To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chapter 9 begins by reviewing some general issues in testing - the different functions of tests (proficiency, achievement, diagnostic), summative and formative evaluation, norm versus criterion referencing and washback. It then outlines the theory of testing that underlies task-based assessment, arguing that it must take account of both competences (e.g. grammatical, sociolinguistic and strategic) and the ability to use language. It compares the interactive approach and the real-life approach to assessment. It discusses the challenge facing task-based assessment, namely how tasks can provide evidence of learners’ ability to use an L2 that is generalizable (i.e. not limited to the particular task used in a test). The chapter concludes by looking at the development of task-based tests in a number of case studies.