To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In Chapter 4, an attempt is made to classify national systems of healthcare delivery on the basis of their degree of organizational separation/integration. For this purpose, two opposing models are outlined: the integrated and the separated models. In order to bring into focus the main differences between the integrated model and the separated model, the use of the following dimensions is proposed: (1) insurer-provider integration; (2) primary and secondary care integration; (3) the presence or absence of gatekeeping mechanisms; (4) the greater or lesser freedom of patients in choosing their providers; (5) the individual or group practice of general practitioners. The twenty-seven countries considered in this research are distributed fairly evenly along the entire separation/integration axis. The majority of SHI systems have characteristics that are closer to the separate model, while the majority of universalist countries are more oriented toward the integrated model. However, the association between the financing model and the provision model is by no means automatic.
Compared to specialized care, primary care is considered to be more accessible, less stigmatizing, and more comprehensive since it manages physical ailments along with mental disorders (MD). Thus, MD are mainly treated by general practitioners (GP), even though their ability to diagnose and treat these diseases is often considered unsatisfactory.
This study aimed to analyze perceptions of GP capacity to manage MD, and to assess the difficulties encountered during this management.
A cross-sectional web-based survey design was adopted between August 22 and September 23, 2020, so that 47 responses of GP were included.
The mean age of respondents was 37.3 years. Among them, only 17% attended a post-university psychiatric training. On average, 6.3% of GP visits were MD-related. Anxious disorders and depression were perceived as very frequent respectively in 82.9% and 40.4% of cases. Among GP, 17% considered bipolar disorder as a difficult pathology to diagnose, followed by schizophrenia (12.7%), while the pathologies perceived to be most difficult to treat were dementia (17%), acute agitations (14.9%) and schizophrenia (10.6%). Anxiolytics and antidepressants use was very frequent (40.4% and 27.7% respectively), and 34% needed training in antipsychotics prescription. Difficulties encountered during MD management were related to lack of psychiatric continuing education (19.4%) and lack of collaboration with mental health professionals (12.5%). Among participants, 93.6% requested a psychiatric training: theoretical 29.3%, practice exchange 24.7%.
Our study confirmed that MD related visits are common in primary care and highlighted several obstacles in their management. Further continuous education, training,and collaboration between practitioners is required.
Over half of patients with mental disorders are seen by primary care physicians. However, as for patients with somatic problems, referral to psychiatrists seems to be sometimes necessary.
The present study aimed to identify reasons and difficulties perceived by general practitioners (GP) in mental health referrals.
A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted between August 22 and September 23, 2020, so that 47 responses of GP were included.
The mean age of respondents was 37.3 years. Their seniority as doctors was 8 years on average. Among them, only 17% attended a post-university psychiatric training. The participants reported that they refer on average 32.5% of patients with mental disorders to psychiatrist: 85.1% to psychiatric hospital, 40.4% to liberal psychiatrists and 21.3% to clinical psychologists. Regarding the reasons for referral to mental healthcare structures, 70.2% of doctors justified their doing so by their insufficient training in mental healthcare; 66% by a need for hospitalization, 57.4% by the presence of delusions, while in 27.7 % of cases, the transfer was carried out at the request of the patient or his family. The difficulties mentioned by GP were patient refusal to consult a psychiatrist (70.2%) and difficulties related to the management delay (44.7%).
Patient and health system factors, as well as physicians experience seem to have important influences on mental health referral. Open communication and ease of consultation with psychiatrists can make the care of patients with mental health problems even more rewarding to the primary care physician.
To expedite the use of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions (EBSCIs) in primary care and to thereby increase the number of successful quit attempts, a referral aid was developed. This aid aims to optimize the referral to and use of EBSCIs in primary care and to increase adherence to Dutch guidelines for smoking cessation.
Practice nurses (PNs) will be randomly allocated to an experimental condition or control condition, and will then recruit smoking patients who show a willingness to quit smoking within six months. PNs allocated to the experimental condition will provide smoking cessation guidance in accordance with the referral aid. Patients from both conditions will receive questionnaires at baseline and after six months. Cessation effectiveness will be tested via multilevel logistic regression analyses. Multiple imputations as well as intention to treat analysis will be performed. Intervention appreciation and level of informed decision-making will be compared using analysis of (co)variance. Predictors for appreciation and informed decision-making will be assessed using multiple linear regression analysis and/or structural equation modeling. Finally, a cost-effectiveness study will be conducted.
