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The shape of emission lines in the optical spectra of star-forming galaxies reveals the kinematics of the diffuse gaseous component. We analyse the shape of prominent emission lines in a sample of
53000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, focusing on departures from gaussianity. Departures from a single gaussian profile allow us to probe the motion of gas and to assess the role of outflows. The sample is divided into groups according to their stellar velocity dispersion and star formation rate (SFR). The spectra within each group are stacked to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the emission lines, to remove individual signatures, and to enhance the effect of SFR on the shapes of the emission lines. The moments of the emission lines, including kurtosis and skewness, are determined. We find that most of the emission lines in strong star-forming systems unequivocally feature negative kurtosis. This signature is present in
, [N ii], and [S ii] in massive galaxies with high SFRs. We attribute it as evidence of radial outflows of ionised gas driven by the star formation of the galaxies. Also, most of the emission lines in low-mass systems with high SFRs feature negative skewness, and we interpret it as evidence of dust obscuration in the galactic disk. These signatures are however absent in the [O iii] line, which is believed to trace a different gas component. The observed trend is significantly stronger in face-on galaxies, indicating that star formation drives the outflows along the galactic rotation axis, presumably the path of least resistance. The data suggest that outflows driven by star formation exert accumulated impacts on the interstellar medium, and the outflow signature is more evident in older galaxies as they have experienced a longer total duration of star formation.
The detection of Earth-size exoplanets is a technological and data analysis challenge. Future progress in Earth-mass exoplanet detection is expected from the development of extreme precision radial velocity measurements. Increasing radial velocity precision requires developing a new physics-based data analysis methodology to discriminate planetary signals from host-star-related effects, taking stellar variability and instrumental uncertainties into account. In this work, we investigate and quantify stellar disturbances of the planet-hosting solar-type star HD121504 (G2V spectral type) from 3D radiative modeling obtained with the StellarBox code. The model has been used for determining statistical properties of the turbulent plasma and obtaining synthetic spectroscopic observations for several Fe I lines at different locations on the stellar disk to mimic high-resolution spectroscopic observations.
PRESTALINE is a package allowing a user to simulate and analyse spectra of various astrophysical objects. The package is based on the numerical models PRESTA (Kochina & Wiebe (2017)) and RADEX (van der Tak et al. (2007)). PRESTALINE provides the direct comparison of theoretical models with observations and allows estimating physical conditions in a studied object, such as kinetic temperature and chemical composition. Here we present the results of applying PRESTALINE to the test object DR21(OH) and discuss possible applications and future extensions of the project.
Detection of Earth-mass planets with the radial velocity method requires a precision of about 10cm/s to identify a signal caused by such a planet. At the same time, noise originating in the photospheric and subphotospheric layers of the parent star is of the order of meters per second. Understanding the physical nature of the photospheric noise (so-called stellar jitter) and characterizing it are critical for developing techniques to filter out these unwanted signals. We take advantage of current computational and technological capabilities to create 3D realistic models of stellar subsurface convection and atmospheres to characterize the photospheric jitter. We present 3D radiative hydrodynamic models of several solar-type target stars of various masses and metallicities, discuss how the turbulent surface dynamics and spectral line characteristics depend on stellar properties, and provide stellar jitter estimates for these stars.
Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) have long been known to be variable, but the amplitude, timescale and nature of these changes can often differ dramatically from object to object. The richest source of information about the properties of AGN and the physical processes driving these remains the optical spectrum. While this spectrum has remained remarkably steady over decades for some AGN, other objects, referred to as Changing Look AGN, have experienced a comprehensive spectral transformation. Developments in the detection technology have enabled detailed probing in other wavebands, highlighting for example often quite different variability patterns for high energy emission. This paper explores the current characteristics of some long-known (and almost forgotten) Seyfert galaxies. It compares their present optical spectral properties, determined from recent observations at the South African Astronomical Observatory, with those from much earlier epochs. It furthermore considers the implication of the changes that have taken place, alternatively the endurance of specific spectral features, on our understanding of the mechanisms of the observed targets in particular, and on AGN models in general.
For the past 25 years, we have been considering the Stark effect for neutral helium lines in DB white dwarfs using the standard Stark broadening theory in both the impact regime (in the center of the lines) and the quasi-static regime (in the wings) for the electrons, while neglecting the effect of ions in motion. Although this is probably a good approximation based on previous theoretical work, the transition between the two regimes for the electrons and the contribution of the ions very near the core might be poorly represented. To better represent these particularities, we report here the results of a new series of simulations that treat the local dynamics and interactions of both electrons and ions around a neutral helium atom. From these simulations, we produce new improved line profiles, which we compare with our previous analytical results.
The main sequence offers a method for the systematization of quasar spectral properties. Extreme FeII emitters (or extreme Population A, xA) are believed to be sources accreting matter at very high rates. They are easily identifiable along the quasar main sequence, in large spectroscopic surveys over a broad redshift range. The very high accretion rate makes it possible that massive black holes hosted in xA quasars radiate at a stable, extreme luminosity-to-mass ratio. After reviewing the basic interpretation of the main sequence, we report on the possibility of identifying virial broadening estimators from low-ionization line widths, and provide evidence of the conceptual validity of redshift-independent luminosities based on virial broadening for a known luminosity-to-mass ratio.
