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The chapter explores what professional engagement as a geography teacher looks like by identifying several geography-specific communities of practice and a range of resources suitable for teacher professional learning (TPL) in geography. Attention then focuses on the nature of professional engagement overall. Throughout the chapter, the reader is challenged to reflect on and consider how they can continue to maintain and build their capacity as a graduate and proficient early-career teacher of geography.
This chapter aims to develop teacher skills in planning units of work in geography. Teachers must become aware of the learning requirements of the unit from the Australian Curriculum: Geography that they intend to teach and then be focused on the assessment aspects that will drive the planning for the unit. Finally, the chapter provides a planning approach for the development of a teaching program that is relevant, achievable and engaging units for teaching.
This chapter examines skills developed by, and brought to play in, fieldwork. Progressing from generic skills used and refined through fieldwork, the discussion focuses on the geographical nature of skills used across all fieldwork activities, to the key geographical skills and tools that can be drawn upon to construct authentic fieldwork experiences for students. Fieldwork has always been an important facet of geography, helping to inform, validate, and consolidate the study of people and place. Fieldwork remains, to this day, rather simple and straightforward. It involves the gathering of primary data in the field. The ‘process’ of fieldwork occurs through the use and application of a wide variety of geographic and generic skills. The following discussion of fieldwork skills will examine the place of: • fieldwork skills in students wider learning, • fieldwork skills for thinking geographically, • specific geographic fieldwork skills, • geographic fieldwork tools and technology.
This chapter explores the essential role played by geography in developing a student’s ‘graphicacy’. It examines the relationship between graphicacy, visual literacy and visual thinking in geography, and explores why this is an essential part of the geography curriculum. The differing types of graphicacy are investigated, along with strategies to support the effective teaching of graphicacy in the classroom.
Every school subject and every field of knowledge has a similar problem: What is the core knowledge that should be learned? In university courses, each student takes a different pathway through the options that are offered, and in school courses teachers and curriculum planners have to choose which ideas, content and skills should be emphasised. No student or teacher will ever have the time to comprehensively study every area of their major subjects; in fact, the longer they study a subject at university, the more they tend to increase the depth of their knowledge rather than the breadth. This chapter aims to help teachers unpack the large amount of information in the Australian Curriculum: Geography, emphasising the core knowledge and understandings. For every unit of the curriculum from Year 7 to Year 10, as well as the senior years, an interpretation of the core knowledge is presented, together with the key inquiry and skills developed within it. Following this are commentaries on examples of appropriate case studies that are suitable to achieve the aims of the unit.
The chapter explores the nature of geography as a school subject. It reviews the five aims of the Australian Curriculum: Geography, as these are a guide for teachers in thinking about their objectives in teaching. It then discusses geography’s ways of thinking, which are based on a set of concepts that underpin the curriculum and make it distinctively geographical through the ways in which they view the world, the issues they identify as significant, and the questions, methods of analysis, explanations and criteria for evaluation they generate. These concepts are place, space, environment, interconnection, scale, change and sustainability, and they are unpacked and explained in this chapter.
This chapter addresses the place and nature of the general capabilities of the Australian Curriculum and emphasises that the general capabilities are not an ’add-on’ to the teaching of the Australian Curriculum: Geography. Rather, the general capabilities are integral to quality geographical education and have a very comfortable synergy with the aims, knowledge, understandings, skills and pedagogical approaches of the geography curriculum.
Over the last 30 years, information in the form of digital data has become the foundation upon which decisions are made. Governments, businesses and organisations have realised that they must have access to the right data at the right time, and also undertake differing types of analysis to make correct decisions. Data have become a part of everyday life, and the ability for all citizens to have some level of data literacy is becoming increasingly important. Data literacy in schools, or the ability to understand and use data effectively to inform decisions, will create transferable skills for students moving into the twenty-first century workforce. This means students need to be highly skilled in collecting, recording, accessing and representing data. Students should know where and how to access data, and how to use data to tell their story. Geography plays an essential role in developing these skills in the school curriculum, particularly in the secondary years. While ‘using data’ is a skill in many subjects, geography provides the opportunity for data to be used in real-world contexts, and the skills are very transferable for many future pathways.
