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This chapter provides a framework for the companion by defining world crime fiction and outlining the key theoretical issues involved in studying crime fiction as a global genre. The first section explores the global and transnational prehistories of crime fiction; it covers various forms of premodern crime writing and discusses the global dissemination of Western crime fiction from the late nineteenth century, highlighting the role of translation, pseudotranslation and adaptation in the emergence of local crime literatures. The second section focusses on the transnationalism of contemporary world crime fiction, arguing that the global adaptations of the genre are not just a matter of adding local colour, but involve formal hybridization that results in new, local versions of the genre. The final section discusses how crime fiction studies, as a field traditionally tied to Western crime writing, has recently moved towards a global and transnational conception of the genre. The overarching argument of the chapter is that founding world crime fiction as a research area requires a rethinking of the crime genre itself beyond the Anglocentrism of the scholarly tradition.
The objective of this paper was to review the reproductive biology, herbicide-resistant (HR) biotypes, pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF), and potential for transfer of alleles from HR to herbicide-susceptible grass weeds including barnyardgrass, creeping bentgrass, Italian ryegrass, johnsongrass, rigid (annual) ryegrass, and wild oats. The widespread occurrence of HR grass weeds is at least partly due to PMGF, particularly in obligate outcrossing species such as rigid ryegrass. Creeping bentgrass, a wind-pollinated turfgrass species, can efficiently disseminate herbicide resistance alleles via PMGF and movement of seeds and stolons. The genus Agrostis contains about 200 species, many of which are sexually compatible and produce naturally occurring hybrids and hybrids with species in the genus Polypogon. The self-incompatibility, extremely high outcrossing rate, and wind pollination in Italian ryegrass clearly point to PMGF as a major mechanism by which herbicide resistance alleles can spread across agricultural landscapes, resulting in abundant genetic variation within populations and low genetic differentiation among populations. Italian ryegrass can readily hybridize with perennial ryegrass and rigid ryegrass due to their similarity in chromosome numbers (2n = 14), resulting in interspecific gene exchange. Johnsongrass, barnyardgrass, and wild oats are self-pollinated species, so the potential for PMGF is relatively low and limited to short distances; however, seeds can easily shatter upon maturity before crop harvest, leading to wider dispersal. The occurrence of PMGF in reviewed grass weed species, even at a low rate, is greater than that of spontaneous mutations conferring herbicide resistance in weeds and thus can contribute to the spread of herbicide resistance alleles. This review indicates that the transfer of herbicide resistance alleles occurs under field conditions at varying levels depending on the grass weed species.
Systemic governance in higher education – that is, the way in which higher education policy is coordinated through institutionalized arrangements and practices – has received particular attention from scholars in recent decades, the exact period during which the inherited characteristics of HEs have been significantly changed by the effects of massification, welfare state financial crises, and globalization/internationalization. These changes have mostly been the effects of governmental policies that have apparently followed the same template to solve a common set of problems (how to make higher education more competitive, inclusive, effective and accountable). However, these consistent shifts in systemic governance of higher education do not look to have really driven to a global convergence towards the same way to organize the systemic arrangement of higher education governance. This chapter focuses exactly on the question of whether and how there has been convergence in the process of reforms of systemic higher education. The conclusion, based on a policy instrumental perspective, is that more the convergence there has been a kind of complex process of hybridization.
This article analyzes Suzuki Tadashi’s version of Euripides’ The Trojan Women, staged multiple times during the past forty years. While this cross-cultural production carries specific socio-cultural signs and juxtaposes different traditional Japanese styles (Noh, Kabuki, and Shingeki), it aims to create a third object that does not belong specifically to any of these traditions but is composed of the sum of their specificities. It argues that The Trojan Women was created by Suzuki and his company as a response to the state of culture and society in Japan during the 1970s, breaking with old and new fashions in an effort to revitalize Japanese contemporary theatre. Offering a socio-cultural analysis and drawing on the writings of Michael Bakhtin and Pierre Bourdieu, it sheds light on Suzuki’s humanistic quest for a universalism pursued through the re-discovery and transformation of traditional styles together with an appropriation of Western texts. Lorenzo Montanini is a theatre director whose work investigates the boundaries of theatre and live performance in a multicultural context. He has taught for more than fifteen years in universities in Italy, including RomaTre, Università di Macerata, and Università l’Orientale di Napoli.
