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Group teaching is rapidly spreading across the world, but little research has been conducted to investigate its impact on students’ musical abilities in comparison to inclusion in group tuition contexts. This article investigates how music teachers from the classical orchestra instrumental tradition discuss group tuition. Three focus group interviews were conducted with participants from one Art and Music School in Sweden. The results show a tension field between progression and inclusion as well as different views on the definition of these concepts. These differing views on teaching quality imply a balancing act for the different agents within the profession.
An examination of the work of Shakespeare Schools Foundation (SSF): a UK-based cultural and education charity that introduces the work of Shakespeare to primary- and secondary-aged pupils in a ‘real-world’ active context.
The chapter looks at how SSF encourages engagement with Shakespeare’s text in collaborative teacher/practitioner/pupil partnerships, with a focus on inclusivity and rehearsal room techniques. The focus is on SSF’s flagship programme, the Shakespeare Schools Festival, which engages primary, secondary and SEN schools, and also on other residential partnerships with SEN settings.
Case studies explore how participants’ collaborative abilities and confidence increase, and highlight participation among pupils from diverse settings and disadvantaged backgrounds.
The chapter will consider how SSF’s active approach to Shakespeare contrasts with traditional instruction in the English classroom, and include the challenges faced by SSF in providing its programmes in the current UK education climate.
This article explores the experience of the Afro-Colombian movement over the course of two peace processes, investigating the relationship between opportunities for participation and effective inclusion. The 1991 Constituent Assembly that emerged from the peace processes of the late 1980s presented a particularly open opportunity for civil society participation, and yet the Afro-Colombian movement was unable to gain representation in negotiations for a new constitution. In the 2016 peace process with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, or FARC, despite insistence from the government that its negotiations with FARC were exclusively bilateral, the Afro movement was able to gain a seat at the table along with its Indigenous counterparts and generate a commitment from both parties to protect ethnic rights, known as the Capítulo Étnico (Ethnic Chapter). In contrast to existing literature that focuses on international actors as drivers of inclusion, we argue that effective inclusion reflects in large part the internal capacity, coherence, and unity of the movements themselves.
In this chapter, we begin by examining the term ‘family’ and how it is defined in different contexts. As we examine these different definitions you will come to understand the complexity of ‘family’ and the diverse ways in which families can be defined. We then explore some of the structural and functional definitions of the family before moving towards examining some of the underlying assumptions made about families within wider society, including how these assumptions might position families in educational contexts. Through this exploration, some of your own underlying assumptions may be challenged as you come to understand the importance of educators and families working together to achieve the best educational outcomes for children. The chapter continues by discussing the idea of a subjective definition of families and what this might mean for you as an educator. We then move toward the term ’partnership’ and explore some of the barriers and opportunities to partnership work and how they can be harnessed and/or overcome. The chapter concludes by introducing the notion of innovative partnership work, your role in it as an educator, and the importance of this work in the educational context.
Examining recent developments in deliberative democracy alongside growing attention to system-wide racism, I look at the ways deliberative systems theory and practice deals with the tension between the theory's normative claims and the structural injustice against which deliberative systems unfold. I focus on work aimed at deepening inclusion in deliberative systems, noting that this focus on inclusion into unjust systems stops the deliberative literature from taking full responsibility for structural and systemic racism. Taking a critical approach to the deliberative literature's capacity to confront systemic racism and live up to its normative principles of treating all people as equals, I argue that we need to reframe power to centre the relationship between race and democracy. As I do so, I propose ways to begin dismantling foundational injustice in deliberative systems, centring foundational inequalities in deliberative theory and design, and setting out differential responsibilities for listening as deliberative theorists confront the problem of white supremacy in deliberative systems.
Much is written of how leadership and related management attributes and strategies can contribute to success in the business world, and these can be expanded to address societal challenges. Effective and authentic leadership is needed to deliver societal outcomes that respond to the urgent need to transform food systems under climate change. We need a new vision for leadership in the context of food systems research, which includes strategic goals of ‘looking out’, ‘getting different’, and ‘focused experimentation’. As part of this new vision for leadership, key cultural attributes include diversity and inclusion, a ‘service from science’ ethos, creativity, independence, and accountability. Implementing such strategic goals and cultural attributes must be complemented by systems leadership capacities. Such capacities include the ability to see the larger system, listen actively, adapt and learn, recognise and respect different stakeholders’ worldviews, and operate with a sense of purpose and authenticity.
