that the main drivers of symptoms in this long-term sample were delusions and paranoid thinking. These led to affective disturbance, not vice versa as we initially predicted. The enduring relationship between symptoms was unaffected by whether patients were receiving first- or second-generation antipsychotic medication.
In this cohort of people with chronic schizophrenia treated with medication, symptoms were essentially stable over long periods. However, affective symptoms appeared driven by the persistence of delusions and persecutory thinking, a finding not previously reported. Although our findings as ever remain hostage to unmeasured confounders, these enduring psychotic symptoms might nevertheless be appropriate candidates for directly targeted psychological interventions.
Characteristics of the neighbourhood environment, including population density, social fragmentation, and trust, have been linked to mental health outcomes. Using a longitudinal population-based cohort, we explored the relationship between objective and subjective neighbourhood characteristics and the odds of suicidal thoughts and attempts.
We conducted a longitudinal study of 20764 participants living in Stockholm County who participated in the Stockholm Public Health Survey. We used multilevel modelling to examine if suicidal thoughts and attempts were associated with neighbourhood characteristics, independent of individual associations. We included objective and subjective measures to explore if there was a different relationship between these measures of the neighbourhood environment and suicidality.
Associations between neighbourhood factors and suicidality were predominantly explained by individual characteristics, with the exception of neighbourhood-level deprivation and average residential trust. Each unit increase of deprivation was linked to increased odds of suicidal thoughts [Odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.07] and attempts (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17). Decreasing residential trust was associated with increased odds of suicide attempts (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17). There was no evidence that neighbourhood-level fragmentation or average trust in public and political institutions had an independent effect on suicidality once individual and sociodemographic factors were accounted for.
This study showed that much of the neighbourhood-level variation in suicidal thoughts and attempts could be explained by compositional factors, including sociodemographic clustering within neighbourhoods. The independent effect of neighbourhood-level deprivation and average residential trust provide evidence that the neighbourhood context may exert an independent effect on suicidality beyond the impact of individual characteristics.
Numerous studies on the development of memory strategies have been carried out since the mid-1960s. Chapters 4 and 5 summarize major findings of this research program. My comments elaborate on core results in this field, focusing on interrelationships among strategy use, metacognitive knowledge, and domain knowledge during the course of childhood and adolescence. It is demonstrated that longitudinal research, in particular, research carried out in educational contexts, significantly adds to our knowledge in this field. Moreover, it is shown that research findings presented by Peter Ornstein and his colleagues considerably contributed to our understanding of children’s memory strategy development.
The transition from childhood to adolescence is a sensitive period, triggering changes in health- and weight-related behaviours including eating habits which likely vary between girls and boys. We aimed to characterise the changes in the frequency of consumption of select sugary foods and drinks (‘sweet treats’) among 4237 Finnish girls and boys during a 2-year follow-up period. Additionally, we examined four subgroups: children whose weight or waist normalised as well as children whose weight or waist circumference increased during follow-up. An FFQ was completed at 11·1 (sd 0·9) and again at 13·4 (sd 1·1) years of age. A sum variable sweet treat index (STI, range 0–84) captured the weekly consumption frequencies of sweet treats. From baseline to follow-up, the mean STI decreased among girls from 7·1 (95 % CI 6·9, 7·3) to 6·0 (95 % CI 5·9, 6·2) (P < 0·001) and boys from 8·5 (95 % CI 8·3, 8·8) to 7·8 (95 % CI 7·6, 7·8) (P < 0·001), although both sexes increased their chocolate/sweets consumption: girls from 1·3 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·6 (95 % CI 1·5, 1·6) (P < 0·001) and boys from 1·4 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·6 (95 % CI 1·6, 1·7) (P < 0·001), and boys increased their soft drink consumption from 1·4 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·5 (95 % CI 1·4, 1·5) (P = 0·020). We found similar decreases in both the weight and waist subgroups. To conclude, the total frequency of consumption of sweet treats decreased during early adolescence. A similar trend across subgroups suggests that the frequency of consumption of sweet treats is unrelated to becoming overweight.
Exposure to chronic early trauma carries lasting effects on children's well-being and adaptation. Guided by models on resilience, we assessed the interplay of biological, emotional, cognitive, and relational factors in shaping two regulatory outcomes in trauma-exposed youth: emotion recognition (ER) and executive functions (EF). A unique war-exposed cohort was followed from early childhood to early adolescence. At preadolescence (11–13 years), ER and EF were assessed and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), biomarker of parasympathetic regulation, was quantified. Mother–child dyadic reciprocity, child's avoidance symptoms, and cortisol (CT) were measured in early childhood. Trauma-exposed youth displayed impaired ER and EF abilities. Conditional process analysis described two differential indirect paths leading from early trauma to regulatory outcomes. ER was mediated by avoidance symptoms in early childhood and modulated by cortisol, such that this path was evident only for preadolescents with high, but not low, CT. In comparison, EF was mediated by the degree of dyadic reciprocity experienced in early childhood and modulated by RSA, observed only among youth with lower RSA. Findings pinpoint trauma-related disruptions to key regulatory support systems in preadolescence as mediated by early-childhood relational, clinical, and physiological factors and highlight the need to specify biobehavioral precursors of resilience toward targeted early interventions.
Richard E. Tremblay was born in Canada in 1944. He is Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics and Psychology at the University of Montreal (Canada) and Emeritus Professor of Public Health at University College Dublin (Ireland). He received the Stockholm Prize in Criminology and the John Paul Scott Award for lifetime contributions to research on aggression from the International Society for Research on Aggression. He participated in the creation of numerous longitudinal and experimental studies to unravel the early development of chronic physical aggression and to identify effective early preventive interventions. He systematically used an integrated bio-psycho-social approach. He initially showed that boys’ frequency of physical aggressions from kindergarten to adolescence decreased, rather than increased with age as would be expected from a social learning perspective. With a study starting in infancy, he then showed that infants start to physically aggress before the end of the first year after birth and that frequency of physical aggressions substantially increase between 8 and 42 months of age, followed by a universal decrease in physical aggression frequency until adulthood. He also initiated the Montreal experimental preventive intervention with physically aggressive kindergarten boys from low socio-economic environments, which showed significant reductions of substance abuse, school drop-out, juvenile delinquency, and adult criminality.
Friedrich Lösel was born in Germany in 1945. He is Emeritus Professor at Cambridge University (UK), as well as Erlangen University and Berlin Psychological University in Germany. He received the Stockholm Prize in Criminology, the Sellin-Glueck Award from the American Society of Criminology, and the Joan McCord Award from the Academy of Experimental Criminology. He created the Erlangen–Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (ENDPS), which combined a prospective longitudinal and experimental design and investigated more than 600 children and their families from kindergarten to adolescence. The ENDPS showed that accumulated individual and social risk factors at preschool age predicted behavior problems in youth, but there was also developmental flexibility. The prevention part of the ENDPS implemented a universal training of child social skills, a parent training on positive parenting, and a combination of both. There were substantial short-term effects and promising outcomes after 10 years. The ENDPS team trained about 2,000 facilitators for a nationwide dissemination of the program. He also carried out an important longitudinal study on school bullying showing that intensive bullying perpetration was not only a school phenomenon but correlated with violence in other contexts and with criminal behavior in adulthood.