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Different species of Cyclocephala scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae) perform key functional roles in both natural and agricultural systems, such as the cycling of organic matter and pollination, while also being known as destructive pests both as immatures and adults. Therefore, the identification of biological parameters is crucial for defining strategies for their conservation and efficient pest management. In a forest fragment within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot, we field-captured adult individuals of Cyclocephala cearae, C. celata, and C. paraguayensis then reared and bred them under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. On a daily basis, we individually weighted eggs of all three species, from oviposition until hatching, and monitored egg development parameters (i.e., incubation duration, viability, and egg weight increase). Our findings provide novel empirical evidence showing (i) a positive correlation between egg weight and incubation duration, (ii) idiosyncratic characteristics on egg development, and (iii) a negative (involuntary) effect of manipulation on egg development and viability. Thus, the successful breeding and rearing of Cyclocephala spp. is correlated with egg integrity and the targeted species. Our analyses present a quantitative understanding of the egg phase and can assist in refining strategies for ovicidal activity and pest management of Cyclocephala spp. in agriculture systems. Moreover, they can provide a basis for new studies related to captivity breeding, pollinator management, and developmental biology for biodiversity conservation.
There is considerable debate concerning the life cycles and taxonomy of Sarcocystis species in cattle. Of the 8 species of Sarcocystis named from cattle, 2 (Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis heydorni) are morphologically distinctive because their sarcocysts are microscopic and the sarcocyst wall is thin (<0.5 μm thick). The sarcocysts of the remaining species (Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis bovini, Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis sinensis, Sarcocystis rommeli) have thick (5–8 μm) walls indistinguishable by light microscopy, alone. To provide needed clarity, I herein review the history, nomenclature and life cycle of S. bovifelis (originally named by Heydorn and associates from Germany), redescribe it and deposit specimens of its various life-cycle stages at a museum for future reference. I also provide means to distinguish this parasite from S. hirsuta. Cats are the definitive hosts for both S. bovifelis and S. hirsuta. The sarcocysts of S. bovifelis are microscopic, its sarcocyst wall is type 10g, it has 2 schizogonic stages in blood vessels and sarcocysts are formed between 25 and 30 days post-inoculation in striated muscles, but not in the heart. Sporulated oocysts are 17.1 × 12.7 μm and sporocysts are 12.8 × 8.4 μm. The sarcocysts of Sarcocystis hirsuta are macroscopic, up to 7 mm long, its wall is type 18. Nothing is known of the development of S. hirsuta in cattle tissues and in cat intestine. Size of its oocysts and sporocysts is uncertain.
Although infections with Cyclospora cayetanensis are prevalent worldwide, many aspects of this parasite's life cycle remain unknown. Humans are the only known hosts, existing information on its endogenous development has been derived from histological examination of only a few biopsy specimens. In histological sections, its stages are less than 10 μm, making definitive identification difficult. Here, confirmation of cyclosporiasis in a duodenal biopsy specimen from an 80-year-old man without any recognized immunodeficiency patient is reported. Asexual forms (schizonts) and sexual forms (gamonts) were located within enterocytes, including immature and mature schizonts, an immature male gamont and a female gamont. Merozoites were small (<5 μm × 1 μm) and contained two rhoptries, subterminal nucleus and numerous micronemes and amylopectin granules. These parasite stages were like those recently reported in the gallbladder of an immunocompromised patient, suggesting that the general life-cycle stages are not altered by immunosuppression.
Components of modern systems are characterised by differing lifetimes. The resulting lifetime heterogeneity (LTH) is a core criteria to determine life cycle options (LCO) for more sustainable products, e.g. by upgrading or reuse. Estimating the lifetimes is challenged by a lack of suitable degradation models (DM) describing the detrimental change performance of components during the use phase. This paper expands the state of the art in LCO selection by a method to evaluate fitness and sensitivity of DM based on the similarity of use cases, environments and operation profiles of the system.
The parasite Fasciola hepatica is an important zoonotic parasite. The development of an animal model of F. hepatica's life cycle is critical for studying the biological characteristics of the parasite in snails and mammals. Eggs of F. hepatica of bovine origin were cultured, and metacercariae were obtained after infection of Galba pervia snails. The life cycle system of F. hepatica was initiated in 2 different animals by orally infecting rabbits, SD rats and Kunming mice with the metacercariae. The animals' survival after infection, parasite migration in the animals and pathological damage to the liver were observed. We discovered that rabbits died due to acute suppurative hepatitis 60–69 days after infection, and eggs were found in the feces on day 63 of infection. The liver of SD rats showed punctate lesions on day 3 of infection, and further changes occurred as the infection progressed. However, liver repair was observed at week 9. SD rats survived for more than a year after infection and continued the F. hepatica life cycle. The liver lesions in Kunming mice after infection were similar but more severe than those in SD rats. Death was observed on the 31st post-infection day. We discovered that while rabbits, SD rats and Kunming mice can all be used as animal models of F. hepatica, SD rats are more suitable experimental animals in terms of tolerance and pathological response.
