To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Whilst child language research has a long history of the examination of developmental change, it is only relatively recently that research methods have been employed that allow us to understand the nature and drivers of individual differences in child language development across a population. This chapter presents findings from studies examining children’s language trajectories from early childhood to adolescence using data from epidemiological studies in which large, population-ascertained samples are followed prospectively. Findings from studies using epidemiological methods to examine individual differences in child language trajectories are identified, and how these findings can inform public health models of intervention, considering primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, is considered. First, the implications for the design of services for pre-school children (0–4 years) is considered. Key learning points to methods for targeting interventions and the identification of potential levers for language growth which could be harnessed for preventative intervention. The chapter then turns to language trajectories in school-age children (here 4–11 years) and discusses the identification of those most in need of additional support and examines what intervention and trajectory research together tell us about the best targets for interventions. Recommendations for services and priorities for research are then identified.
Language is fundamental to success in many life domains, and children showing vulnerabilities in their language development may be at risk of poorer lifelong outcomes. This chapter synthesises evidence from longitudinal population-based and community samples to describe the long-term psychosocial outcomes associated with a history of language problems. Notably, this chapter centres on the outcomes of late talkers and children with developmental language disorder (DLD). The chapter begins by profiling the outcomes experienced when language difficulties are identified at a single point in the child’s development. Next, the influence of changes in language profiles over time on the long-term psychosocial outcomes is considered. Throughout the chapter, outcomes are explored across key areas including literacy and numeracy, educational and vocational attainment, emotional and behavioural functioning, social connections, and mental health and well-being. The studies presented show that while heterogeneity exists, children with language problems at one point in development are at increased risk of difficulties in other domains of life, and these adverse outcomes can persist into adulthood.
Socio-economic differences in language have been noted as an important potential driver of ‘social reproduction’ – the transmission of socio-economic status from parents to children. Levels of language and vocabulary knowledge have also been implicated in wider social outcomes. This chapter provides a sociological perspective on language and vocabulary differences, and summarises some key empirical findings on a programme of work using UK birth cohort data. We address social inequalities in vocabulary, mechanisms of intergenerational transmission, and the role of reading for pleasure
The current study investigated whether prosocial behavior and emotional problems, peer problems, conduct problems, and hyperactivity and inattention problems were long-term longitudinally and bidirectionally related at inter- and or intra-individual levels from early childhood through mid-adolescence. Parents in the United Kingdom reported their child’s prosocial behavior and multidimensional psychopathology at ages 3, 5, 7, 11, and 14 years (N = 16,984, 51% male, 83% White). Four random intercepts cross-lagged panel models were fitted. Higher levels of earlier prosocial behavior were associated with greater than expected decrements in psychopathology. At an intraindividual, within-person level, prosocial behavior was negatively bidirectionally associated with peer, conduct, and hyperactivity and inattention problems. Also at an intraindividual, within-person level, prosocial behavior was unidirectionally protective against emotional problems. At an interindividual level, prosocial behavior and each dimension of psychopathology were negatively associated. Therefore, engaging in prosocial behavior can reduce psychopathological symptoms over time (and vice versa), and youth who are more prosocial also tend to experience fewer psychopathological symptoms. Intraindividual associations were small while interindividual associations were moderate to large. Implications for theory, future research, and evidence-based interventions are discussed.
Infants become increasingly exposed to sweet-tasting foods in their first year of life. However, it is still unclear whether repeated exposure to sweet taste is linked to infants’ sweetness liking during this period. Making use of data from the OPALINE cohort, this study aimed to examine the link between sweetness exposure and sweetness liking during two important periods in early infant feeding: at the start of complementary feeding (3-6 months) and the transition to the family table (10-12 months). Infants’ sweetness exposure was assessed using seven-day food records which were completed by mothers every month (n=312), reporting daily consumption rates of formula/breast milk or complementary food and the type of formula milk and/or complementary foods for each feeding occasion. Infants’ sweetness liking was studied in the laboratory at three, six, and twelve months of age by assessing their response to a lactose-water solution and the amount drunk of this solution compared to plain water. Linear regressions and SEM assessed associations between exposure to and liking for sweetness at six and twelve months. Neither at six (n=182) nor at twelve months (n=197) was sweetness exposure associated with sweetness liking. While sweetness liking at three months was unrelated to liking at six months, the latter predicted sweetness liking at twelve months. These findings demonstrate no association between sweetness exposure at three to twelve months and liking at six and twelve months despite a sharp increase in sweetness exposure in that period. However, sweetness liking at six and twelve months was positively associated.
