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Eradication of alien invasive species in the soil with steam as an alternative to chemical fumigation may allow contaminated soil to be reused. We have investigated steam disinfestation of soil to combat invasive plant species in three experiments including different temperatures and exposure durations using a stationary soil steaming prototype device. The experiments included effects on seed germination of Lupinus polyphyllus (LUPPO), Impatiens glandulifera (IPAGL), and Avena fatua (one population from Poland AVEFA(P) and one from Norway AVEFA(N)), as well as effects on sprouting rhizome fragments of Solidago canadensis (SOOCA) and Reynoutria x bohemica (REYBO). In the first experiment (i) we tested four different soil temperatures of 64, 75, 79 and 98°C with an exposure duration of 90 s. In the second and third experiments we tested exposure durations of (ii) 30, 90 and 180 s and (iii) 90, 180 and 540 s, respectively, at 98°C. Seed pre-treatment of 14 days cooling for LUPPO and IPAGL, no seed pre-treatment and 12 h moistening for AVEFA populations, and 5 and 10 cm cutting size for REYBO were applied. Our results showed germination/sprouting was inhibited at 75°C for I. glandulifera (for 90 s) and 98°C for the other species; however, longer exposure duration was needed for L. polyphyllus. While 30 s at 98°C was enough to kill A. fatua seeds and S. canadensis and R. x bohemica rhizome fragments, 180 s exposure duration was needed to kill L. polyphyllus seeds. The results showed promising control levels of invasive plant propagules in contaminated soil by steaming, supporting the steam treatment method as a potential way of soil disinfection to avoid dispersal of invasive species.
Within the family Adeleidae, Adelina spp. belong to a group of arthropod pathogens. These parasites have been reported to have a wide geographic distribution, however, there are no reports of these protists in the Canary Islands, Spain. One of the peculiarities of the life cycle of Adelina spp. is the participation of a predator, because fecundation and sporulation occur inside the body cavity, and so necessitate destruction of the definitive host. The involvement therefore of a ‘dispersion host’, which eats the definitive host and spreads the oocysts through its faeces, is critical for the maintenance of certain Adelina spp. On the island of Gran Canaria, adeleid oocysts have been found in stool samples from four animals, three California kingsnakes (Lampropeltis californiae), and one feral cat. These animals were part of a larger coprological study of vertebrate parasites (117 snakes, 298 cats), where pseudoparasitic elements were also recorded. L. californiae and feral cats are invasive species which are widespread across the island and this novel finding of Adelina spp. oocysts in their faeces suggests that they could also serve as potential sentinel species for arthropod parasites.
Introduced mammalian predators are responsible for the decline and extinction of many native species, with rats (genus Rattus) being among the most widespread and damaging invaders worldwide. In a naturally fragmented landscape, we demonstrate the multi-year effectiveness of snap traps in the removal of Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans from lava-surrounded forest fragments ranging in size from <0.1 to >10 ha. Relative to other studies, we observed low levels of fragment recolonization. Larger rats were the first to be trapped, with the average size of trapped rats decreasing over time. Rat removal led to distinct shifts in the foraging height and location of mongooses and mice, emphasizing the need to focus control efforts on multiple invasive species at once. Furthermore, because of a specially designed trap casing, we observed low non-target capture rates, suggesting that on Hawai‘i and similar islands lacking native rodents the risk of killing non-target species in snap traps may be lower than the application of rodenticides, which have the potential to contaminate food webs. These efforts demonstrate that targeted snap-trapping is an effective removal method for invasive rats in fragmented habitats and that, where used, monitoring of recolonization should be included as part of a comprehensive biodiversity management strategy.
Ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.] is one of several annual grass invaders of the western United States. Ventenata dubia is documented reducing the forage availability for livestock and wildlife as well as lowering biodiversity in the Great Basin. This species has recently spread to the Great Plains, where it could bring these impacts with it. We attempt to answer questions on whether or not conservation practices, in this case removal of V. dubia with herbicide, result in recovery of forage resources and biodiversity. We answer these questions by measuring biomass, cover, and nutrient content 1-yr posttreatment at 9 sites in Sheridan County, WY, conducted in two years. Perennial grasses have higher crude protein and total digestible nutrients than V. dubia, and removal of V. dubia resulted in a positive perennial grass response both years. Further, the differences in pattern of growth between perennial and annual species, with annual grasses quickly senescing early in the year, make perennial grasses a more dependable forage base with higher available nutrients. Interestingly, total biomass and nutrient mass did not change after V. dubia removal due to equal replacement with perennial grasses. Species richness and diversity were unaffected by removal of V. dubia. Our results suggest that managing invasive annual grasses, particularly V. dubia, in the Northern Great Plains can improve forage resources for livestock and wildlife while maintaining species diversity. Therefore, proactive monitoring and management efforts to prevent spread should be prioritized in this region.