Geographers have always had a love affair with fieldwork. It has been their staple since the beginning. Geography teachers have a collective understanding of and consensus about what fieldwork is and its role within their geography teaching. In its simplest form, fieldwork helps to make sense of what students learn in the classroom, but it is much more than that. Teachers unanimously affirm its central role in providing an extension to classroom learning by involving students in active data collection in the field.The importance of generating a ‘culture’ of fieldwork cannot be under-estimated. The earlier students are introduced to the expectations of fieldwork, the more effective future fieldwork activities will be, resulting in development of their skills, independence and enjoyment of the activity.
As Geography teachers, it is necessary to show students what it is that makes geography distinctive, relevant and therefore powerful. The distinctiveness and relevance of a subject is shown through both content and pedagogy – pedagogical content knowledge, powerful knowledge, powerful pedagogy – bringing content knowledge to life for students through the way the subject is taught. Imagine a geography lesson without fieldwork, or without the use of geographical tools such as maps and visual representations, or without the interpretation of information through the lens of place-based analysis, spatial reasoning and human-environment interconnections. The chapter explores the ‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ of developing distinctive and powerful geography lessons through posing an overarching question for reflection: ‘What makes your geography lesson geographical?’ Throughout the chapter, the reader is challenged to reflect on and consider how they can continue to identify, maintain and build their pedagogical practice.
With the digital revolution of the turn of the century, fast internet, widespread digital and mobile devices such as tablets, smart watches, smartphones and the increasing functionality of the web-based tools that we use have combined to bring some amazing geographical technologies into our homes and classrooms. Tools such as Google Earth, handheld GPS units and mobile smartphones have changed the way geography teachers bring the world to our students, and the smartphone, tablet, virtual reality (VR) and whatever technology is coming next will continue to make the subject even more relevant and useful to students. The Australian Curriculum: Geography and all state syllabi require geography students to use geospatial technologies from early primary school onwards, so interest in geospatial tools is at its highest and these tools will only become more widespread in geography as these trends continue. All this background information brings us to you and your geography teaching. Through this chapter, we will explore the following questions: ● Why should you use geospatial tools in your classroom? ● What geospatial tools are appropriate? ● What will you do with your students to help them use these tools effectively to enhance their geographical learning?
This chapter deals with inquiry, a central tenet of geographical learning as set out in the Australian Curriculum. It examines the reasons for using inquiry in the classroom, in terms of both pedagogical theory and practical classroom teaching. It then suggests a number of ways in which inquiry can be put into practice.
This article draws attention to the case of Aceh to analyse the mechanisms through which ideologically driven geographic imaginings obscured the role of place and class in colonial and anti-colonial violence in Indonesia. Its main perspective is the region's West Coast. In the course of the long and brutal Dutch-Acehnese war (1873–1942), the West Coast of Sumatra was transformed from a dynamic centre of trade, commerce, and religious renewal into a colonial frontier. Violent resistance persisted in this area as the Dutch involved themselves in and exacerbated local contestations for authority and resources. Colonial discourse worked to conceal these complexities, foregrounding an image of the West Coast as a remote, backwards, and inherently dangerous place, prone to a violent Muslim millenarianism.
Geography is not only the study of the surface of the planet and the exploration of spatial and human - environment relationships, but also a way of thinking about the world. Guided by the Australian Curriculum and the Professional Standards for Teaching School Geography (GEOGstandards), Teaching Secondary Geography provides a comprehensive introduction to both the theory and practice of teaching Geography. This text covers fundamental geographical knowledge and skills, such as working with data, graphicacy, fieldwork and spatial technology, and provides practical guidance on teaching them in the classroom. Each chapter features short-answer and 'Pause and Think' questions to enhance understanding of key concepts, and 'Bringing It Together' review questions to consolidate learning. Classroom scenarios and a range of information boxes are provided throughout to connect students to additional material. Written by an author team with extensive teaching experience, Teaching Secondary Geography is an exemplary resource for pre-service teachers.