Stress is associated with binge eating and emotional eating (EE) cross-sectionally. However, few studies have examined stress longitudinally, limiting understanding of how within-person fluctuations in stress influence EE over time and whether stress is a risk factor or consequence of EE. Additionally, little is known regarding how the biological stress response relates to EE.
We used an intensive, longitudinal design to examine between-person and within-person effects of major life stress, daily stress, and cortisol on EE in a population-based sample of women (N = 477; ages 15–30; M = 21.8; s.d. = 3.0) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Participants reported past year major life stress, then provided daily ratings of EE and stress for 49 consecutive days. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was collected as a longitudinal biological stress measure.
Women reported greater EE when they experienced greater mean stress across days (between-person effects) or greater stress relative to their own average on a given day (within-person effects). Daily stress was more strongly associated with EE than major life stress. However, the impact of daily stress on EE was amplified in women with greater past year major life stress. Finally, participants with lower HCC had increased EE.
Findings confirm longitudinal associations between stress and EE in women, and highlight the importance of within-person shifts in stress in EE risk. Results also highlight HCC as a novel biological stress measure that is significantly associated with EE and may overcome limitations of prior physiological stress response indicators.
We know a great deal about children’s first steps into reading. Here, we explore how they become more sophisticated readers, learning to read complex words. Theoretical accounts predict that one key factor is morphological awareness, or awareness of the minimal units of meaning in language. And yet empirical studies have yet to clarify whether morphological awareness has a stronger relation to the development of reading skill for words with multiple morphemes in particular (i.e., morphological decoding) or to the reading of a whole range of words. We examined this question in this study by contrasting the role of morphological awareness in the development of morphological decoding and of broader word reading skill. Participants were 197 English-speaking children who were followed from Grade 3 to 4. We conducted longitudinal analyses that included stringent autoregressive controls to capture the determinants of gains over time, as well as controls for vocabulary and phonological awareness. Structural equation modeling (SEM) path analysis with this set of controls revealed that morphological awareness predicted significant unique gains in morphological decoding from Grade 3 to 4 with no such unique contributions to broader word reading skill. These findings clarify the role of morphological awareness in supporting children in developing the ability to read morphologically complex words, supporting a more targeted role for morphology in theories of word reading development.
Meeting individuals' social care needs is a core element of UK social policy. However, the conceptualisation and operationalisation of ‘unmet need’ remain a challenge. This paper advances our understanding by incorporating a temporal dimension into the conceptual framework on unmet need to investigate the dynamics of met and unmet need for social care over time. Using data from Waves 8 and 9 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper examines five possible trajectories among individuals with a social care need for bathing or dressing at baseline: (a) no longer having such a need; (b) having continued needs met; (c) delayed needs met; (d) newly arisen unmet needs; and (e) repeated unmet needs. The results indicate that amongst those with need at baseline, unmet need has decreased over time – indicating that some needs for social care may be fulfilled with a delay. However, a significant proportion of older people experienced repeated unmet needs, particularly those who were younger, with no spouse or civil partner, and those whose activities of daily living index scores worsened over time. Understanding the dynamics of unmet need can support policy makers in better ensuring that those facing an elevated risk of repeated unmet need over time do not fall through the social care safety net.
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a risk factor for suicide, yet how changes in NSSI engagement relate to suicide ideation, planning, and attempts remains largely unknown. The current study aims to fill this gap by examining how changes in NSSI frequency over time related to concurrent changes in suicide thoughts and behaviors.
Data came from a sample of 403 self-injuring young adults who completed assessments of NSSI and suicide thoughts and behaviors at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Bivariate latent growth modeling, adjusting for covariates of lifetime NSSI frequency and treatment status, was used to examine the extent to which changes in NSSI frequency related to suicide ideation and suicide planning.
The frequency of NSSI declined across the study period. The slopes of NSSI and suicide ideation were significantly correlated, suggesting individuals with sharper declines in NSSI across time also showed sharper declines in suicide ideation. The intercepts between NSSI and suicide planning were significantly correlated, suggesting those with high NSSI frequency at baseline tended to report higher suicide planning across time. After covariate adjustment, the intercept of suicide planning marginally (p = 0.08) correlated with the slope of NSSI, tentatively suggesting that those who had less reductions in NSSI tended to have higher frequencies of suicide planning.
These results provide new evidence that changes in NSSI are related to subsequent changes in suicide thoughts and behaviors. Monitoring suicide risk among those with NSSI is important and treatment aiming to reduce NSSI may also reduce suicide risk.
Recent paradigm shifts suggest that psychopathology manifests through dynamic interactions between individual symptoms.