The composition of nonnative floras is influenced by a region’s socioeconomic history, yet rarely are these factors studied alongside plant naturalization rates over time. Such information is especially critical for archipelagos, which often host large numbers of nonnative plants and would benefit from prevention of inter-island spread. We compiled the first record of occurrence and first record of naturalization for all naturalized plants in Hawai‘i alongside data on their origin, native climate types, taxonomy, and likely introduction pathway and compared rates of naturalization with socioeconomic trends. We found that the rate of total plant naturalizations has increased at a roughly constant rate during the past century without any sign of plateauing. However, this relatively steady increase is underlain by notable fluctuations in naturalization rates for different introduction pathways, with ornamentals increasing recently, while agriculture-related plants have decreased. Furthermore, this trend mirrors a shift from an agriculture-dominated economy to a tourism-based one associated with increases in both resident and tourist populations as well as general economic well-being. We further found that the average naturalized species spreads at a rate of 1.86 islands per decade, eventually occupying most major islands in the archipelago, and the rate of spread appears to be increasing since Hawai‘i’s economic shift. Our findings also emphasize the diversity of Hawai‘i’s nonnative flora, which originates from a variety of climates, continents, and taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that many nonnative species have native ranges that include temperate climates, which is important, because these climates typically co-occur with higher-elevation, remnant patches of native-dominated ecosystems in Hawai‘i. This study reveals trends that may help predict a species’ ability to naturalize and spread within and between islands, and we discuss management implications that may be extended to other regions.
The California kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae), native to North America, is a significant threat to the conservation of endemic species in the Spanish Macaronesian island of Gran Canaria. However, its role disseminating potential invasive parasites, such as zoonotic pentastomids, has not been proven. Among its parasitic fauna, only protistans have been documented, in contrast to other Lampropeltis spp., which are known to carry pentastomids. Thus, a parasitological study is urgently required. Between 2016 and 2018, a total of 108 snakes were necropsied and stool samples examined. A single snake was infested with Ophionyssus natricis, and another individual with Serpentirhabdias sp. Only this latter snake presented gross lesions, characterized by granulomatous pneumonia. No Pentastomida were found. By contrast, almost the entire population (98.5%) was infested with larval helminths (three different nematode and two cestode species), characterized by granulomatous gastrointestinal serositis. This suggests the snake poses a ‘dead end’ host for local parasites. Based on these findings, snakes in Gran Canaria carry potential zoonotic mites, which along with Serpentirhabdias sp. could represent a threat to endemic lizards. The presence of metazoan parasites and their lesions are reported for the first time in the California kingsnake.
As humans have spread across the globe, travel and trade have deliberately or inadvertently carried and released animals and plants as well as microbes into new geographies. With human populations concentrated along rivers and coasts, it is not surprising that many exotic species have been released in coastal areas and a few can survive and thrive, especially in habitats similar to those where they evolved. In tidal marshes, organisms experience some of the most extreme physical conditions on earth: temperatures from −20 to 40°C, flooding twice a day but only a few times a month at higher elevations, sediments ranging from oxidized to severely reduced (Eh of +700 to −300 mV), soil salinity from hypersaline (40–90 ppt) to fresh depending on floodwater source and precipitation, and erosive forces from waves, currents, and ice at higher latitudes. Despite these harsh and variable conditions, there are many organisms adapted to tidal marshes, and new introductions and hybrids that can thrive given the opportunity.
Biological invasions by alien species (in this context, species transported by human actions to areas in which they do not naturally occur) represent one of the primary ways in which people are changing global biodiversity. Native species richness is a positive function of geographic area – the well-known species–area relationship. An interesting question is whether alien species recapitulate this pattern, broadly and/or in detail. Here, we review the increasing body of research exploring alien species richness in the context of geographic area. We assess both the similarities and differences between the species–area relationships of alien and native species groups and how adding alien species to areas affects the overall species–area relationship. Then, we assess how analysis of data for alien species informs our understanding of the mechanisms controlling species–area relationships more generally. We finish with some broad conclusions on the basis of the previous sections.