This chapter ties together several moral strands under the notion of justice, where equals should be treated equally. It opens by pointing out certain facts, such as that the most likely predictor of success is parental wealth, that women earn only 86 percent of men’s income for comparable jobs, and that there are significant racial disparities at higher levels of management. The concepts of equity (merit), equality, and need are examined, as the basis for allocating resources and rewards. Libertarian views, which hold personal choice as the overriding principle, are explained and contrasted with egalitarianism which favors equal opportunities for all. Discrimination is defined in terms of power relations, and subsequently gender and racial discrimination is examined in detail, including the implications of implicit bias. Recent work in intersectionality, where individuals identify with multiple groups, is discussed as are Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) initiatives. Examples from Starbucks show the promise and difficulties in promoting equality in the workplace. The final case covers discrepancies in insurance rates and the moral jeopardy of categorizing aggregated data into groups.
The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program recognizes that advancing diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility (DEIA) requires moving beyond statements of commitment to transformative actions. In 2021, the CTSA Program created a Task Force (TF) to initiate work in support of structural and transformational initiatives that advance DEIA for the consortium and its individual hubs. We describe the process of forming the expertise-driven (DEIA) TF and our activities to date. We 1) developed and adopted the DEIA Learning Systems Framework to guide our approach; 2) defined a set of recommendations across four focus areas (Institutional; Programmatic; Community-Centered; and Social, Cultural, Environmental); and 3) designed and disseminated a survey to capture the CTSA Program’s baseline demographic, community, infrastructural, and leadership diversity. The CTSA Consortium also elevated the TF to a standing Committee to extend our understanding, development, and implementation of DEIA approaches to translational and clinical science. These initial steps provide a foundation for collectively fostering environment that support DEIA across the research continuum.
Growing dissatisfaction and disaffection of citizens from the political process has spurred innovative thinking about democracy. In the past decade, a broad variety of deliberative innovations has emerged to involve citizens more directly into politics, ranging from traditional town hall meetings to planning cells, citizen juries, deliberative polling and deliberative assemblies. Deliberative innovations – combining direct participation and dialogue about pressing policy issues – have not only proliferated further in recent times, they are also increasingly institutionalized (Chwalisz 2020). As Mark E. Warren (Chapter 15) has emphatically put it, “We are seeing hundreds of thousands of new channels of citizen involvement in government in most countries in the world, often outside of the more visible politics of electoral representation, and mostly driven by problems of governance in complex societies.” Deliberative innovations are frequently viewed as effective tools to (re-)integrate underrepresented citizens into the democratic process and create more reciprocal relationships between citizens and political elites. If they are well designed, in other words, employ random selection of participants giving each participant an equal chance to participate, provide participants with balanced information materials to enhance their policy-specific knowledge and use appropriate facilitation techniques to counteract dominance patterns in discussion, then they are expected to be inclusive and responsive to the views and interests of all (including underrepresented people), at least in theory (see Polletta and Gardner 2018: 71).
The National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) seeks to improve upon the translational process to advance research and treatment across all diseases and conditions and bring these interventions to all who need them. Addressing the racial/ethnic health disparities and health inequities that persist in screening, diagnosis, treatment, and health outcomes (e.g., morbidity, mortality) is central to NCATS’ mission to deliver more interventions to all people more quickly. Working toward this goal will require enhancing diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility (DEIA) in the translational workforce and in research conducted across the translational continuum, to support health equity. This paper discusses how aspects of DEIA are integral to the mission of translational science (TS). It describes recent NIH and NCATS efforts to advance DEIA in the TS workforce and in the research we support. Additionally, NCATS is developing approaches to apply a lens of DEIA in its activities and research – with relevance to the activities of the TS community – and will elucidate these approaches through related examples of NCATS-led, partnered, and supported activities, working toward the Center’s goal of bringing more treatments to all people more quickly.
This study analyses the situation of persons with disabilities caught up in armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in particular in North Kivu Province. The study goes beyond the few statistics available – which show the vulnerability of persons with disabilities during humanitarian crises – to identify the obstacles to taking persons with disabilities into account in humanitarian action in North Kivu. As a result, the study provides practical recommendations to overcome these obstacles, fill in the gaps in humanitarian action and improve the situation of persons with disabilities by ensuring efficient and effective protection in times of armed conflict.
School represents an important context for children’s social, moral, and identity development. Research indicates that supportive teacher-student relationships are significantly related to positive student academic achievement. Unfortunately, teacher bias as well as peer exclusion based on group identity (gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality) pervade many school contexts. The presence of these biases in the classroom is negatively related to students’ academic development, especially for children who are minoritized and marginalized. Very little research has connected teacher bias and children’s reasoning about bias and inequalities in the classroom context. The classroom is a complex environment in which to examine children’s social and moral reasoning about bias, given teachers’ position of authority which often includes power, status, and prestige. We propose that understanding both teacher bias and peer intergroup exclusion are essential for promoting more fair classrooms. This paper reviews foundational theory as well as the social reasoning developmental model as a framework for studying how children think about fairness and bias in the classroom context. We then discuss current research on children’s social-cognitive and moral capacities, particularly in the contexts of societal inequality and social inclusion or exclusion. Finally, this article proposes new directions for research to promote fairness and inclusivity in schools and suggests how these new lines of research might inform school-based interventions.