To investigate the longitudinal relationships between symptoms in a transdiagnostic sample of patients with psychiatric disorders.
A two-wave, cross-lagged panel network model of 15 nodes representing symptoms of depression, (social) anxiety and attenuated psychotic symptoms was estimated, using baseline and 1-year follow-up data of 222 individuals with psychiatric disorders. Centrality indices were calculated to determine important predictors and outcomes.
Our results demonstrated that the strongest relationships in the network were between (a) more suicidal ideation predicting more negative self-view, and (b) autoregressive relationships of social anxiety symptoms positively reinforcing themselves. Negative self-view was the most predictable node in the network as it had the highest ‘in-expected influence’ centrality, and may be an important transdiagnostic outcome symptom.
The results give insight into longitudinal interactions between symptoms, which interact in ways that do not adhere to broader diagnostic categories. Our results suggest that self-view can also be a transdiagnostic outcome of psychopathology rather than just a predictor, as is normally posited, and may especially have an important relationship with suicidal ideation. Overall, our study demonstrates the dynamic complexity of psychopathology, and further supports the importance of investigating symptom interactions of different psychopathological dimensions over time and across disorders.
The course of Bipolar Disorder (BD) is highly variable, with marked inter and intra-individual differences in symptoms and functioning. In this study, we identified illness trajectories across major clinical domains that could have etiological, prognostic, and therapeutic relevance.
Using the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) study, we performed univariate and multivariate trajectory modeling of depressive symptoms, manic symptoms, and psychosocial functioning. Multinomial regression was performed to identify baseline variables associated with poor outcome trajectories.
Depressive symptoms predominated, with most subjects being found in trajectories characterized by various degrees of depressive symptoms and 13% of subjects being classified in a poor outcome ‘persistently depressed’ trajectory. Most subjects experienced few manic symptoms, although approximately 10% of subjects followed a trajectory of persistently manic symptoms. Trajectory analysis of psychosocial functioning showed impairment in most of the sample, with little improvement during follow up. Multi-trajectory analyses highlighted significant impairment in subjects with persistently mixed and persistently depressed trajectories of illness. In general, poor outcome trajectories were marked by lower educational attainment, higher unemployment and disability, and a greater likelihood of adverse clinical features (rapid cycling and suicide attempts) and comorbid diagnoses (anxiety disorders, PTSD, and substance abuse/dependence disorders).
Subjects with BD can be classified into several trajectories of clinically relevant domains that are prognostically relevant and show differing degrees of associations with a broad range of negative clinical risk factors. The highest level of psychosocial disability was found in subjects with chronic mixed and depressive symptoms, who show limited improvement despite guideline-based treatment.
The current study aimed to assess trends, associated factors and the changes in these factors for exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) over the past two decades in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR).
The current study used a quasi-longitudinal design. Descriptive analyses were done with correction for complex survey design. Inferential analyses were done for survey years separately using multiple logistic regression. Finally, pooled logistic regression analysis was done using interaction terms to quantify the difference in association per year.
The current study used data from all provinces of Lao PDR collected in the years 2000, 2006, 2011/2012 and 2017.
Children aged six months or younger from Lao PDR.
EBF practice was estimated at 19·03 %, 26·87 %, 40·67 % and 44·89 % in the four survey years, respectively. Factors significantly associated with EBF included: region of residence, ethnicity, wealth index and age of child. Region and ethnicity saw significant changes in association, and the South developing positively over time as well as in the Lao-Thai ethnic group. Having had any antenatal visits was not associated with EBF practice, nor did this change over time.
Our study shows how EBF trends, and factors associated with EBF, changed over time. We applied an easily replicable methodology to assess similar public health phenomena. We argue that such analysis is particularly relevant for transitioning countries. In such rapidly evolving settings, it is crucial to take into account changing underlying factors when assessing and developing public health policy.
Transactional processes between parental support and adolescents’ depressive symptoms might differ in the short term versus long term. Therefore, this multi-sample study tested bidirectional within-family associations between perceived parental support and depressive symptoms in adolescents with datasets with varying measurement intervals: Daily (N = 244, Mage = 13.8 years, 38% male), bi-weekly (N = 256, Mage = 14.4 years, 29% male), three-monthly (N = 245, Mage = 13.9 years, 38% male), annual (N = 1,664, Mage = 11.1 years, 51% male), and biennial (N = 502, Mage = 13.8 years, 48% male). Preregistered random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPMs) showed negative between- and within-family correlations. Moreover, although the preregistered models showed no within-family lagged effect from perceived parental support to adolescent depressive symptoms at any timescale, an exploratory model demonstrated a negative lagged effect at a biennial timescale with the annual dataset. Concerning the reverse within-family lagged effect, increases in adolescent depressive symptoms predicted decreases in perceived parental support 2 weeks and 3 months later (relationship erosion effect). Most cross-lagged effects were not moderated by adolescent sex or neuroticism trait level. Thus, the findings mostly support adolescent-driven effects at understudied timescales and illustrate that within-family lagged effects do not generalize across timescales.