Sacred groves (SGs) of India are islets of forests providing ecosystem and spiritual services to man. Studies suggest that SGs are deteriorating on their quality due to urbanization, invasive species, land-use change, and religious modernization. We explored diversity, community, and abundance of overall and different functional groups of litter ants, including Anoplolepis gracilipes – an invasive ant – on paired SG-neighbouring home garden (HG) sites in rural and urban landscape to (a) assess the quality of SGs and (b) examine whether the variation in ant community of the two habitats was predicted by urbanization and abundance of A. gracilipes. We considered species and local contribution to β-diversity to identify species and sites crucial for conservation of sites. Abundance and richness of overall ants, proportional trap incidence of species, and abundance of A. gracilipes were similar on SG and HG, but species diversity and abundance of certain ant functional groups were higher on SG. Ant community of SG was different from HG, but was not affected by urbanization. A. gracilipes and rural SGs contributed the most to β diversity. A. gracilipes gave little pressure on native ant community. The study concludes that SGs, despite invaded by A. gracilipes, have potential for conserving biodiversity.
Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has been the focus of national legislation efforts and has been listed as noxious, invasive, potentially invasive, or prohibited by at least seven U.S. states. Auxinic herbicides are one of the most effective control methods labeled for use in aquatic sites. In the United States, florpyrauxifen-benzyl, a synthetic auxin, was recently (2018) registered for use in aquatic sites, but limited information has been published on efficacy, especially differences between the two formulations. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to evaluate two formulations of florpyrauxifen-benzyl—suspension concentrate (SC) and emulsifiable concentrate (EC)—at three rates each (14.8, 29.5, and 58.9 g ai ha−1) for control of E. crassipes under outdoor and greenhouse conditions. All rates of each florpyrauxifen-benzyl formulation reduced E. crassipes biomass by 90% to 100% when compared with nontreated plants at 5 wk after treatment. Based on plant recovery in the outdoor trial, there was some evidence that the lowest rate (14.8 g ai ha−1) of florpyrauxifen-benzyl SC and EC may not be as efficacious at reducing E. crassipes biomass as the SC and EC formulations when applied at 29.5 and 58.9 g ai ha−1. Future work should evaluate the florpyrauxifen-benzyl rates tested in this research against E. crassipes in field trials and/or an operational setting to confirm findings.
The introduced meadow knapweed (Centaurea × moncktonii C.E. Britton), a hybrid of black (Centaurea nigra L.) and brown (Centaurea jacea L.) knapweeds, is increasingly common in pastures, meadows, and waste areas across many U.S. states, including New York. We evaluated the effects of temperature, light, seed stratification, scarification, and population on percent germination in four experiments over 2 yr. Percent germination ranged from 3% to 100% across treatment combinations. Higher temperatures (30:20, 25:15, and sometimes 20:10 C day:night regimes compared with 15:5 C) promoted germination, especially when combined with the stimulatory effect of light (14:10 h L:D compared with continuous darkness). Under the three lowest temperature treatments, light increased percent germination by 15% to 86%. Cold-wet seed stratification also increased germination rates, especially at lower germination temperatures, but was not a prerequisite for germination. Scarification did not increase percent germination. Differences between C. × moncktonii populations were generally less significant than differences between temperature, light, and stratification treatments. Taken together, these results indicate that C. × moncktonii is capable of germinating under a broad range of environments, which may have facilitated this species’ range expansion in recent decades. However, C. × moncktonii also shows evidence of germination polymorphism: some seeds will germinate under suboptimal conditions, while others may remain dormant until the abiotic environment improves. Subtle differences in dormancy mechanisms and their relative frequencies may affect phenological traits like the timing of seedling emergence and ultimately shape the sizes and ranges of C. × moncktonii populations.
Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne.) is rapidly spreading in the United States, gaining attention in the last two decades as a serious invasive pest. Recommended control methods include foliar, basal bark, cut stump, and hack-and-squirt application of herbicides, but there are few published studies with replicated data on efficacy. Four readily available herbicidal active ingredients and a combination of two active ingredients were tested for control efficacy against P. calleryana in old-field areas and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) understory. Basal bark applications (triclopyr, triclopyr + aminopyralid), foliar applications (glyphosate, imazapyr), and a soil application (hexazinone) effectively killed P. calleryana with the exception of hexazinone at one site, where rainfall may not have been optimal. Foliar application of glyphosate provided the most consistent control. Our results demonstrate efficacy of registered herbicide formulations for P. calleryana control in two geographic locations and two habitat types. The need for development of integrated pest management programs for P. calleryana is discussed.
