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Jujube is both consumed as a food source and medicinal plant in local markets. It is expected that different geographical populations of Ziziphus jujuba, differ in their genetic content as they grow in different ecological conditions. It is important to have detailed information on population genetic structure and the available genetic variability to make a proper germplasm collection of jujube. We have no data on jujube populations of Iran based on SCoT and REMAP molecular markers, and therefore we planned a population genetic study of these trees in 10 geographical areas. We used SCoT and REMAP molecular markers for our genetic investigation. We found the loci with a high value of Gst (1.00) in SCoT and REMAP markers that can be used in fingerprinting of jujube.
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important crop of family Fabaceae used as a potential source of proteins, fibres and minerals. Thus, characterization of existing germplasm is useful for improvement and conservation. The Indian Himalayan Region harbours plentiful varieties of common bean, but it is nearly unexplored till date. In the present study, physical and genetic diversity of common bean was examined. Fifteen newly designed chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure in 119 common bean individuals from 20 diverse accessions gathered from Uttarakhand, India. Significantly, positive (p< 0.05) relationship of seed weight was found with seed length (r = 0.813), seed width (r = 0.692) and seed length- width ratio (r = 0.694) using Pearson correlation analysis. A total of 20 alleles were identified using eight cpSSR markers. Mean number of alleles per locus (Na = 1.55), effective allele number (Ne = 1.370), expected heterozygosity (He = 0.213), average polymorphic loci (10.9) and Shannon information index (I = 0.313) were estimated based on cpSSR data. Maximum genetic diversity (He) was recorded in the AKJ/KK/DP/Jhalla/23 accession and minimum in the AKJ/YB/PS/Supi/43 accession. Bayesian-based STRUCTURE evaluation using cpSSR-based information partitioned 20 accessions into two distinct clusters which were also supported by neighbor-joining cluster analysis. These cpSSR markers also demonstrated transferability among other members like Vigna radiata, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Glycine max, Vigna mungo of Fabaceae family, therefore can be used to monitor their genetic heterogeneity. The findings from the study might be valuable to identify elite common bean accessions for production, conservation and future breeding programmes.
The article presents the results of the search for microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci with tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide tandem repeat motifs in the draft de novo assembly of the Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) genome and the development of convenient relatively highly and moderately polymorphic markers that can be easily genotyped even by simple gel electrophoresis. In total, 64 pairs of oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for 32 detected microsatellite loci were designed and tested. Based on the testing results, 10 most promising polymorphic loci were selected and genotyped in eight natural populations of Siberian fir. Homologous microsatellite loci in the genome of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) were also identified by mapping Siberian fir contigs, containing SSR loci to the European silver fir genome assembly. A multiplex panel of 14 universal microsatellite loci was developed and genotyped in samples from four natural populations of A. alba and a small sample of eight Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach) trees.
Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) has been neglected in terms of variety selection and development which has resulted in farmers growing a mixture of landraces that are not genetically characterized and are low yielding. With the need to set up a breeding programme in Malawi, it was necessary to thoroughly understand the genetic diversity (GD) present in the available germplasm. The objectives of the study were to assess Bambara genotypes GD using agro-morphological traits and SNP markers, and to identify and select high yielding Bambara genotypes. Field trials were conducted for two seasons at Bunda College. Later, genotypes were genotyped using DartSeqLD SNP markers. All data were analysed using R Package. Significant genetic variations (P < 0.001) were observed for most traits including grain yield, which suggests that genetic variability exists in Bambara groundnuts which can be exploited in breeding programmes aimed at developing high performing varieties. Based on grain yield, the study identified 18 top performing genotypes across the evaluation seasons which will be tested under farmers’ fields’ conditions. DArTseqLD grouped the genotypes into three clusters. It was noted that majority of the genotypes from the same origin clustered together. High genetic distances were observed between genotypes from Southern African and West African regions and this has important implications in parental selection for the genetic improvement of Bambara. Our results provide valuable insights about the extent of genetic variability and how parental lines can be selected for improved genetic gain in Bambara groundnuts.
