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Teacher quality – what teachers do, how they teach and the way they present information – impacts on student learning (Hattie, 2003; 2009). Effective teaching and learning are multifaceted. There is no one recipe for teaching that will suit every student on all occasions. In your journey as a pre-service teacher, your goal should be to learn as much as you can from your university coursework, your professional experiences, lecturers and tutors, and the school teachers that supervise you, as well as drawing on your background knowledge and experience, so you are prepared with a suite of ideas, strategies, frameworks and theories that will support you to implement effective teaching and learning.
This chapter expands on the principles of planning for teaching introduced in Chapter 7. Chapters 7 and 8 link together to interrogate what needs to be considered in planning for effective teaching and learning. Within this chapter, you will consider the processes and preparation undertaken by Hannah (a secondary pre-service teacher) and Matthew (a primary pre-service teacher) as they consider the learning needs of their students, select a suitable lesson plan template to guide their thinking, enact their lessons and reflect on practice. Hannah and Matthew are passionate and inspired pre-service teachers focused on making a commitment to challenge themselves and their learners to achieve success (Hattie, 2011). Factors related to effective teaching and learning, such as sound curriculum, knowing your students, selecting a range of teaching strategies, differentiation and embedding assessment to inform practice, are all considered within this chapter.
Intentional teaching involves educators/teachers being deliberate about their actions in order to develop children’s skills, concepts, understandings and dispositions. It is an important component of the teaching and learning process. This chapter describes intentional teaching and its purpose. It outlines the relationship between intentional teaching, guided play and child-directed play. The place of scaffolding in intentional teaching is described, with a range of verbal scaffolding strategies presented to extend children’s science skills, knowledge and understanding. The components of a lesson plan are then introduced and illustrated to demonstrate how to plan for intentional teaching in science.
Chapter 8 considers the methodology for implementing tasks. It identifies a range of options relating to each of the three phases of a task-based lesson – the pre-task phase, the main task phase and the post-task phase. Pre-task options have three purposes; (1) to motivate students to perform the task, (2) to prepare them to perform it and (3) to encourage the use of strategies that will help them. Special attention is given to pre-task planning and the various ways in which this can be carried out. The key option in the main task phase is the within-task focus on form. Various ways of accomplishing this are considered – in particular corrective feedback. Of the post-task options, asking learners to repeat a task has attracted most attention from researchers. The chapter does not seek to be prescriptive but it does point to particular options that research has shown to be effective.