The title of this article refers to Table 1 in Zhou (2022, Infectious diseases of poverty: progress achieved during the decade gone and perspectives for the future. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 11, 1), in which it is indicated that Paragonimus species, like many other foodborne trematodes, are ancient pathogens that are also re-emerging to cause disease in modern times. This article provides a general overview of Paragonimus species and the disease they cause. This is followed by comments on several specific topics of current interest: taxonomy and distribution of members of the genus; details of the life cycle; global and regional prevalence of paragonimiasis; genomics of lung flukes and possible effects of global environmental change. Unresolved questions relating to these topics are discussed and gaps in knowledge identified.
The culmination of the Battle of Balaklava, the Charge of the Light Brigade occurred over fifteen minutes of tragic and action-packed drama during October 1854. In the Crimean moment and beyond, the occasion has epitomized the war’s tragedy and blunder. Its persistence in national memory derives especially from the poem that immortalized it: Tennyson’s “Charge of the Light Brigade.” Celebrating the Chargers as the paragons of duty, Tennyson’s verses gave them a corporate identity across their lifetimes, as they sought glory and fended off poverty. Long after the Victorian era, patriotic Britons clung to the Charge, using it as a tool for military recruiting, taking pride in its relics, and finding consolation in its lessons. Its persistence notwithstanding, the Charge had a changing meaning: the duty that it epitomized became an antiquated value in the twentieth century, as antiwar crusades, comic parodies, and even epic films suggest. Moreover, Tennyson’s verses were no static monument: their complexity has allowed, time and again, for the event’s reworking so that it does not anymore suggest glorious duty as much as it symbolizes heroic failure.
Species of the genus Cryptosporidium (phylum Apicomplexa) infect the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract of several vertebrate hosts, including humans and domestic and wild animals. In the past 20 years, several studies have focused on Cryptosporidium in fish. To date, a total of four piscine-host-specific species (Cryptosporidium molnari, Cryptosporidium huwi, Cryptosporidium bollandi and Cryptosporidium abrahamseni), nine piscine genotypes and more than 29 unnamed genotypes have been described in fish hosts. In addition, Cryptosporidium species and genotypes typical of other groups of vertebrates have also been identified. This review summarizes the history, biology, pathology and clinical manifestations, as well as the transmission, prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in wild, cultured and ornamental fish from both marine and freshwater environments. Finally, the potential role of piscine hosts as a reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species is also discussed.
This chapter starts off by discussing the roots of historical anthropology in ‘people’s history’ before the linguistic turn. It then traces the journey from the history workshop movements of the 1960s and 1970s to historical anthropology, focusing on European and Indian groups (the Subaltern Studies Group). It highlights the work of Ann Laura Stoler as an example of how historical anthropology led to new and exciting perspectives in historical writing with deep implications for the deconstruction of historical identities. Historical anthropologists brought with them a concern for the everyday, diversity, performance and resistance and they raised an awareness of the undeterminedness of the past. They also emphasised how collective identities were rooted in constructions of culture. Relating cultural values to practices, diverse theories of the everday examined different structures of power and the agency of ordinary people in resisting and re-appropriating these structures of power. Treating culture as fluid, plural and changing, it also contributed to the de-essentialisation of human identities. Emphasising mimetic processes and the interrelationship of diverse mimetically produced images, historical anthropology also contributed to the decentring of Western perspectives.
In Argentina, the family Diplostomidae is composed of eight genera: Austrodiplostomum Szidat & Nani; Diplostomum von Nordmann; Dolichorchis Dubois; Hysteromorpha Lutz; Neodiplostomum Railliet; Posthodiplostomum Dubois; Sphincterodiplostomum Dubois; and Tylodelphys Diesing. During a parasitological survey of fishes from the Iguazú National Park we detected diplostomid metacercariae in the brain of Erythrinus cf. erythrinus. Fish were caught using crab traps, transported alive to the field laboratory, cold-anaesthetized and euthanized by cervical dissection. Some metacercariae were heat-killed in water and fixed in 10% formalin and others were preserved in alcohol 96% for DNA extraction. They were sequenced for the partial segment of the 28S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using Bayesian inference and the proportion (p) of absolute nucleotide sites (p-distance) was obtained. In the 28S rDNA tree, the metacercaria sequenced grouped as Dolichorchis sp. The COI mtDNA p-distance between the metacercariae with Dolichorchis lacombeensis was 0.01. There is a small number of ITS sequences for the Diplostomidae family deposited in the GenBank. The oral sucker, ventral sucker, holdfast organ and the distance between oral and ventral suckers are larger in the adult compared with the metacercariae. Additionally, hind-body length and width are larger in the adult due to the development of the genital complex. Further studies using an integrative approach will help confirm the affiliation of other species to the genus Dolichorchis.