Chapter 6 covers the post-uprisings period. Whatever the poor harvest in terms of democratic advances nine years later, many Arab states have witnessed an unprecedented wave of changes and reactions (counterrevolutionary moves) similar in importance to the revolutions of the 1950s–1960s. The term revolution (thawra) was first widely used, with the Tocquevillian caveat about the relevance of the state and the power structures of old regimes both for the breakdown and then regime re-formation – and the effect of huge social mobilization should not be assessed only with the notion of a unified outcome (success or failure) at the macro-level in the short term. This chapter shows the tentative deployment of the military's institutional power with different outcomes. Notwithstanding the enduring Tunisian exception and the case of full civil war in Syria, the picture is mixed with reinforced militarism in Egypt, attempts elsewhere in a context of acute threats and boiling regional context, yet with inherent weaknesses and risks of fragmentation.
Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) refers to the transfer of genetic information (alleles) from one plant to another compatible plant. With the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds, PMGF plays an important role in the transfer of resistance alleles from HR to susceptible weeds; however, little attention is given to this topic. The objective of this work was to review reproductive biology, PMGF studies, and interspecific hybridization, as well as potential for herbicide resistance alleles to transfer in the economically important broadleaf weeds including common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, horseweed, kochia, Palmer amaranth, and waterhemp. The PMGF studies involving these species reveal that transfer of herbicide resistance alleles routinely occurs under field conditions and is influenced by several factors, such as reproductive biology, environment, and production practices. Interspecific hybridization studies within Amaranthus and Ambrosia spp. show that herbicide resistance allele transfer is possible between species of the same genus but at relatively low levels. The widespread occurrence of HR weed populations and high genetic diversity is at least partly due to PMGF, particularly in dioecious species such as Palmer amaranth and waterhemp compared with monoecious species such as common lambsquarters and horseweed. Prolific pollen production in giant ragweed contributes to PMGF. Kochia, a wind-pollinated species can efficiently disseminate herbicide resistance alleles via both PMGF and tumbleweed seed dispersal, resulting in widespread occurrence of multiple HR kochia populations. The findings from this review verify that intra- and interspecific gene flow can occur and, even at a low rate, could contribute to the rapid spread of herbicide resistance alleles. More research is needed to determine the role of PMGF in transferring multiple herbicide resistance alleles at the landscape level.
Non-native, exotic or introduced species fall into the category of aliens, whereas an invasive species is an alien that gives rise to ecological, economic, health or other concerns as a result of its establishment and spread, or has the potential to do so. Their effects include predation, competition and displacement, or hybridization with natives, as well as the transmission of parasites or pathogens. In cases where aliens are ecological engineers, the ramifications of their establishment are such that food-web architecture is disrupted, causing shifts in ecosystem structure and function. Predators (often piscivores) can cause marked changes in lakes (such as Victoria), but filter-feeing bivalves are also nuisance species. Fishes (often deliberately stocked), molluscs, crayfishes and other crustaceans, as well as aquatic macrophytes are frequently invasive, but aliens include a broad array of taxa. Both lakes and rivers in almost all continents are affected, especially those subject to human modification or with compromised water quality. The outcome of such invasions is replacement of natives, and on-going biotic homogenization of a formerly diverse global biota.
Mechanistic models (MMs) have served as causal pathway analysis and ‘decision-support’ tools within animal production systems for decades. Such models quantitatively define how a biological system works based on causal relationships and use that cumulative biological knowledge to generate predictions and recommendations (in practice) and generate/evaluate hypotheses (in research). Their limitations revolve around obtaining sufficiently accurate inputs, user training and accuracy/precision of predictions on-farm. The new wave in digitalization technologies may negate some of these challenges. New data-driven (DD) modelling methods such as machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) examine patterns in data to produce accurate predictions (forecasting, classification of animals, etc.). The deluge of sensor data and new self-learning modelling techniques may address some of the limitations of traditional MM approaches – access to input data (e.g. sensors) and on-farm calibration. However, most of these new methods lack transparency in the reasoning behind predictions, in contrast to MM that have historically been used to translate knowledge into wisdom. The objective of this paper is to propose means to hybridize these two seemingly divergent methodologies to advance the models we use in animal production systems and support movement towards truly knowledge-based precision agriculture. In order to identify potential niches for models in animal production of the future, a cross-species (dairy, swine and poultry) examination of the current state of the art in MM and new DD methodologies (ML, DL analytics) is undertaken. We hypothesize that there are several ways via which synergy may be achieved to advance both our predictive capabilities and system understanding, being: (1) building and utilizing data streams (e.g. intake, rumination behaviour, rumen sensors, activity sensors, environmental sensors, cameras and near IR) to apply MM in real-time and/or with new resolution and capabilities; (2) hybridization of MM and DD approaches where, for example, a ML framework is augmented by MM-generated parameters or predicted outcomes and (3) hybridization of the MM and DD approaches, where biological bounds are placed on parameters within a MM framework, and the DD system parameterizes the MM for individual animals, farms or other such clusters of data. As animal systems modellers, we should expand our toolbox to explore new DD approaches and big data to find opportunities to increase understanding of biological systems, find new patterns in data and move the field towards intelligent, knowledge-based precision agriculture systems.