The Cerrado is a Neotropical savanna where grasses are a major biomass component in the open vegetation physiognomies. Invasive grasses are widely used as pastures in the Cerrado, and their presence may displace native species. The persistence of native grasses relies also on reproduction via seeds, which is often dependent on seeds found buried in the soil seed bank. The literature about the effects of light availability on the germination of Neotropical savanna grasses is scarce, and germination may lead to abnormal seedlings that develop only the root or the shoot. Germination trials that overlook this fact may overestimate the potential for seedling recruitment. Therefore, we tested the effects of light availability on the germination of nine native and two invasive grasses, addressing the production of normal seedlings. Seeds were germinated in the complete absence or the presence of light (12 h photoperiod under white light) for 30 days. Germination was defined as the sum of normal and abnormal seedlings. Eight species were light-dependent, decreasing the production of normal seedlings in the dark. Two native and one invasive species were non-responsive to the dark treatment, showing no change in germination or production of normal seedlings. Our results suggest that seeds buried in the soil seed bank are likely to show reduced germination and develop abnormal seedlings, reinforcing a bottleneck for the recruitment of native grasses. For invasive species, however, the potential of seedling recruitment was minimally reduced by light, suggesting a competitive advantage for the recruitment of these species.
This paper proposes some possibilities for thinking with a landscape as a pedagogical concept, inspired by posthuman theory. The idea of thinking with a landscape is enacted in the Australian Alps (AA), concentrating on the contentious environmental dilemma involving introduced horses and their management in this bio-geographical location. The topic of horses is of pedagogical relevance for place-responsive outdoor environmental educators as both a location-specific problem and an example of a troubling issue. The paper has two objectives for employing posthuman thinking. Firstly, it experiments with the alternative methodological possibilities that posthuman theory affords for outdoor environmental education, including new ways of conducting educational research. Secondly, it explores how thinking with a landscape as a pedagogical concept may help open ways of considering the dilemma that horses pose. The pedagogical concept is enacted through some empirical events which sketch human–horse encounters from the AA. These sketches depict some of the pedagogical conversations and discursive pathways that encounters can provoke. Such encounters and conversations are ways of constructing knowledge of the landscape, covering multiple species, perspectives and discursive opportunities. For these reasons, this paper may be of relevance for outdoor environmental educators, those interested in the AA or posthuman theorists.
Shipping is responsible for transporting 90% of the world's trade. This book provides a comprehensive review of the impact shipping has on the environment. Topics covered include pollutant discharges such as atmospheric emissions, oil, chemical waste, sewage and biocides; as well as non-pollutant impacts including invasive species, wildlife collisions, noise, physical damage, and the environmental effects associated with shipwrecks and shipbreaking. The history of relevant international legislation is also covered. With chapters written by eminent international authors, this book provides a global perspective on the environmental impact of ships, making it a useful reference for advanced students and researchers of environmental science, as well as practitioners of maritime law and policy, and marine business.
The distribution of genetic diversity in invasive plant populations can have important management implications. Alligatorweed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.] was introduced into the United States around 1900 and has since spread throughout much of the southern United States and California. A successful biological control program was initiated in the late 1960s that reduced A. philoxeroides in the southern United States, although control has varied geographically. The degree to which variation among genotypes may be responsible for variation in control efficacy has not been well studied due to a lack of genetic data. We sampled 373 plants from 90 sites across the United States and genotyped all samples at three chloroplast regions to help inform future management efforts. Consistent with clonal spread, there was high differentiation between sites, yet we found six haplotypes and high haplotype diversity (mean h = 0.48) across states, suggesting this plant has been introduced multiple times. Two of the haplotypes correspond to previously described biotypes that differ in their susceptibility to herbicides and herbivory. The geographic distribution of the three common haplotypes varied by latitude and longitude, while the other haplotypes were widespread or localized to one or a few sites. All the haplotypes we screened are hexaploid (6n = 102), which may enhance biological control. Future studies can use these genetic data to determine whether genotypes differ in their invasiveness or respond differently to control measures. Some states, for instance, have mainly a single haplotype that may respond more uniformly to a single control strategy, whereas other states may require a variety of control strategies. These data will also provide the basis for identifying the source regions in South America, which may lead to the discovery of new biological control agents more closely matched to particular genotypes.