The success of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider) Andrássy (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) as a biological control agent of molluscs has led to a worldwide interest in phasmarhabditids. However, scant information is available on the lifecycle development of species within the genus. In the current study, the development of P. hermaphrodita, Phasmarhabditis papillosa, Phasmarhabditis bohemica and Phasmarhabditis kenyaensis were studied using ex vivo cultures, in order to improve our understanding of their biology. Infective juveniles (IJs) of each species were added to 1 g of defrosted homogenized slug cadavers of Deroceras invadens and the development monitored after inoculated IJ recovery, over a period of eight–ten days. The results demonstrated that P. bohemica had the shortest development cycle and that it was able to produce first-generation IJs after eight days, while P. hermaphrodita, P. papillosa and P. kenyaensis took ten days to form a new cohort of IJs. However, from the perspective of mass rearing, P. hermaphrodita has an advantage over the other species in that it is capable of forming self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, whereas both males and females are required for the reproduction of P. papillosa, P. bohemica and P. kenyaensis. The results of the study contribute to the knowledge of the biology of the genus and will help to establish the in vitro liquid cultures of different species of the genus.
Cercarial activity and survival are crucial traits for the transmission of trematodes. Temperature is particularly important, as faster depletion of limited cercarial energy reserves occurs at high temperatures. Seasonal climate conditions in high latitude regions may be challenging to complete trematode life cycle during the 6-month ice-free period, but temperature effects on the activity and survival of freshwater cercariae have not been previously identified. After experimentally simulating natural subarctic conditions during warmer and colder months (13 and 6°C), a statistical approach identifying changes in the tendency of cercarial activity loss and mortality data was used to detect differences in three trematode genera, represented by four taxa (Diplostomum spp., Apatemon spp., small- and large-sized Plagiorchis spp.). A strong temperature-dependent response was identified in both activity loss and mortality in all taxa, with Diplostomum spp. cercariae showing the most gradual changes compared to other taxa. Furthermore, whilst activity loss and mortality dynamics could not be divided into ‘fish- vs invertebrate-infecting cercariae’ groups, the detected taxa-specific responses in relation to life-history traits indicate the swimming behaviour of cercariae and energy allocation among larvae individuals as the main drivers. Cercariae exploit the short transmission window that allows a stable continuance of trematodes’ life cycles in high-latitude freshwater ecosystems.
Eristalinus aeneus (Scopoli, 1763) is a suitable candidate for artificial rearing due to its pollination efficiency and subcosmopolitan distribution. However, the high mortality found at the larval stage of this species needs to be overcome. In this research, two different larval media were used to study the life cycle of E. aeneus: brewery spent grain (BSG) from a local craft-beer factory and soaked oat grains (SOG). The age-stage, two-sex life table method was used to analyze the results, which were compared using the paired bootstrap test. The greatest mortality was found at the larval stage with both media. Individuals fed on SOG presented a shorter preadult developmental time (22.05 days) than those reared with BSG (26.97 days). This fact had a direct impact on the total preoviposition period, it being shorter with SOG (34.36 days) than BSG (38.29 days), although the second provided a larger total number of eggs (19,242 eggs) and a faster adult maturation (10.67 days). The population parameters indicated that both populations will display a positive growth under the studied conditions, being the mean generation time (T) significantly shorter when using SOG (38.71 days) than BSG (45.95 days). Despite the preadult results pointing to SOG being a more efficient medium, the promising fecundity values provided by BSG, as well as it's lower cost and ecological benefits, suggest that this second medium could be improved and used as an alternative to SOG in the near future.
The egg is one of the fundamental parts of the life cycle of Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae, and this stage involves the acanthor larva. It is also the infection phase for the intermediate host. Under normal conditions, the larva inside the egg can survive for months in the environment; however, information regarding this phase of life of the parasite is scarce. In addition, there is no quantitative information about the structural composition of the parasite's body from a histological point of view. Such information is essential in order to support decisions aimed at controlling infestations by these parasites in fish farming. This study aimed to present a detailed description of the stages of embryonic development of N. buttnerae eggs, as well as a stereological evaluation of the body of adult females of the parasite. Three phases of development characterized the eggs: cell division (with four stages), formation of the internal nuclear mass (with four stages) and formation of the acanthor larva (with five stages). The ovary comprised 26.61% of the volume of the animal and most of it contained eggs (21.28%), ovarian balls (3.88%) and empty spaces (1.45%). These results are of great importance and will support future studies that seek to interrupt the life cycle of this parasite.