The murder of George Floyd created national outcry that echoed down to national institutions, including universities and academic systems to take a hard look at systematic and systemic racism in higher education. This motivated the creation of a fear and tension-minimizing, curricular offering, “Courageous Conversations,” collaboratively engaging students, staff, and faculty in matters of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) in the Department of Health Outcomes and Biomedical Informatics at the University of Florida.
A qualitative design was employed assessing narrative feedback from participants during the Fall semester of 2020. Additionally, the ten-factor model implementation framework was applied and assessed. Data collection included two focus groups and document analysis with member-checking. Thematic analysis (i.e., organizing, coding, synthesizing) was used to analyze a priori themes based on the four agreements of the courageous conversations framework, stay engaged, expect to experience discomfort, speak your truth, and expect and accept non-closure.
A total of 41 participants of which 20 (48.78%) were department staff members, 11 (26.83%) were department faculty members, and 10 (24.30%) were graduate students. The thematic analysis revealed 1) that many participants credited their learning experiences to what their peers had said about their own personal lived experiences during group sessions, and 2) several participants said they would either retake the course or recommend it to a colleague.
With structured implementation, courageous conversations can be an effective approach to create more diverse, equitable, and inclusive spaces in training programs with similar DEI ecosystems.
HE Pekka Haavisto is the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Finland. He was a Member of Parliament in 1983–95 and was returned to Parliament in 2007. He served as Minister of Development and the Environment in 1995–99, and as Minister for International Development in 2013–14. In 1993–95 and 2018–19, he was Party Leader of the Greens in Finland. He has also served several years as a member of the Helsinki City Council. He stood as a candidate in the presidential election in Finland in 2012 and in 2018.
He has gained wide experience of various areas of foreign policy, for example while chairing the UN Environment Programme Task Forces on environmental impacts of war in the Balkans, Afghanistan, Iraq, Liberia, the Occupied Palestinian Territory and Sudan. He has also worked as the EU Special Representative for Sudan and Darfur, Special Adviser for the UN (ASG) in the Darfur peace process, and Special Representative to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in African crises. In addition, he has served in several positions of trust, including President of the Board of the European Institute of Peace in 2016–19, Chair of the Board of the Finnish Federation of Settlement Houses in 2014–19, and Chair of WWF Finland's Board of Trustees.
Mr Haavisto has worked as Editor-in-Chief of several publications, including Vihreä Lanka magazine. Additionally, he has authored many books, the most recent one, Eurooppa raiteilla (Europe on Rails), in 2018. He lives in a registered partnership, and his main interests are books, cycling, wooden boats and cultural backyards.
Despite progress in recent years, including UN Security Council Resolution 2475 of 2019, there remains a significant gap in our awareness of the disability dynamics of armed conflict and the barriers that persons with disabilities experience in accessing the protections of international humanitarian law (IHL). This brief article will consider the protective purpose of IHL and the diversity of civilian populations, and, focussing on the principle of proportionality as an example, demonstrate how IHL must be interpreted, implemented and monitored in a manner that is inclusive and reflects the reality that civilian populations are diverse.
Forensic DNA typing was developed to improve our ability to conclusively identify an individual and distinguish that person from all others. Current DNA profiling techniques yield incredibly rare types, but definitive identification of one and only one individual using a DNA profile remains impossible. This fact may surprise you, as there is a popular misconception that a DNA profile is unique to an individual, with the exception of identical twins. You may be the only person in the world with your DNA profile, but we cannot know this short of typing everyone. What we can do is calculate probabilities. The result of a DNA profile translates into the probability that a person selected at random will have that same profile. In most cases, this probability is astonishingly tiny. Unfortunately, this probability is easily misinterpreted, a situation we will see and discuss many times in the coming chapters.