Bael is an important sub-tropical fruit crop in family Rutaceae that is widely distributed throughout South-East Asia. For local communities, the nutritious composition of its fruits and leaves offers tremendous economic and social possibilities to exploit. However, its underutilized status, as well as man-made threats to its natural habitat, make it imperative to implement concrete strategies for its cultivation and conservation. To fully grasp the ability of this adaptable fruit tree for human health and environmental well-being, it is necessary to characterize the genetic diversity. The goal of this study was to use morphological (13 quantitative traits), biochemical (9 attributes) and molecular (10 SRAP primers) characterization to evaluate 24 bael genotypes from two agroecological zones of India. Fruit and pulp weight ranged from 79.0– to 1478.8 g and 15.0– to 894.3 g with mean values of 448.67 and 233.3 g, respectively. Traits such as fruit, pulp, and seed weight (g), fruit length (cm) and width (cm), number of fruits per tree, number of seeds per fruit, shell weight (g) and shell thickness (mm) recorded highly significant differences. High phenol (11.65–24.38 mg GAE/g fw) and flavonoid (12.32–74.63 mg CE/g fw) content was observed in fruit pulp indicating significant antioxidant potential of this fruit. Several morphological and biochemical characters were found to have significant positive correlations. Principal component analysis revealed that first five components contributed 96.76% to total variation. Hierarchical cluster analysis separated the populations into two distinct clusters, while analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using SRAP markers revealed that 70% of the total marker variation was due to interpopulation variance, while 30% was attributed to intrapopulation.
Genetic diversity and genetic relatedness among 50 genotypes from eight countries, including Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Lebanon, India, Yemen, and the United States located in two continents of Asia and the America, were assessed using SCoT markers. A total of 213 bands were produced; 100% of them were polymorphic; the average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.39. The mean Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's index were 0.33 and 0.49, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance suggested significant genetic differences within pomegranate populations. 99% of variance occurs within the populations, whereas 1% of the variation was recorded among the populations of pomegranate. Cluster analysis using SCoT markers able to group genotypes based on their geographical origins. Based on cluster analysis, the genotypes studied were divided into two main groups. The first group included most Asian genotypes, while American genotypes along with some Asian genotypes were in the second group. In the first group, Iranian genotypes were grouped with genotypes from Afghanistan and India. In the second group, the genotypes belonging to the America were in the same group as most of the genotypes of Turkmenistan. According to the present study, SCoT markers can be used to evaluate genetic diversity, identification and DNA fingerprinting pomegranate genotypes of different origins. This information can be used in breeding programs and the management of pomegranate collections.
Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) is an underutilized indigenous leafy vegetable with enormous prospects for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. However, relatively little is known about genetic relationships and population structure in the species. In this study, 32 landraces of fluted pumpkin collected across three southern geographical regions in Nigeria were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using 8 start codon-targeted (SCoT) makers. The polymorphic information content of the SCoT markers ranged from 0.48 in SCoT36 to 0.94 in SCoT28, with an average of 0.77. Hierarchical cluster dendrogram based on Ward's method and principal component analysis grouped the landraces into four clusters without affiliation to provenance. Overall, the mean values of the population genetic diversity parameters – Nei's gene diversity (H) and Shannon's information index (I) showed values of 0.28 ± 0.01 and 0.43 ± 0.02, respectively, implying a narrow genetic base for the landraces. The result was further corroborated by a very close Nei's genetic distance and identity among populations of the landraces. Furthermore, the south-west population exhibited the higher genetic diversity (H = 0.31 ± 0.02 and I = 0.45 ± 0.03). Population structure analysis inferred three subpopulations for the accessions with varying degrees of allelic admixture. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that almost all the genetic variation occurred within (99%) than between (1%) populations. The findings shed light on the genetic diversity of southern Nigerian fluted pumpkin and have significant implications for the characterisation, conservation, exploitation and improvement of the species.