Host shifts of parasites are often causing devastating effects in the new hosts. The Varroa genus is known for a lineage of Varroa destructor that shifted to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, with disastrous effects on wild populations and the beekeeping industry. Despite this, the biology of Varroa spp. remains poorly understood in its native distribution range, where it naturally parasitizes the Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana. Here, we combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses with the assessment of mite reproduction to determine the population structure and host specificity of V. destructor and Varroa jacobsonii in Thailand, where both hosts and several Varroa species and haplotypes are sympatric. Our data confirm previously described mite haplogroups, and show three novel haplotypes. Multiple infestations of single host colonies by both mite species and introgression of alleles between V. destructor and V. jacobsonii suggest that hybridization occurs between the two species. Our results indicate that host specificity and population genetic structure in the genus Varroa is more labile than previously thought. The ability of the host shifted V. destructor haplotype to spillback to A. cerana and to hybridize with V. jacobsonii could threaten honey bee populations of Asia and beyond.
In the current investigation, a novel navigational controller has been designed and implemented for humanoids in cluttered environments. Here, regression analysis is hybridized with genetic algorithm (GA) for designing the controller. The obstacle distances collected in the form of sensor outputs are initially fed to the regression controller; and based on the previous training pattern data, an intermediate advancing angle (AA) is obtained as the first output. The intermediate AA obtained from the regression controller along with other inputs is again fed to the GA controller, which generates the final AA as the desired final output to avoid the obstacles present in a complex environment and reach the destination successfully. The working of the controller is tested on a V-REP simulation platform. In the current work, navigation of both single as well as multiple humanoids has been attempted. To avoid inter-collision among multiple humanoids during their navigation in a common platform, a Petri-Net model has been proposed. The simulation results are validated through a real-time experimental platform developed under laboratory conditions. The results obtained from both the simulation and experimental platforms are compared against each other and are found to be in good agreement with acceptable percentage of errors. Finally, the proposed controller is also compared with other existing navigational controller and an improvement in performance has been observed.
Invasive populations of Dalmation toadflax [Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill.] and yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris Mill.) are widespread throughout the Intermountain West, where gene flow between these nonnative species is producing vigorous and fertile hybrids. These hybrid toadflax populations are less responsive to herbicides than either parent species, and biocontrol agents routinely released on L. dalmatica and L. vulgaris often fail to establish on hybrid hosts. Early detection of hybrid Linaria populations is therefore essential for effective management, but resources are limited for scouting large expanses of range and wildland. We used species distribution modeling to identify environmentally suitable areas for these invasive Linaria taxa in Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. Areas suitable for hybrid Linaria establishment were estimated using two different modeling approaches: first, based on known hybrid occurrence and associated environmental conditions, and second, based on zones environmentally suitable for co-occurrence of the parent species. This also allowed comparison of different model outputs, especially relevant when modeling emerging invasives, such as novel hybrids, with minimal occurrence data. Combining the two model outputs identified areas at greatest risk of hybrid Linaria invasion, including parts of north-central Montana, where model estimates indicate the hybrid may spread without prior co-invasion of the parents. Potential hybrid hot spots were also identified in western Montana; northwestern, northeastern, and southeastern Wyoming; and the Western Slope and Front Range of Colorado. Despite relatively few confirmed occurrences of hybrid populations to date, our results indicate that extensive spread of hybrid populations is possible within the studied area. Model-based maps of potential Linaria distributions will allow area weed managers to direct limited resources more effectively for locating and controlling these invaders.
To investigate the extent of suspected hybridization between the brolga Antigone rubicunda and the Australian sarus crane Antigone antigone gillae, first noted in the 1970s, we analysed the genetic diversity of 389 feathers collected from breeding and flocking areas in north Queensland, Australia. We compared these with 15 samples from birds of known identity, or that were phenotypically typical. Bayesian clustering based on 10 microsatellite loci identified nine admixed birds, confirming that Australian cranes hybridize in the wild. Four of these were backcrosses, also confirming that wild Australian crane hybrids are fertile. Genetic analyses identified 10 times more hybrids than our accompanying visual field observations. Our analyses also provide the first definitive evidence that both brolgas and sarus cranes migrate between the Gulf Plains, the principal breeding area for sarus cranes, and major non-breeding locations on the Atherton Tablelands. We suggest that genetic analysis of shed feathers could potentially offer a cost-effective means to provide ongoing monitoring of this migration. The first observations of hybrids coincided with significantly increased opportunities for interaction between the two species when foraging on agricultural crops, which have developed significantly in the Atherton Tablelands flocking area since the 1960s. As the sarus crane is declining in much of its Asian range, challenges to the genetic integrity of the Australian sarus crane populations have international conservation significance.