A crucial reckoning was initiated when the COVID-19 pandemic began to expose and intensify long-standing racial/ethnic health inequities, all while various sectors of society pursued racial justice reform. As a result, there has been a contextual shift towards broader recognition of systemic racism, and not race, as the shared foundational driver of both societal maladies. This confluence of issues is of particular relevance to Black populations disproportionately affected by the pandemic and racial injustice. In response, institutions have initiated diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts as a way forward. This article considers how the dual pandemic climate of COVID-19-related health inequities and the racial justice movement could exacerbate the “time and effort tax” on Black faculty to engage in DEI efforts in academia and biomedicine. We discuss the impact of this “tax” on career advancement and well-being, and introduce an operational framework for considering the interconnected influence of systemic racism, the dual pandemics, and DEI work on the experience of Black faculty. If not meaningfully addressed, the “time and effort tax” could contribute to Black and other underrepresented minority faculty leaving academia and biomedicine – consequently, the very diversity, equity, and inclusion work meant to increase representation could decrease it.
Adequate equitable recruitment of underrepresented groups in clinical research and trials is a national problem and remains a daunting challenge to translating research discoveries into effective healthcare practices. Engagement, recruitment, and retention (ER&R) training programs for Clinical Research Professionals (CRPs) often focus on policies and regulations. Although some training on the importance of diversity and inclusion in clinical research participation has recently been developed, there remains a need for training that couples critical equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) concepts with skill development in effective recruitment and retention strategies, regulations, and best practices.
Approach and methods:
We developed the ER&R Certificate program as a holistic approach to provide Duke University CRPs the opportunity to build competency in gap areas and to increase comfort in championing equitable partnerships with clinical research participants. The thirteen core and elective courses include blended learning elements, such as e-learning and wiki journaling prompts, to facilitate meaningful discussions. Pre- and post-assessments administered to CRP program participants and their managers assessed program impact on CRP skills in ER&R tasks and comfort in equitable, diverse, and inclusive engagement of clinical research participants.
Results and discussion:
Results from the first two cohorts indicate that CRPs perceived growth in their own comfort with program learning objectives, especially those centered on participant partnership and EDI principles, and most managers witnessed growth in competence and responsibility for ER&R-related tasks. Results suggest value in offering CRPs robust training programs that integrate EDI and ER&R training.
Enhancing diversity in the scientific workforce is a long-standing issue. This study uses mixed methods to understand the feasibility, impact, and priority of six key strategies to promote diverse and inclusive training and contextualize the six key strategies across Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) Program Institutions.
Four breakout sessions were held at the NCATS 2020 CTSA Program annual meeting focused on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts. This paper focuses on the breakout session for Enhancing DEI in Translational Science Training Programs. Data were analyzed using a mixed methods convergent approach. The quantitative strand includes the online polling results. The qualitative strand includes the breakout session and the chat box in response to the training presentation.
Across feasibility, impact, and priority questions, prioritizing representation ranked number 1. Building partnerships ranked number 2 in feasibility and priority, while making it personal ranked number 2 for impact. Across each strategy, rankings supported the qualitative data findings in feasibility through shared experiences, impact in the ability to increase DEI, and priority rankings in comparison to the other strategies. No divergence was found across quantitative and qualitative data findings.
Findings provide robust support for prioritizing representation as a number one strategy to focus on in training programs. Specifically, this strategy can be operationalized through integration of community representation, diversity advocates, and adopting a holistic approach to recruiting a diverse cadre of scholars into translational science training programs at the national level across CTSAs.
In Chapters 6–8, we examine how state responses to squatting, and the lenses through which the competing claims of stakeholders are seen, articulated, prioritized, and evaluated, frame debates about homeless squatting in empty land in the context of complex, competing, multi-scalar normative goals. In doing so, we continue to recognize that squatting conflicts are embedded in political, economic, cultural, social, and legal jurisdictional contexts, and that, in these contexts, assumed identities and characteristics are assigned to competing actors, as legal and extra-legal norms are applied to tackle problems and adjudicate conflicts. In this chapter we focus, firstly, on the conceptual and pragmatic meanings – and the “scaled production” – of possession in common law and civil law traditions. We then examine how the act of squatting, and the status of squatters, has been rescaled in recent years. On one axis, we read adaptations in state responses to property events – for example, the criminalization of squatting – as reflecting the upscaling or elevation of the squatting “event.” The criminalization of squatting – or any other erstwhile non-criminal activity – signals that a previously low-stake event has accrued high-stakes impact for the state. It reveals new or emerging pressures on the state to take “other-regarding” action, mediating directly between competing (erstwhile private) claims (for example, owners, squatters, investors, neighbors). And the nature of the state’s response signals to the alignment of particular resilience claims with the state’s (or the government’s) own resilience needs. In focusing on the problem of homeless squatting on empty land through the prism of the homeless squatter, we adopt the framing techniques discussed in Chapter 5: placing the squatter at the center of the network of competing stakeholders and examining the “webby relations” that shape, mediate and separate representations of squatters in accounts of homeless squatting on empty land.