Genetic profiling can validate pedigrees and reveal genetic diversity/inbreeding within populations. We have developed 12 autosomal microsatellite markers that can be used to DNA profile gibbon species. The panel generated full profiles for 39 individuals currently or previously housed at Twycross Zoo, UK, representing five species across three genera. The study is extending to a further approximate 100 samples, including three additional species, from captive populations across Europe. The panel’s cross-species utility allows for a single protocol to be used for all DNA profiling, avoiding the need for species-specific testing. In addition, the panel resolved an issue of uncertain paternity in a breeding group, with direct implications for group management and welfare. The loci reported here yielded profiles from blood, tissue and non-invasive hair samples. Positive impact on the viability and sustainability of captive breeding programmes is anticipated, by clarifying cryptic relatedness and informing future pairings. Potential exists for field application in investigating population dynamics, mating behaviours, relatedness and dispersal patterns, as well as assessing the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the genetic architecture of populations. This established panel, effective across multiple gibbon species and genera, presents an affordable and expedient tool for research and captive management.
The occurrence of species in both polar regions (bipolarity) is a common phenomenon in the Antarctic flora. Considering the high morphological variation in polar regions due to extreme conditions, the use of molecular tools is indispensable for testing whether Arctic and Antarctic populations indeed belong to the same species. However, few phylogeographic studies of bipolar bryophytes have been conducted so far, especially when comparing molecular and morphological variation. Here, we assess the bipolarity and intraspecific variation of Roaldia revoluta, a strictly bipolar species of pleurocarpous mosses. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS sequences clearly resolve R. revoluta as monophyletic and confirm its bipolar distribution pattern. Low intraspecific molecular variation in the markers ITS/26S and rpl16 was observed, and most specimens from both polar regions belong to a single haplotype, making it difficult to infer the origin and dispersal routes between both polar regions of R. revoluta. Morphometric analysis furthermore suggests that there are no significant morphological differences among populations from both polar regions and that morphological variation is mainly influenced by local environmental conditions. Our data do not unequivocally support the recent separation of the former intraspecific taxon Hypnum revolutum var. dolomiticum at the species level as Roaldia dolomitica.
Availability of resistance sources among cultivated varieties helps in easy utilization as donor owing to no deleterious linkage drag. In the present investigation, 121 rice varieties were screened for their resistance against a virulent isolate of Fusarium fujikuroi (Ff-10) and genotyped using reported microsatellite markers. Among 121 varieties, only eight varieties, namely Luna Sankhi, Improved Tapaswini, Sarasa, Sadabahar, CR-311, Kshira, Wifa-10 and Binadhan-8, were found to be highly resistant (HR), seven varieties were resistant (R), 31 were moderately resistant (MR), 10 were moderately susceptible (MS), 11 were susceptible (S) and the rest 54 were highly susceptible (HS). The allele diversity of molecular markers classified the population into three clusters. The highly resistant varieties were grouped in major clusters II and III, whereas the remaining genotypes were distributed in all three clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) resulted in 95% of the maximum diversity within the test population and 5% diversity between populations. Population structure analysis grouped the genotypes into two sub-populations based on relatedness, where most of the resistant genotypes were grouped into one sub-population and other genotypes were distributed among sub-populations. Re-examination of reported markers' trait associations with bakanae resistance in the experimental population identified marker RM-3698 as associated with resistance accounting 8.4% explained phenotypic variation. This study shows that simple sequence repeat markers can be used to assess allelic diversity and population structure of bakanae resistance in rice varieties. The highly resistant genotypes, along with resistance markers, could be used as donors in marker-assisted bakanae improvement breeding programmes.