The population dynamics of the stout reef octopus, Octopus insularis fished with longlines of pots in mid-shelf waters of north-eastern Brazil was studied based on fishermen's logbooks and onboard monthly fishing trips from September 2009 to August 2010. Specimens marked with oxytetracycline kept in tanks for up to 21 days provided evidence of the daily deposition of growth increments in the lateral wall of the upper beaks. Sampled specimens weighed 50–1280 g and had 43–172 daily growth increments. Compared with congeneric species from higher latitudes, O. insularis grows faster and has a shorter longevity in the north-eastern Brazil tropical environment. Total catches and catch-per-unit effort were substantially higher in the dry season, with less wind and cooler temperatures. The presence of larger specimens was seasonal, correlated with the chlorophyll-a levels recorded six months earlier. The year-round presence of mature females and males, spawned females, and egg masses attached to the pots, were considered evidence of migration of small and young specimens from coastal areas towards the 20–40 m depth range for reproduction. Annual landings attained ~200 tonnes (2005–2010). Although recent landing statistics are missing, fishermen interviewed in 2021 claimed that the fishery was still profitable. It is suggested that, despite the lack of management, the fast growth, year-round reproduction and limited market for this relatively small octopus, prevented the fishery from collapse and reinforces the current view of the high resilience of cephalopod fisheries.
Testing is an important element in the software development cycle. This chapter examines where software testing fits into a number of software process models: the waterfall model, the V-model, incremental and Agile development, eXtreme Programming, and SCRUM.
Ascaris lumbricoides, the roundworm, and Trichuris trichiura, the whipworm, are human intestinal nematode parasites; both are soil-transmitted helminths, are often placed together in an epidemiological context and both remain neglected despite high prevalence. Our understanding of parasitic disease continues to be enhanced through animal models. Despite the similarities between whipworm and roundworm, there are key differences between the two species and these have influenced the application of their respective animal models. In the case of T. trichiura, the fact that a murine equivalent, T. muris completes its life cycle in a mouse model has greatly enhanced our knowledge of whipworm biology, pathogenicity and immunology. In contrast, A. lumbricoides and its porcine equivalent, Ascaris suum, lack a rodent model in which the life cycle is completed. However, evidence continues to accumulate demonstrating that mice represent useful models of early Ascaris infection, a key stage of the life cycle. The use of mouse models for both Ascaris and Trichuris has a long history with early pioneers discovering fundamental aspects of each parasite's biology. Novel technologies and perspectives, as outlined in this special issue, demonstrate how through the prism of mouse models, we can continue to explore the similarities and differences between roundworms and whipworms.
Success stories in clean-up of toxic sites. Sydney, Singapore, US Superfund. Key global chemical treaties. New approaches to chemical clean-up. Shortcomings in scientific, medical and chemical training. Curbing the global toxic deluge. Citizen responsibility for a cleaner Planet.
This article builds on the theoretical debate over age, period, and cohort effects (APC) and explores how these factors might affect Taiwan's partisan stability. We conducted a two-level multinomial logit random effects model using survey data from 1991 to 2020 to disentangle the APC effects. Our findings challenge Converse's core assumption that partisanship strengthens with age. As a new democracy, Taiwan's party affiliations remain fluid, and we do find evidence of period effects, particularly associated with cross-Strait crises that favor the DPP. However, generational replacement is the most significant factor driving party identity changes in Taiwan. With generational replacement, the Kuomintang is burdened by the image of a century-old party. The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) had previously fared better among young cohorts but has recently lost its support from millennials. The youngest generation increasingly refuses to associate with the traditional political parties. It seems reasonable to expect that the new generational forces will restructure the Blue–Green cleavage and expand the ideological diversity of Taiwan's party system.
Typhlocoelum cucumerinum is a tracheal parasite of birds widely distributed across the globe. Nevertheless, aspects of the biology of this cyclocoelid are still poorly understood. Herein, we report the finding of T. cucumerinum in definitive and intermediate hosts from an urban waterbody of Brazil. The parasite was initially detected during the necropsy of domestic Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) found dead in the locality. Coproparasitological tests in live animals revealed that 12/47 (25.53%) Muscovy ducks and 2/8 (25%) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) were infected with T. cucumerinum. Moreover, rediae and metacercariae morphologically similar to T. cucumerinum were found in 3/248 (1.33%) Biomphalaria straminea collected in the same waterbody frequented by the birds. The conspecificity between the adult and the larval stages was confirmed molecularly (100% similarity in Cox-1). Moreover, the phylogenetic position of T. cucumerinum was determined for the first time based on partial fragments of the 28S, Cox-1 and Nad-1 genes. The species grouped with other members of the subfamily Typhlocoelinae with sequences available, but the data obtained do not support the distinctiveness of the genera Typhlocoelum and Tracheophilus. Further studies involving a broader range of species can result in taxonomic rearrangements in Typhlocoelinae.