People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have cognitive decline, a risk which can be particularly threatening at old age. However, it is yet unclear whether initial cognitive decline renders one more susceptible to subsequent PTSD following exposure to traumatic events, whether initial PTSD precedes cognitive decline or whether the effects are reciprocal.
This study examined the bidirectional longitudinal associations between cognitive function and PTSD symptoms and whether this association is mediated by depressive symptoms.
The study used data from two waves of the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in 2013 and 2015. This study focused on adults aged 50 years and above (N = 567, mean age = 65.9 years). Each wave used three measures of cognition (recall, fluency, and numeracy) and PTSD symptoms following exposure to war-related events. Data were analyzed using mediation analysis with path analysis.
Initial PTSD symptoms predicted cognitive decline in recall and fluency two years later, while baseline cognitive function did not impact subsequent PTSD symptoms. Partial mediation showed that older adults with more PTSD symptoms had higher depressive symptoms, which in turn were linked to subsequent cognitive decline across all three measures.
This study reveals that PTSD symptoms are linked with subsequent cognitive decline, supporting approaches addressing this direction. It further indicates that part of this effect can be explained by increased depressive symptoms. Thus, treatment for depressive symptoms may help reduce cognitive decline due to PTSD.
Studying the dynamic patterns of dietary changes or stability (otherwise known as dietary trajectories) across the life course can provide important information about when and in whom to intervene with nutritional interventions. This article reviews evidence from longitudinal studies that describe dietary trajectories through the different life stages, covering early life, adolescence to young adulthood and from mid to late adulthood. Current findings suggest that the establishment of diet patterns likely occurs before 3 years of age and allude to other potential ‘windows of change’ in the life course such as the period of 7–9 years of age and during the period of adolescence and early adulthood. Examining diets using various diet parameters appears to be valuable in elucidating different aspects of the diet that can be changed to potentially alter trajectories. In adults, examining long-term diet trends at a population level can reveal shifts in eating patterns as countries undergo epidemiological and nutrition transitions and elucidate the longer-term impact of adherence to particular diets on the development of chronic diseases. While challenges such as the availability of adequate diet data points, consistency in the dietary assessment tools used and the limitations of statistical methods for trajectory modelling remain, integrating diet data with other lifestyle behaviours, high-dimensional biomarkers and genetics data into pattern analyses and examining them from a longitudinal approach, open up potential opportunities to gain deeper insights into diet–disease relationships and support the development of more holistic lifestyle disease prevention recommendations stratified for population groups.
This study examined struggles to establish autonomy and relatedness with peers in adolescence and early adulthood as predictors of advanced epigenetic aging assessed at age 30. Participants (N = 154; 67 male and 87 female) were observed repeatedly, along with close friends and romantic partners, from ages 13 through 29. Observed difficulty establishing close friendships characterized by mutual autonomy and relatedness from ages 13 to 18, an interview-assessed attachment state of mind lacking autonomy and valuing of attachment at 24, and self-reported difficulties in social integration across adolescence and adulthood were all linked to greater epigenetic age at 30, after accounting for chronological age, gender, race, and income. Analyses assessing the unique and combined effects of these factors, along with lifetime history of cigarette smoking, indicated that each of these factors, except for adult social integration, contributed uniquely to explaining epigenetic age acceleration. Results are interpreted as evidence that the adolescent preoccupation with peer relationships may be highly functional given the relevance of such relationships to long-term physical outcomes.
Little is known about the childhood antecedents and adult correlates of adolescent dual-harm (i.e. co-occurring self- and other-harm). We examine the longitudinal associations between (a) social and psychological risk factors in childhood and adolescent dual-harm and (b) adolescent dual-harm and social and mental health impairments in early adulthood.
Participants (N = 1482) are from a prospective longitudinal community-representative study. Dual-, self-, and other-harm were self-reported at ages 13, 15, and 17. Social and psychological risk factors in childhood were assessed between 7 and 11; early adult correlates at age 20. Groups with dual-harm, self-harm only, other-harm only, and no harm were compared.