Foxtail millet (Setaria spp.) is an ancient cereal crop, having a short cropping cycle. Drought tolerance was assessed in this crop at an early growth stage and the extent of genetic diversity was measured between the foxtail millet genotypes, applying DNA markers. Tolerance of 18 foxtail millet genotypes was studied in vitro under four levels of polyethylene glycol (0, 10, 20 and 30% PEG-6000). PEG-6000 decreased final germination percentage and led to a reduction in shoot and root length with different stress levels. The genotypes ISe 869, ISe 1851 and yellow spike show superiority in stress tolerance for germination and the growth of root and shoot traits. They also clustered together in the biplot diagram and dendrogram of the genotypes based on the morphological traits. Marker polymorphism index (PI) was 80.36% and a total of 132 polymorphic alleles (4.00 alleles/locus) were obtained from 33 polymorphic primers. Polymorphic information content (0.54–0.83) was highly informative with an average value of 0.67. A dendrogram distributed the genotypes into five distinct clusters based on simple-sequence repeat (SSR) data, independent of their geographical distribution. A relationship was established between the SSR markers and the genotypes ability to tolerate drought stress. The SSR markers used could contribute to conducting DNA profiling of foxtail millet, and facilitating their use in future breeding programmes for drought tolerance in this crop. Based on water-stress experiment, three most tolerant genotypes: ISe 869, ISe 1851 and yellow spike are recommended to be cultivated under drought conditions around the world.
The study of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes is beneficial for detecting strains linked to increased disease severity and uncovering the processes involved in the transmission and distribution of this zoonotic parasite. A systematic review of literature was conducted to investigate the present status of T. gondii genetic diversity in African countries and among host species on the continent. Data from the results in the included studies were sorted, reviewed and descriptively analysed using tables, graphs and maps. Results indicate that there is a relative amount of genetic diversity with a clear difference in the population structure between geographical regions and the propensity for unique and regional genotypes to be predominant in tropical rainforest biomes, near the equator. From a clinical perspective, connections between specific T. gondii genotypes and disease manifestations were found. Theories are outlined on the dissemination of African T. gondii genotypes to other continents. The overrepresentation of samples from one geographical area and dissimilar genotyping methodologies creates challenges when concluding on the genetic diversity of T. gondii in Africa. The need for uniform genotyping methods with a continent-wide sampling of an extensive host range involving humans, domestic animals and wildlife is emphasized.
The plant Camellia fascicularis, belonging to family Theaceae, has high ornamental and medicinal value, and rare gene resources for genetic improvement of Camellia crops, but is currently threatened with extinction because of the unique and extremely small wild populations. Molecular markers have clarified the wild plant species’ genetic diversity structure, new gene resources and relationship with crops. This will be beneficial for conservation of these valuable crop-related wild species and crop improvement. In this study, we identified 95,979 microsatellite loci from 155,011 transcriptome unigenes, and developed 14 polymorphic expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) microsatellite markers for C. fascicularis. The number of alleles (Na) per locus was 2–8 with a mean of 4.86. The genetic diversity of 40 individuals from four natural populations of C. fascicularis was analysed using these polymorphic markers. The number of alleles (Na) for EST-SSR ranged from 2 to 5, with the expected heterozygosities (He) and observed heterozygosities (Ho) in all loci ranging from 0.183 to 0.683, and from 0.201 to 0.700, respectively, implying a rich genetic variation present in wild C. fascicularis populations. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis among four populations, using the 14 EST-SSR markers developed in this study, grouped 40 individuals into three groups, which coincide with their geographic distribution. These results showed that 14 EST-SSR markers are available for the analysis of genetic variation in C. fascicularis populations and genetic improvement of new Camellias cultivars by interspecific hybridization, and are beneficial for conservation of the endangered species.