This paper describes the study design for the development and evaluation of an information and decision tool to support PNs in their guidance of smoking patients and their referral to EBSCIs. The study aims to provide insight into the (cost) effectiveness of an intervention aimed at expediting the use of EBSCIs in primary care.
Following the format change to single best answer questions (SBAs) for the Diploma of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, this excellent resource is fully aligned with the new syllabus and exam style. Topics covered include basic clinical and surgical skills, all stages of pregnancy from antenatal care to postpartum problems, and general gynaecological and fertility concerns. Containing 310 single best answer (SBA) style questions, detailed explanations ensure candidates understand the reasoning and evidence-based decision-making behind each answer. With a recommended reading source also provided readers can explore and revise topics in further detail to reinforce their learning. A further 130 questions are included in two mock exam papers, helping candidates to strengthen their time management skills. Written by an author with many years' experience working on the DRCOG, candidates can be sure of the exact question format and how best to prepare for the actual exam.
End-of-life and anticipatory medications (AMs) have been widely used in various health care settings for people approaching end-of-life. Lack of access to medications at times of need may result in unnecessary hospital admissions and increased patient and family distress in managing palliative care at home. The study aimed to map the use of end-of-life and AM in a cohort of palliative care patients through the use of the Population Level Analysis and Reporting Data Space and to discuss the results through stakeholder consultation of the relevant organizations.
A retrospective observational cohort study of 799 palliative care patients in 25 Australian general practice health records with a palliative care referral was undertaken over a period of 10 years. This was followed by stakeholders’ consultation with palliative care nurse practitioners and general practitioners who have palliative care patients.
End-of-life and AM prescribing have been increasing over the recent years. Only a small percentage (13.5%) of palliative care patients received medications through general practice. Stakeholders’ consultation on AM prescribing showed that there is confusion about identifying patients needing medications for end-of-life and mixed knowledge about palliative care referral pathways.
Significance of results
Improved knowledge and information around referral pathways enabling access to palliative care services for general practice patients and their caregivers are needed. Similarly, the increased utility of screening tools to identify patients with palliative care needs may be useful for health care practitioners to ensure timely care is provided.
Depression and anxiety are among the most common mental health conditions treated in primary care. They frequently co-occur and involve recommended treatments that overlap. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) shows specific stepped care interventions to be cost-effective in improving symptom remission. However, most RCTs have focused on either depression or anxiety, which limits their generalisability to routine primary care settings. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a collaborative stepped care (CSC) intervention to treat depression and/or anxiety among adults in Australian primary care settings.
A quasi-decision tree model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a CSC intervention relative to care-as-usual (CAU). The model adapted a CSC intervention described in a previous Dutch RCT to the Australian context. This 8-month, cluster RCT recruited patients with depression and/or anxiety (n = 158) from 30 primary care clinics in the Netherlands. The CSC intervention involved two steps: (1) guided self-help with a nurse at a primary care clinic; and (2) referral to specialised mental healthcare. The cost-effectiveness model adopted a health sector perspective and synthesised data from two main sources: RCT data on intervention pathways, remission probabilities and healthcare service utilisation; and Australia-specific data on demography, epidemiology and unit costs from external sources. Incremental costs and incremental health outcomes were estimated across a 1-year time horizon. Health outcomes were measured as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to remitted cases of depression and/or anxiety. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured in 2019 Australian dollars (A$) per DALY averted. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of cost-effectiveness findings.
The CSC intervention had a high probability (99.6%) of being cost-effective relative to CAU. The resulting ICER (A$5207/DALY; 95% uncertainty interval: dominant to 25 345) fell below the willingness-to-pay threshold of A$50 000/DALY. ICERs were robust to changes in model parameters and assumptions.
This study found that a Dutch CSC intervention, with nurse-delivered guided self-help treatment as a first step, could potentially be cost-effective in treating depression and/or anxiety if transferred to the Australian primary care context. However, adaptations may be required to ensure feasibility and acceptability in the Australian healthcare context. In addition, further evidence is needed to verify the real-world cost-effectiveness of the CSC intervention when implemented in routine practice and to evaluate its effectiveness/cost-effectiveness when compared to other viable stepped care interventions for the treatment of depression and/or anxiety.