The growth of spectroscopic observations of exoplanetary systems allows the possibility of testing theoretical models and studying the interaction that exoplanetary atmospheres have with the wind and the energetic photons from the star. In this work, we present a set of numerical 3D simulations of HD 209458b for which spectral lines observations of their evaporative atmosphere are available. The different simulations aim to reproduce different scenarios for the star-planet interaction. With our models, we reconstruct the Lyα line during transit and compare with observations. The results allows us to analyse the shape of the line profile under these different scenarios and the comparison with the observations suggest that HD209458b may have a magnetic field off less than 1 G. We also explore the behaviour of the magnesium lines for models with and without magnetic fields.
High resolution spectra of stars in the ≈200 Myr LMC globular cluster, NGC 1866, reveal rapidly rotating stars with variable H α emission and absorption, and signatures of outflowing material. The variable H α line can substantially affect photometric measurements obtained with HST/WFC3 narrow-band filters.
The Belgian Repository of fundamental Atomic data and Stellar Spectra (BRASS) aims to provide one of the largest systematic and homogeneous quality assessment to date of literature atomic data required for stellar spectroscopy. By comparing state-of-the-art synthetic spectrum calculations with extremely high-quality observed benchmark spectra, we have critically evaluated fundamental atomic data, such as line wavelengths and oscillator strengths, for thousands of astrophysically-relevant transitions found in the literature and across several major atomic data repositories. These proceedings provide a short overview of the BRASS project to date, highlighting our recent efforts to investigate and quality-assess the atomic literature data pertaining to over a thousand atomic transitions present in FGK-type stellar spectra. BRASS provides all quality assessed data, theoretical spectra, and observed spectra in a new interactive database under development at brass.sdf.org.
Effective Landé g-factors (geff) are fundamental quantities in order to derive stellar magnetic field intensities. The determination of geff involves both total angular momenta and Landé g-factors of the transition levels. Theoretical g-factors are generally adopted, and the corresponding geff, often quite different from the one obtained in laboratory, affects the accuracy on magnetic field strength measurements. In this work we discuss a method to experimentally determine geff for highly ionised species, based on high resolution spectropolarimetry applied to Electron Cyclotron Resonance laboratory plasmas.
Accurate atomic data for line wavelengths, energy levels, line broadening such as hyperfine structure and isotope structure, and f-values, particularly for the line rich iron group elements, are needed for stellar astrophysics applications, and examples of recent measurements are given. These atomic data are essential for determination of elemental abundances in astronomical objects. With modern facilities, telescopes and spectrographs, access to underexplored regions (IR, UV, VUV), and improved stellar atmosphere models (3D, NLTE), and extremely large datasets, astronomers are tackling problems ranging from studying Galactic chemical evolution, to low mass stars and exoplanets. Such advances require improved accuracy and completeness of the atomic database for analyses of astrophysical spectra.
In this work, we present spectroscopic results of the variable star R Scuti, obtained during the campaign of measures led in 2016 at the Oukaimeden observatory in Morrocco. High resolution spectra (R ≍ 12 000) were obtained between 4289 Å and 7125 Å. This intensive observing campaign spanned over 26 nights from June to November 2016.
We present a high-resolution optical spectrum of the symbiotic nova RR Tel obtained with MIKE at Magellan-Clay telescope. RR Tel is a wide binary system of a hot white dwarf and a Mira with an orbital period of a few decades, where the white dwarf is accreting through gravitational capture of some fraction of material shed by the Mira. We find broad emission features at 6825, 7082, 7023, and 7053 Å, which are formed through Raman scattering of far-UV O VI ⋋⋋ 1032 and 1038 Å, C II ⋋⋋ 1036 and 1037 Å with atomic hydrogen. Raman O VI features exhibit clear double-peak profiles indicative of an accretion flow with a characteristic speed ∼ 30 km s−1, whereas the Raman C II features have a single Gaussian profile. We perform a profile analysis of the Raman O VI by assuming that O VI emission traces the accretion flow around the white dwarf with a fiducial scale of 1 AU. A comparison of the restored fluxes of C II ⋋⋋ 1036 and 1037 from Raman C II features with the observed C II ⋋ 1335 multiplet is consistent with the distance of RR Tel ∼ 2.6 kpc based on interstellar extinction of C II.
AGB stars are important contributors of processed matter to the ISM. However, the physical and chemical mechanisms involved in its ejection are still poorly known. This process is expected to have remarkable effects in the innermost envelope, where the dust grains are formed, the gas is accelerated, the chemistry is active, and the radiative excitation becomes important. A good tracer of this region in C-rich stars is SiS, an abundant refractory molecule that can display maser lines, very sensitive to changes in the physical conditions. We present high angular resolution interferometer observations (HPBW ≳0.″.25) of the v = 0 J = 14 – 13 and 15 – 14 SiS maser lines towards the archetypal AGB star IRC+10216, carried out with CARMA and ALMA to explore the inner 1” region around the central star. We also present an ambitious monitoring of these lines along one single pulsation period carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope.
HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite provided an unprecedented number of detections of rotational transitions of ammonia in circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars including massive red supergiants, Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), and post-AGB stars. The chemistry of ammonia formation in the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars is poorly understood. The mechanisms proposed for its formation are processes behind the shock front, photochemistry in the inner part of the clumpy envelope, and formation on dust grains. We present results of the non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer modeling of ammonia transitions, mainly of the ground-state rotational one NH3 JK = 10 – 00 at 572.5 GHz, in selected AGB stars, aiming at the quantitative estimation of the NH3 abundance. The model of ammonia includes IR radiative pumping via v2 = 1 vibrational band at 10 μm.
Kyiv program of monitoring of long-term variation of solar spectral lines at the horizontal solar telescope of the Main Astronomical Observatory of Ukraine is described. The aim of the program is to clarify the issue how the physical parameters of the quiet solar atmosphere change over the 11-year cycle of solar activity. The diagnostics of the atmospheric variation includes analysis of more than 40 spectral lines of neutral and ionized chemical elements observed at the solar disk and at the limb near north and south poles with high spectral resolution. The results of monitoring show that during 2012–2017 a line core depths and a line full widths at half maximum respond to the cycle modulation of the global unsigned magnetic field of the Sun. Such a correlation can be explained by assuming that temperature gradient of the solar photosphere is growing with solar activity.
Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is known to emit pulsed emission in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. It also emits giant radio pulses (GRPs) frequently, which are roughly a hundred to million times brighter than the normal pulses. We aim to study whether there is a significant X-ray enhancement correlated with the occurrence of GRPs, using simultaneous observations with the ASTROSAT, the Giant Meterwave Radio telescope (1300 MHz) and the Ooty Radio telescope (325 MHz). This required determination of fixed pipeline offsets between different instruments. We find the offset between ASTROSAT and GMRT to be −30.181 ± 0.095 ms and that between ASTROSAT and ORT to be −18.4 ± 0.2 ms. Our preliminary results with 1300 MHz data also show a break in pulse intensity distribution at ~ 33 Jy in the main pulse and ~ 28 Jy in the inter-pulse.
The SuperMALT survey is observing 76 MALT90 clumps at different evolutionary stages (from pre-stellar or quiescent to HII) in high excitation molecular lines and key isotopomers using the Apex 12m telescope with an angular resolution of ∼20” and a velocity resolution of ∼0.1 km/s. The aim of this survey is to determine the physical, chemical, and kinematical properties of the gas within clumps as they evolve. Here we report some preliminary results based on observations of the J=3-2 & 4-3 lines of HNC, HCN, HCO+, N2H+ and of the J=3-2 line of the isotopologue H13CO+. We find that the morphologies and line profiles vary with the evolutionary stage of the clumps. The average line width increases from quiescent to HII clumps while line ratios show hint of chemical differences among the various evolutionary stages.
We present Chandra X-ray grating spectroscopy of the B0.2V star, θ Carina. θ Car is in a critical transition region between the latest O-type and earliest B-type stars, where some stars are observed to have UV-determined wind densities much lower than theoretically expected (e.g., Marcolino et al. 2009). In general, X-ray emission in this low-density wind regime should be less prominent than for O-stars (e.g., Martins et al. 2005), but observations suggest a higher than expected X-ray emission filling factor (Lucy 2012; Huenemoerder et al. 2012); if a larger fraction of the wind is shock-heated, it could explain the weak UV wind signature seen in weak wind stars, but this might severely challenge predictions of radiatively-driven wind theory.
We measured the line widths of several He-, H-like and Fe ions and the f/i ratio of He-like ions in the X-ray spectrum, which improves upon the results from Nazé et al. (2008) (XMM-Newton RGS) with additional measurements (Chandra HETG) of Mgxi and Sixiii by further constraining the X-ray emission location. The f/i ratio is modified by the proximity to the UV-emitting stellar photosphere, and is therefore a diagnostic of the radial location of the X-ray emitting plasma. The measured widths of X-ray lines are narrow, <300 km s−1 and the f/i ratios place the X-rays relatively close to the surface, both implying θ Car is a weak wind star. The measured widths are also consistent with other later-type stars in the weak wind regime, β Cru (Cohen et al. 2008), for example, and are smaller on average than earlier weak wind stars such as μ Col (Huenemoerder et al. 2012). This could point to a spectral type divide, where one hypothesis, low density, works for early-B type stars and the other hypothesis, a larger fraction of shock-heated gas, explains weak winds in late-O type stars. Archival IUE data still needs to be analyzed to determine the mass loss rate and hydrodynamical simulations will be compared with observations to determine which hypothesis works for θ Car.