Colonialism and plantation slavery were primarily geographic endeavors of conquering and staking claim to land and space. Rather than focus on the transience or permanency of escape, that is to say the debates about petit and grand marronnage, this chapter argues that maroons were spatially pervasive in Saint Domingue and employed their knowledge of geographic settings and geopolitical borders to subvert locations delineated for plantation development and imperial expansion. Mountains, sinkholes, caves, and rivers provided physical pathways for maroons to secretly traverse the colony or to stake out hiding spaces. The geopolitical border dividing French Saint Domingue and Spanish Santo Domingo also represented a form of cultural knowledge that Africans in Saint Domingue exploited for well over a century by taking up arms against both empires and fleeing to Santo Domingo, seeking freedom from enslavement or better treatment and quality of life.
For millennia, Iran’s geography has been a cornerstone of its geopolitical strength, but at critical junctures also its Achilles heel. Time and space are the factors that have shaped the Iranian identity and at the same time generate the conditions that threaten the country’s national security. Geography is the percolator for generational grievances against foreign machinations and interventions. Abuse by world powers has loomed large in Iran’s threat narratives and perceptions. The chapter argues that Tehran’s threat perceptions have evolved over the years and Iranians have shown a remarkable ability to adapt their doctrine and posture in response.
Dr Thomas Hodgkin was a physician and medical researcher as well as a humanitarian campaigner. Hodgkin’s science was informed by his social conscience and his affiliation to the Society of Friends, while his philanthropy rested on the presentation of systematically organized and scientifically derived evidence. This chapter discusses Hodgkin’s medical research and career, and then his significant contribution to the emerging disciplines of ethnology and geography. Hodgkin and his peers within newly emerging scientific disciplines established and used scientific societies to not only stake disciplinary claims, but also promote political and humanitarian objects. Exploring the myriad overlaps in personnel, ideas and approach between the different areas and organizations with which Hodgkin was involved, this chapter addresses the underappreciated connection between science and humanitarian activity in mid-century London, and the impact of that relationship on our reading of indigenous protection.
Mary Pat Brady’s chapter poses an alternative approach to hemispheric fiction by reading not according the scales of concentric geometries of space (local, regional, national, transnational), but instead reconceptualizing what she terms “pluriversal novels of the 21st century.” She argues for attending to the complexly mixed temporalities, perspectives, and languages of novels that reject the dualism of monoworlds (center/periphery) for the unpredictability of stories anchored in multiple space-times. While this is not an exclusively 21st-century phenomenon, she shows that pluriveral fiction has flourished recently, as works by Linda Hogan, Jennine Capó Crucet, Julia Alvarez, Gabby Rivera, Karen Tei Yamashita, Ana-Maurine Lara, and Evelina Zuni Lucero demonstrate.
On top of dealing with climate change impacts on rainfall and temperature, and rising populations and development, the Euphrates–Tigris basin also faces conflict and instability. The Syrian Civil War, the presence of many nonstate armed groups, and the lack of coordination between Turkey, Syria, and Iraq to manage the water resources can lead to continued political confrontation and economic disintegration. This complicates the existent issue of nexus in the Euphrates–Tigris basin. The conflicting needs of energy, water, and food require more coordination not just between countries but between sectors within the countries. Each sector must be allocated a certain amount of water based on the needs it fulfills for the country. If violence continues and instability in the region is not resolved, these demands may increase and further pressure the basin.
Tacitus’ Germania is notable for its absences: lacking a preface and programmatic statements, and being the only ethnographic monograph to have survived from Greco-Roman antiquity, readers have often leapt to fill in its perceived blanks. This chapter aims at redressing the effects of overdetermined readings by interpreting the text’s absences as significant in their own right.