The purpose of this study was to explore how patients with diabetes and multimorbidity experience self-management support by general practitioners (GPs), nurses and medical secretaries in Norwegian general practice.
Self-management support is recognised as an important strategy to improve the autonomy and well-being of patients with long-term conditions. Collaborating healthcare professionals (cHCPs), such as nurses and medical secretaries, may have an important role in the provision of self-management support. No previous study has explored how patients with diabetes and multimorbidity experience self-management support provided by cHCPs in general practice in Norway.
Semi-structured interviews with 11 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with one or more additional long-term condition were performed during February–May 2017.
Patients experienced cHCPs as particularly attentive towards the psychological and emotional aspects of living with diabetes. Compared to GPs, whose appointments were experienced as stressful, patients found cHCPs more approachable and more likely to address patients’ questions and worries. In this sense, cHCPs complemented GP-led diabetes care. However, neither cHCPs nor GPs were perceived to involve patients’ in clinical decisions or goal setting during consultations.
Less than half of postnatal depression cases are identified in routine clinical assessment. Guidelines and current literature suggest that general practitioners (GPs) may have an opportunistic role in detecting postnatal depression due to their early contact and existing rapport with many new mothers. There is limited research on the diagnostic approaches chosen by GPs in different GP−patient contexts. Our small-scale study evaluates the thought processes of seven GPs based in one practice when forming a clinical diagnosis of postnatal depression under different contexts.
Seven GP participants were interviewed using case vignettes about postnatal depression, based on an adapted Johari’s window framework. A realist approach to analysis was undertaken with the intention of understanding GPs’ responses to different situations. Context−mechanism−outcome configurations were constructed, and a programme theory was formed to consolidate the findings.
Findings suggest that diagnoses may be a clinician-led or collaborative process between GP and patient. In collaborative contexts, stigmatising views were addressed by GPs, time for self-reflection was encouraged and mothers’ views were accounted for. Clinician-led diagnoses often occurred in contexts where there was a lack of acknowledgement of symptoms on behalf of the patient or where safety was a concern. The personal and clinical experience of GPs themselves, as well as effective communication channels with other primary care professionals, was significant mechanisms.
GPs use a variety of strategies to support patient disclosure and acceptance of their condition. The complexity of GP−patient contexts may influence the clinical thought process. We address some of the gaps in existing literature by exploring postnatal depression diagnosis in primary care and provide tentative explanations to suggest what works, for whom and in what contexts.
To propose malnutrition screening methods for the elderly population using predictive multivariate models. Due to the greater risk of nutrition deficiencies in ageing populations, nutritional assessment of the elderly is necessary in primary health care.
This was a cross-sectional study. Multivariate models were obtained by means of discriminant analysis and binary logistic regression. The diagnostic accuracy of each multivariate model was determined and compared with the Chang method based on receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal cut-point, sensitivity, specificity and Youden index were estimated for each of the models.
The province of Cordoba, Spain.
Two hundred fifty-five patients over the age of 65 years from three health centres and three nursing homes.
Fourteen models for predicting risk of malnutrition were obtained, six by discriminant multivariate analysis and eight by binary logistic regression. Sensitivity ranged from 55·6 to 93·1 % and specificity from 64·9 to 94 %. The maximum and minimum Youden indexes were 0·77 and 0·49, respectively. We finally selected a model which does not require a blood test.
The proposed models simplify nutritional assessment in the elderly and, except for number 2 of those calculated by binary logistic regression, have better diagnostic accuracy than the Spanish version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment screening tool. The selected model, whose validation is necessary for the future with other different samples, provides good diagnostic accuracy, and it can be performed by non-medical personnel, making it an accessible, easy and rapid tool in daily clinical practice.
Patient safety is a key priority for healthcare systems. Patient safety huddles have been advocated as a way to improve safety. We explored the feasibility of huddles in general practice.
We invited all general practices in West Yorkshire to complete an online survey and interviewed practice staff.
Thirty-four out of 306 practices (11.1%) responded to our survey. Of these, 22 practices (64.7%) reported having breaks for staff to meet and eight (23.5%) reported no longer having breaks in their practices. Seven interviewees identified several barriers to safety huddles including time and current culture; individuals felt meetings or breaks would not be easily integrated into current primary care structure.
Despite their initial promise, there are major challenges to introducing patient safety huddles within the current context of UK general practice. General practice staff may need more convincing of potential benefits.