Between 13 and 17, 7.2% of adolescents reported dual-harm (self-harm only: 16.2%; other-harm only: 13.3%). Some childhood risk factors (e.g. sensation-seeking, parental divorce, victimization by peers) characterized all harm groups; others were common to the dual- and self-harm (anxiety/depressive symptoms, relational aggression) or dual- and other-harm groups only (low self-control, substance use, delinquency). Adolescents with dual-harm had reported more physical aggression and harsh parenting, and lower school bonding in childhood than any other group. In early adulthood, they reported more anxiety/depressive symptoms, psychopathy symptoms, homicidal ideations, delinquency, and victimization experiences than any other group.
Adolescent dual-harm follows psychological problems and social disconnection in childhood and signals risk of psychopathology and isolation in early adulthood. To curb the burden from dual-harm, interventions must target adolescents, families, peer networks, and school environments. Differentiating youth with dual-harm from those with single-harm is important for developing personalized treatments.
Intellectual functioning (IQ) is lower in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls, with bipolar patients intermediate between the two. Declines in IQ mark the onset of schizophrenia, while stability is generally found post-onset. There are to date few studies on long-term IQ development in bipolar disorder. This study presents 10-year follow-up data on IQ, including premorbid IQ estimates, to track the developmental course from pre-onset levels to long-term outcomes in both patient groups compared to healthy controls.
We included 139 participants with schizophrenia, 76 with bipolar disorder and 125 healthy controls. Mixed model analyses were used to estimate developmental slopes for IQ scores from estimated premorbid level (NART IQ) through baseline (WASI IQ) measured within 12 months post-onset, to 10-year follow-up (WASI IQ), with pairwise group comparisons. The best fit was found using a model with a breakpoint at baseline assessment.
Only the schizophrenia group had significant declines from estimated premorbid to baseline IQ levels compared to controls. When comparing patient groups, schizophrenia patients had steeper declines than the bipolar group. Increases in IQ were found in all groups over the follow-up period.
Trajectories of IQ from premorbid level to 10-year follow-up indicated declines from estimated premorbid level to illness onset in both patient groups, followed by increases during the follow-up period. Schizophrenia patients had a steeper decline than bipolar patients. During follow-up, increases indicate developmental improvement for both patient groups, but with a maintained lag compared to healthy controls due to lower premorbid levels.
Recent neurodevelopmental and evolutionary theories offer strong theoretical rationales and some empirical evidence to support the importance of specific dimensions of early adversity. However, studies have often been limited by omission of other adversity dimensions, singular outcomes, and short follow up durations. 1,420 participants in the community, Great Smoky Mountains Study, were assessed up to eight times between age 9 and 16 for four dimensions of early adversity: Threat, Material Deprivation, Unpredictability, and Loss (as well as a Cumulative Adversity measure). Participants were followed up to four times in adulthood (ages 19, 21, 25, and 30) to measure psychiatric disorders, substance disorder, and “real-world” functioning. Every childhood adversity dimension was associated with multiple adult psychiatric, substance, or functional outcomes when tested simultaneously in a multivariable analysis that accounted for other childhood adversities. There was evidence of differential impact of dimensions of adversity exposure on proximal outcomes (e.g., material deprivation and IQ) and even on distal outcomes (e.g., threat and emotional functioning). There were similar levels of prediction between the best set of individual adversity scales and a single cumulative adversity measure when considering distal outcomes. All dimensions of childhood adversity have lasting, pleiotropic effects, on adult health and functioning, but these dimensions may act via distinct proximal pathways.
Military personnel deployed to combat and peacekeeping missions are exposed to high rates of traumatic events. Accumulating evidence suggests an important association between deployment and the development of other mental health symptoms beyond post-traumatic stress disorder.
This study examined the prevalence of agoraphobia, anxiety, depression, and hostility symptoms in a cohort of Dutch ISAF veterans (N = 978) from pre-deployment up to 10 years after homecoming. The interaction of potential moderating factors with the change in mental health symptoms relative to pre-deployment was investigated at each time point.
The probable prevalence of agoraphobia, anxiety, depression, and hostility symptoms significantly increased over time to respectively 6.5, 2.7, 3.5, and 6.2% at 10 years after deployment. Except for hostility symptoms, the probable prevalence at 10 years after deployment was the highest compared to all previous follow-up assessments. Importantly, less perceived social support after returning from deployment was found as a risk factor for all different mental health symptoms. Unit support was not associated with the development of mental health problems.
This study suggests a probable broad and long-term impact of deployment on the mental health of military service members. Due to the lack of a non-deployed control group, causal effects of deployment could not be demonstrated. Continued effort should nevertheless be made in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of mental health symptoms, even a decade after deployment. The findings also underscore the importance of social support after homecoming and its potential for the prevention of long-term mental health problems.