This article investigates the extent to which provincial political parties made use of social media in their strategy, organization and communication in order to achieve their electoral goals during the Quebec 2012 general election. Using data from a series of 19 interviews conducted with online strategists and campaign directors from the five leading parties active in the 2012 election, we identify the strategic objectives these organizations followed when developing their social media campaigns. The strategists' narratives reveal that social media became a central component of electioneering and that parties were carrying out, in various forms, hybrid campaigns that combined traditional and emergent communication technologies and employed both old and new types of organizational principles.
The genus Clinostomoides Dollfus, 1950 was erected to accommodate a single worm from Ardea goliath sampled in the Belgian Congo. The specimen was distinguished from other clinostomids by its large size and posterior genitalia. In the following years, metacercariae of Clinostomoides brieni, have been described in Clarias spp. in southern and western Africa. A few authors have referred to Clinostomum brieni, but all such usages appear to be lapsus calami, and the validity of Clinostomoides remains widely accepted. In this study our aim was: position C. brieni among the growing clinostomids molecular database, and redescribe the species with emphasis on characters that have emerged as important in recent work. We sequenced two nuclear (partial 18S and ITS) and one mitochondrial marker (partial cytochrome c oxidase I) and studied morphology in metacercariae from hosts and localities likely to harbour the type species (Clarias spp., Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa). Phylogenetic analysis shows C. brieni belongs within Clinostomum Leidy, 1856. We therefore transfer C. brieni to Clinostomum, amend the diagnosis for the genus Clinostomum and provide a critical analysis of other species in Clinostomoides, all of which we consider species inquirendae, as they rest on comparisons of different developmental stages.
Hybridization events between Schistosoma species (Digenea, Platyhelminthes) are reported with increasing frequency, largely due to improved access to molecular tools. Nevertheless, little is known about the distribution and frequency of hybrid schistosomes in nature. Screening for hybrids on a large scale is complicated by the need for nuclear and mitochondrial sequence information, precluding a ‘simple’ barcoding approach. Here we aimed to determine and understand the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium × Schistosoma bovis hybrids in the Senegal River Basin. From ten villages, distributed over the four main water basins, we genotyped a total of 1236 schistosome larvae collected from human urine samples using a partial mitochondrial cox1 fragment; a subset of 268 parasites was also genotyped using ITS rDNA. Hybrid schistosomes were unevenly distributed, with substantially higher numbers in villages bordering Lac de Guiers than in villages from the Lampsar River and the Middle Valley of the Senegal River. The frequency of hybrids per village was not linked with the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in that village. However, we did find a significant positive association between the frequency of hybrids per village and the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni. We discuss the potential consequences of adopting a barcoding approach when studying hybrids in nature.
European dry-wood termites belong to the genus Kalotermes (Kalotermitidae), one of the two termite genera in Europe. Until the recent description of two new species, Kalotermes italicus in Italy and Kalotermes phoenicae in the eastern Mediterranean area, Kalotermes flavicollis was the only taxon known in this region. The presence of additional entities, suggested by morphological and physiological variation observed in K. flavicollis, was supported by molecular studies revealing four distinct genetic lineages: lineage A, K. flavicollis sensu strictu, from the Aegean area to Italy; lineage B, in Tuscany; lineage SC, in Sardinia and Corsica; lineage SF, in southern France. Lineages A and B may form mixed colonies, suggesting hybridization. To draw a more detailed picture of Kalotermes evolution and biogeography in Europe, we analyzed samples from previously unsampled areas, such as Spain and southern Italy, by means of the highly informative cox1/trnL/cox2 mitochondrial DNA marker. Overall, phylogenetic analyses confirmed previously identified lineages and taxa, but widened the distribution of the lineage SC to the mainland and of the lineage SF to Spain and Portugal. Results further provided evidence for the synonymy between lineage B and K. italicus. Species delimitation analysis suggested that the three K. flavicollis lineages, as well as K. italicus, can be separate taxa. Data also suggest a possible interspecific hybridization between K. italicus and both K. flavicollis lineages A and SC.