Changes to the general practice (GP) contract in England (April 2019) introduced a new quality improvement (QI) domain. The clinical microsystems programme is an approach to QI with limited evidence in primary care.
To explore experiences of GP staff participating in a clinical microsystems programme.
Design and setting:
GPs within one clinical commissioning group (CCG) in South East England. Normalisation process theory informed qualitative approach.
Review of all CCG clinical microsystems projects using pre-existing data. The Diffusion of Innovation Cycle was used to inform the sampling frame and GPs were invited to participate in interviews or focus groups. Ten practices participated; 11 coaches and 16 staff were interviewed.
The majority of projects were process-driven activities related to administrative systems. Projects directly related to health outputs were fewer and related to externally imposed targets. Four key elements facilitated practices to engage: feeling in control; receiving enhanced service payment; having a senior staff member championing the approach; and good practice–coach relationship. There appeared to be three key benefits in addition to project-specific ones: improved working relationships between CCG and practice; more cohesive practice team; and time to reflect.
Small projects with clear parameters were more successful than larger ones or those spanning organisations. However, there was little evidence suggesting the key benefits were unique attributes of the microsystems approach and sustainability was problematic. Future research should focus on cross-organisational approaches to QI and identify what, if any, added value the approach provides.
Antibiotic prescription is a major driver of antibiotic resistance. The majority of antibiotic prescribing occurs in community care settings, often for respiratory infections. A substantial proportion of prescriptions are issued not according to guidelines, particularly for acute respiratory infections which can be self-limiting. Prescribers in these settings need support to prescribe antibiotics more prudently. Patients and the public also need support to manage infections which are self-limiting. This chapter presents a summary of how antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) activities are being used in community settings. Firstly, types of community-level interventions are discussed, including those aimed at clinicians, patients and the public. Next, we assess interventions based on their effectiveness at reducing antibiotic prescriptions or use and their cost-effectiveness. Finally, we discuss directions for future research and consider how the research to date could influence policy.
A naturalistic study was conducted in general practice in Portugal on the efficacy and tolerance of low doses of amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia. A total of 109 patients received low doses (50 – 100 mg) of amisulpride for four weeks. A global evaluation showed good or very good efficacy and tolerance in more than 80% of the patients. The social disability observed at baseline was significantly improved after the four-week treatment period. Few adverse events were observed and only four patients dropped out due to side effects. Our results suggest that low doses of amisulpride might be a safe and effective treatment for dysthymia in clinical practice.
Mood disorders are managed predominantly in primary care. However, general practitioners’ (GPs) ability to detect and diagnose patients with mood disorders is still considered unsatisfactory. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors for the early recognition of depressive disorder (DD) and bipolar disorder (BD) in general practice.
A cohort of 1,144,622 patients (605,285 women, 539,337 men) was investigated, using the Health Search IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database. Predictors of DD or BD were identified at baseline encompassing somatization-related features, lifestyle variables, medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Patients were followed up as long as the following events occurred: diagnoses of DD or BD, death, end of the registration with the GP, end of the study period.
We found an incidence rate of DD or BD of 53.61 and 1.5 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. For both the conditions, the incidence rate grew with age. Most of the lifestyle variables and medical comorbidities increased the risk of mood disorders. The strongest effect was found for migraine/headache (HR [95% CI] = 1.32 [1.26–1.38]), fatigue (1.32 [1.25–1.39]) irritable bowel syndrome (1.15 [1.08-1.23]), and pelvic inflammation disease (1.28 [1.18–1.38]).
Several predictors, in particular somatic symptoms, could be interpreted as an early sign of a mood disorder, and represent a valid indication for the GPs diagnostic process of mental disorders.
To evaluate the level of undergraduate and post-graduate ENT exposure amongst general practitioners and their perceived quality of this training. A secondary aim was to examine whether general practitioners believe ENT department based rotations should remain in the undergraduate curriculum.
An online questionnaire-based survey was sent to general practices in England.
A total of 417 general practitioners completed the questionnaire. Sixty-seven per cent had completed an ENT rotation at medical school whereas 27 per cent had undertaken a postgraduate placement in ENT. Fifty-one per cent had received post-graduate teaching in ENT, mainly in the form of lectures. The majority of general practitioners were not satisfied with their training in ENT at undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Eighty-five per cent of general practitioners believed formal hospital-based ENT training should remain in the undergraduate curriculum.