The coastline of the Korean Peninsula is influenced by three major oceanographic ecoregions, including the estuarine Yellow Sea ecoregion on the west coast, the warmer and saline East China Sea ecoregion on the south coast, and the cold East Sea ecoregion on the east coast. The influence of these marine ecoregions on the distribution of intertidal barnacles has not been extensively studied. The present study examines the biogeography of thoracican barnacles from intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, along the coasts of Korea. Twenty-one species in seven families were identified, including three species of coral-associated barnacles. Species composition varied significantly in the three marine ecoregions. Multivariate analysis showed barnacle assemblages were significant among the three ecoregions, although there are large overlaps of clusters between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecoregions. The estuarine species, Fistulobalanus albicostatus, occurred mainly in the Yellow Sea ecoregion; warm-water species, Tetraclita japonica, and sponge inhabiting barnacles Euacasta dofleini were observed in the East China Sea ecoregion; and cold-water species, Balanus rostratus and Perforatus perforatus, were found in the East Sea ecoregion. Four invasive barnacle species were recorded and the European barnacle Perforatus perforatus expanded its range northward from its recorded distribution nine years earlier. The cold-water species, Chthamalus dalli and Semibalanus cariosus, previously recorded in the East Sea ecoregion, were absent in the present survey. A trend of increasing seawater temperatures in Korean waters may have a significant impact on the distribution of cold-water species and enhance the northward invasion of P. perforatus.
The brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys is one of the most harmful invasive species in the world. Native to East Asia, this insect was introduced into North America in the 1990s and into Europe in the 2000s where it subsequently established and spread across the continent. Previous population genetic studies determined the invasion pathways at continental and national levels. However, information on the dynamics on a small-scale is currently scarce. Here we study the genetic diversity and population dynamics of H. halys in South Tyrol, a region in Northern Italy, since its arrival to its widespread establishment over a period of four years. By haplotyping 162 individuals from ten populations (including six previously published individuals) we found a high haplotype diversity in most populations with an increasing diversity across the different years. Most haplotypes were previously found in other regions of Northern Italy, providing evidence for migration from neighboring regions. However, the presence of four previously undescribed haplotypes as well as a haplotype previously found exclusively in Greece highlights additional long-distance dispersal across the continent. Phylogenetic analysis of the haplotypes found in South Tyrol showed that the majority of haplotypes clustered with haplotypes predominantly found in Japan. This suggests a potential recent introduction of H. halys individuals from Japan into Europe, and thus an additional invasion pathway that was previously unidentified.
Invasive species are widely recognized as a major threat to global diversity and an important factor associated with global change. Species distribution models (SDMs) have been widely applied to determine the range that invasive species could potentially occupy, but most examples focus on predictive variables at a single spatial scale. In this study, we simultaneously considered a broad range of variables related to climate, topography, land cover, land use, and propagule pressure to predict what areas in the southeastern United States are more susceptible to invasion by 45 invasive terrestrial plant species. Using expert-verified occurrence points from EDDMapS, we modeled invasion susceptibility at 30-m resolution for each species using a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling approach. We then analyzed how environmental predictors affected susceptibility to invasion at different spatial scales. Climatic and land-use variables, especially minimum temperature of coldest month and distance to developed areas, were good predictors of landscape susceptibility to invasion. For most of the species tested, human-disturbed systems such as developed areas and barren lands were more prone to be invaded than areas that experienced minimal human interference. As expected, we found that landscape heterogeneity and the presence of corridors for propagule dispersal significantly increased landscape susceptibility to invasion for most species. However, we also found a number of species for which the susceptibility to invasion increased in landscapes with large core areas and/or less-aggregated patches. These exceptions suggest that even though we found the expected general patterns for susceptibility to invasion among most species, the influence of landscape composition and configuration on invasion risk is species specific.
Giant reed recently was promoted as a biofuel crop in Oregon. Because giant reed is a highly invasive plant in North American rivers, the planting of this species in Oregon is a cause for concern to scientists and local land managers. However, some growers in the area were interested in producing giant reed as a rotational crop. To find potential herbicides to control the giant reed or to control it as a volunteer, 13 foliar and 13 cut-and-spray herbicide treatments were preevaluated in greenhouse studies. We chose 10% and 85% reduction in aboveground biomass for either crop safety or control, respectively. When applied at the standard rates, acetochlor and dimethenamid-p reduced aboveground dry biomass of the crop by 10% or less. Acetochlor+atrazine, atrazine, flufenacet, and mesotrione reduced aboveground biomass of the crop by at least 85%, indicating that these compounds have the potential to serve as controls against giant reed.