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is cultivated in more than 30 countries because of its economic and nutritional importance. Despite having a significant agronomic role, little is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of cashew populations in Brazil. Thus, we aimed to characterize and estimate the diversity among cashew genotypes based on agro-morphological and physicochemical traits, with an objective of selection of varieties for breeding programmes. Forty-three cashew trees were evaluated based on 13 morphological traits and three physicochemical traits. A wide range of variations was recorded for the phenotypic characteristics, including total weight, fruit weight, pseudofruit length, kernel weight and total acidity, suggesting the existence of considerable variations for potential use in breeding programmes. Principal component analysis explained 79.74% of the total variation in the first two principal axes. The dendrogram based on the UPGMA method classified the 43 genotypes into six groups. Groups IV and VI were the most dissimilar, with emphasis on the genotypes 28 and 43, which were observed to be most divergent based on the Euclidean distance matrix (3.054). This makes it possible to select genotypes for hybridization with F1 generation gains. Based on cluster analysis and comparison of means among the six groups, promising genotypes were identified with superior traits, such as fruit weight, pseudofruit length, kernel weight and total acidity. This suggests the importance of phenotypic characterization for cashew breeding programmes. In addition, the observed vast diversity is an important genetic basis for improving cashew yield in northeastern Brazil.
Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz), an oilseed crop, belongs to the Brassicaceae family. Two unique features of camelina in comparison with the main oil crops are an adaptation to different environments and also its unique oil composition. The development of doubled haploid plants is one of the essential methods for crop improvement. The study of genetic diversity is an important step in planning crop breeding programmes. This research was conducted to evaluate the genetic variation of 81 camelina doubled haploid lines obtained from 15 crosses by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The total number of amplified bands was 243, of which 239 bands (98.3%) showed polymorphism. The percentage of polymorphic bands varied between 93.75 and 100. The size of the bands ranged from 50 to 1700 base pairs. The informative ISSRs were identified by estimating marker features: polymorphism information content, effective multiplex ratio, marker index and resolving power. Three markers had higher resolving power values (9.88, 8.5 and 7.46) and were the most informative markers to identify the lines. Cluster analysis based on the complete algorithm divided the lines into five groups, indicating relatively clear configuration from the geographic distribution patterns of the parents of the doubled haploid lines. Principal coordinate analysis classified the 81 camelina doubled haploid lines into six groups. The ISSR markers detected high polymorphism to reveal the genetic variation of camelina lines. The findings of this research, along with the characterization of biochemical traits of the lines, can improve breeding programmes achieve high-yielding camelina varieties with higher and better oil content.
Chenopodium quinoa W. is a species of South America with an exceptional nutritional content and wide agroclimatological adaptation. It has great genetic and phenotypic variability, however in Colombia there are few genetic improvement programmes that take advantage of its great genetic and productive potential. In Cundinamarca there are some adapted genotypes which have been selected by farmers. We evaluated 36 genotypes of Blanca de Jericó, Blanca Subachoque, Aurora, Púrpura and Tunkahuan from Cundinamarca, using eight ISSR markers. The analysis by the coefficient of Nei-Li at the level of similarity of 0.40 divided the population into three groups according their background genetic and the colour of oxalates. The percentage of polymorphic loci was higher than 90%. The average value of heterozygosity was 0.32, which is low given the selection processes that the evaluated germplasm has undergone. We found moderate genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.23). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher variation (77%) groups than among groups (23%). The results revealed intra-population diversity, which suggests that farmers within their farms should undergo a more rigorous seed selection process. Our results demonstrate that ISSR markers are useful and powerful to assess the genetic relationships, polymorphism and genetic diversity of quinoa cultivars. The genetic characterization results reported in the present study will be promising for guiding the breeding of quinoa seed quality in Colombia.
Microsatellite markers can provide valuable information about gene flow and population history. We developed and tested new microsatellites for the nitrophilic lichenized fungus Xanthoria parietina and studied its genetic diversity and structure within the urban area of Munich, Bavaria. We compared its local genetic pattern with that of its photobiont partner Trebouxia decolorans, for which existing microsatellites were applied. For comparison, a reference site with clean air was included in the sampling. We found support for three genetic clusters in the fungus X. parietina, which occurred intermingled in collecting sites. There was a high degree of admixture within fungal populations and individuals, and analysis of molecular variance revealed a lack of population structure in the mycobiont. The Trebouxia photobiont, in contrast, exhibited structured populations which grouped into two to five genetic clusters, and individuals showed less admixture than in the mycobiont. This indicates that the two lichen partners differ in their ability to move around in the landscape. The microsatellite markers we report are polymorphic and are suitable for population genetic studies.