General practitioners reported insufficient exposure to ENT during both post-graduate and undergraduate training. Proposals to outsource undergraduate ENT teaching to affiliated departments such as general practice are of concern.
To develop a questionnaire to measure quantitatively barriers and facilitators to women’s disclosure of perinatal mental health problems in UK primary care. To pilot and evaluate the questionnaire for content validity and internal consistency.
Around 15% of women develop a mental illness in the perinatal period, such as depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. In the United Kingdom, 90% of these women will be cared for in primary care, yet currently in as many as 50% of cases, no discussion of this issue takes place. One reason for this is that women experience barriers to disclosing symptoms of perinatal mental illness in primary care. These have previously been explored qualitatively, but no tool currently exists with which to measure these barriers quantitatively.
Questionnaire items, drawn from qualitative literature and accounts of women’s experiences, were identified, refined iteratively and arranged in themes. The questionnaire was piloted using cognitive debriefing interviews to establish content validity. Women completed a refined version online. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics. Internal consistency of subscales was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha.
Cognitive debriefing interviews with five women showed the majority of questionnaire items were relevant, appropriate and easy to understand. The final questionnaire was completed by 71 women, and the majority of subscales had good internal consistency. The barrier scoring most highly was fear and stigma, followed by willingness to seek help and logistics of attending an appointment. Family/partner support and general practitioners’ (GPs) reaction were the lowest scoring barriers. Factors facilitating disclosure were GPs being empathetic and non-judgemental and listening during discussions. In the future, this questionnaire can be used to examine which barriers are most important for particular groups of women. This may enable the development of strategies to improve acknowledgement and discussion, and prevent under-recognition and under-treatment, of perinatal mental health problems in primary care.
Our objective was to explore the processes and determinants leading physicians to integrate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in their drug prescriptions
Access to patients’ eGFR would allow primary care pharmacists to optimise their role in the procedure of safe prescribing. Some rare physicians actively integrate eGFR in their prescriptions, in a sporadically and uncoordinated manner.
Qualitative study using semi-directed interviews conducted among 12 French physicians who integrated eGFR in their drug prescriptions, (February 2016–April 2017). These voluntary participants were recruited through different means: Twitter®, forums, direct contact and snowball sampling. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach, underpinned by a comprehensive perspective of interactionist orientation.
Residency and training, professional experience – including experiences of adverse drug reactions – and the membership in various communities of professionals were key drivers for the integration of eGFR in prescriptions. The theoretical aim was above all safe prescribing in order to reduce adverse drug reactions, with the control by a dispensing pharmacist and/or other healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, none of the physicians had received any feedback from any healthcare professionals. Despite their disappointment, the physicians remained convinced of the interest of integrating eGFR in their prescriptions and would continue to do so. Characteristics associated with integration of eGFR in drug prescriptions belong partly to Roger’s theory of innovations. If a widespread diffusion of this habit takes place, it will be necessary to evaluate its adoption by both physicians and pharmacists.
To develop a proactive person-centered care approach for persons with (multiple) chronic diseases in general practice, and to explore the impact on ‘Quadruple aims’: experiences of patients and professionals, patient outcomes and costs of resources use.
The management of people with multiple chronic diseases challenges health care systems designed around single disease. Patients with multimorbidity often receive highly fragmented care that may lead to inefficient, ineffective and potentially harmful treatments and neglect of essential health needs. A more comprehensive, person-centered approach is advocated for persons with multiple morbidities. However, examples on how to provide more person-centered care and evidence of its impact are scarce. A group of Dutch general practitioners (GPs) took the initiative to develop such a care approach.
Mixed methods with a development and pilot-testing phase. The proactive person-centered approach will be developed using an action-based research design consisting of multiple plan-act-observe-reflect-adjust cycles. In each cycle, experiences of patients and primary care professionals from 13 practices will be collected via interviews, observations and focus groups. Starting point for the first cycle is a ‘person-centered consultation’ of up to 1 h in which the GP discusses the health status and health care needs of the patient. Furthermore, shared decisions between GP and patient are made on treatment goals and follow-up. In the pilot-test phase, a nested case cohort study allows to explore the impact of the new approach on ‘Quadruple aim’ outcomes comparing persons with and without exposure to the new care approach.
This study will provide a proactive person-centered approach for persons with multimorbidity in primary care and estimate its potential impact on quadruple outcomes.