In this study, we isolate and analyse a new set of microsatellite loci for Cattleya walkeriana. Twenty-two primer pairs were screened for C. walkeriana (n = 32) and assessed for their transferability to Cattleya loddigesii (n = 12) and Cattleya nobilior (n = 06). All loci amplified for C. walkeriana; however, for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, four and five primers, respectively, did not present amplification. The polymorphic loci presented between 2 and 13 alleles per locus for both C. walkeriana and C. loddigesii, with respective averages of 5.1 and 4.2. For C. nobilior, we found between two and five alleles per locus, with an average of 2.6. For C. walkeriana, observed heterozygosity varied from 0.100 to 0.966, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.900. The observed and expected heterozygosity for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior were also estimated. We found no significant linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci, and evidence of null alleles at four loci (Cw16, Cw24, Cw30 and Cw31) for C. walkeriana. The combined power to exclude the first parent and combined non-exclusion probability of identity were 0.999 and 2.3 × 10−20, respectively. These new loci can be used in studies of germplasm resources, and assessments of genotypic and genetic diversity and population structure, thus improving the accuracy of such analyses and their applicability in the conservation and protection of these endangered species.
Breeding and larval performance of novel hybrids from reciprocal crosses of Asian catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) and African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) were investigated in this study. Spawning was by hormonal injection of brood fish, artificial fertilization, and incubation in triplicate aquarium tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m3) with continuous aeration. Reciprocal crosses (♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus and ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus) had lower hatchability (≤50%) than their pure siblings (≥75%). Fish from all crosses survived until the juvenile stage but survival at 35 days post hatching (dph) was higher for pure C. gariepinus sib. ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus was observed to be less resistant to degradation of water quality than the other crosses, however it had higher body weight compared with the other crosses that showed similar performance. Morphological comparison of surviving juvenile at 35 dph, showed that all ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus and 13% of the ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus exhibited the very same morphology as that of their maternal parent species, while the other portion of the ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus cross exhibited morphological traits that were intermediate between those of both parent species. This study been the first successful attempt to hybridize both species and therefore, laid the groundwork for further studies on the aquaculture potentials of the novel hybrids.
Hybrid parasites may have an increased transmission potential and higher virulence compared to their parental species. Consequently, hybrid detection is critical for disease control. Previous crossing experiments showed that hybrid schistosome eggs have distinct morphotypes. We therefore compared the performance of egg morphology with molecular markers with regard to detecting hybridization in schistosomes. We studied the morphology of 303 terminal-spined eggs, originating from 19 individuals inhabiting a hybrid zone with natural crosses between the human parasite Schistosoma haematobium and the livestock parasite Schistosoma bovis in Senegal. The egg sizes showed a high variability and ranged between 92·4 and 176·4 µm in length and between 35·7 and 93·0 µm in width. No distinct morphotypes were found and all eggs resembled, to varying extent, the typical S. haematobium egg type. However, molecular analyses on the same eggs clearly showed the presence of two distinct partial mitochondrial cox1 profiles, namely S. bovis and S. haematobium, and only a single nuclear ITS rDNA profile (S. haematobium). Therefore, in these particular crosses, egg morphology appears not a good indicator of hybrid ancestry. We conclude by discussing strengths and limitations of molecular methods to detect hybrids in the context of high-throughput screening of field samples.
The European winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is a non-native pest in the Northeastern USA causing defoliation of forest trees and crops such as apples and blueberries. This species is known to hybridize with O. bruceata, the Bruce spanworm, a native species across North America, although it is not known if there are hybrid generations beyond F1. To study winter moth population genetics and hybridization with Bruce spanworm, we developed two sets of genetic markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites, using genomic approaches. Both types of markers were validated using samples from the two species and their hybrids. We identified 1216 SNPs and 24 variable microsatellite loci. From them we developed a subset of 95 species-diagnostic SNPs and ten microsatellite loci that could be used for hybrid identification. We further validated the ten microsatellite loci by screening field collected samples of both species and putative hybrids. In addition to confirming the presence of F1 hybrids reported in previous studies, we found evidence for multi-generation asymmetric hybridization, as suggested by the occurrence of hybrid backcrosses with the winter month, but not with the Bruce spanworm. Laboratory crosses between winter moth females and Bruce spanworm males resulted in a higher proportion of viable eggs than the reciprocal cross, supporting this pattern. We discuss the possible roles of population demographics, sex chromosome genetic incompatibility, and bacterial symbionts as causes of this asymmetrical hybridization and the utility of the developed markers for future studies.