Theobroma cacao L. (cacao) is an important tropical crop used to produce chocolate. Evolutionary relationships between cultivated and wild cacao genotypes and their genetic diversity are poorly understood. Exploring phylogenetic diversity and spatial patterns of both cultivated and crop wild relatives can improve the knowledge of the evolutionary history of a crop, giving insights into its cultivation, breeding programmes and conservation. This study identifies biodiversity priority areas in Colombia by calculating phylogenetic diversity indices using a set of 87 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. These were sourced from 279 genotypes conserved in the Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Agrosavia) germplasm collection. The Caribbean and North Andes areas exhibited the highest phylogenetic diversity and significantly high relative phylogenetic diversity. We propose that those regions where wild cacao occurs should be prioritized as conservation areas. Besides, cacao lineages that have recently diverged and are present in Arauca, Huila and Nariño areas, with significantly low relative phylogenetic diversity, should be prioritized for breeding programmes. The Amazonia genotypes were closer to the root of the phylogenetic tree, suggesting an older origin than those found in the Andes region. Our study highlights the importance of using T. cacao germplasm from the Amazonia region as a priority to recover relict diversity in breeding programmes and broaden the gene pool of modern cultivated cacao.
The bearded fireworm Hermodice carunculata is a conspicuous omnivorous benthic invertebrate distributed in the wider Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Questions were raised in the past regarding the taxonomic status of amphiatlantic fireworm specimens but subsequent analysis of morphological data with new molecular data reconfirmed the presence of only one species, H. carunculata with amphiatlantic distribution. Hermodice carunculata has been the subject of several taxonomic and genetic studies but there are still questions regarding the genetic diversity and population structure of the species throughout its range. We contributed to the genetic studies of H. carunculata with ~200 new samples from over 20 locations in the Caribbean, Eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We sequenced the mitochondrial markers Cytochrome c oxidase Subunit I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb) from each polychaete to examine the patterns of genetic diversity of H. carunculata. Our data revealed a significant population structure between the Caribbean H. carunculata including those from Brazil compared with those from the eastern Atlantic (Tenerife, Canary Islands) and eastern Mediterranean (Greece and Malta). We inferred rates of gene flow between eastern and western Atlantic populations by estimating the bidirectional effective migration rate (Nem). We corroborate previous studies indicating the existence of one species with genetically distinct populations. However, the biological significance of the observed population divergence should be evaluated with cross-breeding experiments.
Ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra) are categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List, and genetic studies are needed for assessing the conservation value of captive populations. Using 280 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences, we studied the genetic diversity and structure of captive ruffed lemurs in Madagascar, Europe and North America. We found 10 new haplotypes: one from the European captive V. rubra population, three from captive V. variegata subcincta (one from Europe and two from Madagascar) and six from other captive V. variegata in Madagascar. We found low mtDNA genetic diversity in the European and North American captive populations of V. variegata. Several founder individuals shared the same mtDNA haplotype and therefore should not be assumed to be unrelated founders when making breeding recommendations. The captive population in Madagascar has high genetic diversity, including haplotypes not yet identified in wild populations. We determined the probable geographical provenance of founders of captive populations by comparison with previous studies; all reported haplotypes from captive ruffed lemurs were identical to or clustered with haplotypes from wild populations located north of the Mangoro River in Madagascar. Effective conservation strategies for wild populations, with potentially unidentified genetic diversity, should still be considered the priority for conserving ruffed lemurs. However, our results illustrate that the captive population in Madagascar has conservation value as a source of potential release stock for reintroduction or reinforcement projects and that cross-regional transfers within the global captive population could increase the genetic diversity and therefore the conservation value of each regional population.