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We draw the K-band luminosity functions (CLFs) of young massive clusters (YMCs) hosted by 34 SUNBIRD targets to evaluate the impact of the host galaxy environment on their YMC properties. The depth and high resolution of the NIR images (PSF ∼ 0.1”) allow us to test whether CLF power-law slopes (α) of high star-forming galaxies are similar to those of gas-poor low star formation rate (SFR) galaxies. We found that α ranges between 1.53 and 2.41 with a median value of 1.87 ± 0.23. We also performed correlation searches between α and the host global properties and noticed that α decreases with an increasing SFR and SFR density. On sub-galactic scales, CLF slopes of cluster-rich galaxies differ by ∼0.5. Our NIR CLF analyses suggest that the extreme environment of high SFR galaxies such as the SUNBIRD sample is likely to affect the formation mechanisms of YMCs and hence to govern the ongoing small-scale SF processes of the host galaxy.
Thermal energies deposited by OB stellar clusters in starburst galaxies lead to the formation of galactic superwinds. Multi-wavelength observations of starburst-driven superwinds pointed at complex thermal and ionization structures which cannot adequately be explained by simple adiabatic assumptions. In this study, we perform hydrodynamic simulations of a fluid model coupled to radiative cooling functions, and generate time-dependent non-equilibrium photoionization models to predict physical conditions and ionization structures of superwinds using the maihem atomic and cooling package built on the program flash. Time-dependent ionization states and physical conditions produced by our simulations are used to calculate the emission lines of superwinds for various parameters, which allow us to explore implications of non-equilibrium ionization for starburst regions with potential radiative cooling.
Most stars form in clumpy and sub-structured clusters. These properties also emerge in hydro-dynamical simulations of star-forming clouds, which provide a way to generate realistic initial conditions for N-body runs of young stellar clusters. However, producing large sets of initial conditions by hydro-dynamical simulations is prohibitively expensive in terms of computational time. We introduce a novel technique for generating new initial conditions from a given sample of hydro-dynamical simulations, at a tiny computational cost. In particular, we apply a hierarchical clustering algorithm to learn a tree representation of the spatial and kinematic relations between stars, where the leaves represent the single stars and the nodes describe the structure of the cluster at larger and larger scales. This procedure can be used as a basis for the random generation of new sets of stars, by simply modifying the global structure of the stellar cluster, while leaving the small-scale properties unaltered.
The purpose of the present work is a detailed investigation of the dynamical evolution of Collinder 135 and UBC 7 star clusters. We present a set of dynamical numerical simulations using realistic star cluster -body modeling technique with the forward integration of the star-by-star cluster models to the present day, based on best-available 3D coordinates and velocities obtained from the latest Gaia EDR3 data release. We have established that Collinder 135 and UBC 7 are probably a binary star cluster and have common origin. We carried out a full star-by-star N-body simulation of the stellar population of both clusters using the new algorithm of Single Stellar Evolution and performed a comparison of the results obtained in the observational data (like cumulative number counts), which showed a fairly good agreement.
Gaia data allows for search for extended stellar structures in phase (coordinates plus velocities) space. We describe a method of using DBSCAN clustering algorithm, which is used to group closely-packed-together data points, to a list of preliminary selected pairs of stars, with parameters expected to be found within stellar streams and comoving groups: loose structures in which stars are not gravitationally bound, but do share motion and evolutionary properties. To test our approach, we construct a model population of background stars, and use pair-constructing and clustering algorithms on it. Results show that transitioning to a list of pairs sharply reveals structures not presented in background model, which then become more apparent targets in coordinate-velocity phase space for DBSCAN algorithm thanks to now increased relative density of the extended stellar structure.
The opportunities offered by JWST and the ELT for the detection and study of forming/just formed globular clusters at high redshifts are illustrated, also alluding at the unique insight we may get on the very early stages of galaxy formation.
Star formation provides insight into the physical processes that govern the transformation of gas into stars. A key missing piece in a predictive theory of star formation is the link between scales of individual stars and star clusters up to entire galaxies. LEGUS is now providing the information to test the overall organization and spatial evolution of star formation. We present our latest findings of using star clusters from LEGUS combined with ALMA CO observations to investigate the transition from molecular gas to star formation in local galaxies. This work paves the way for future JWST observations of the embedded phase of star formation, the last missing ingredient to connect young star clusters and their relation with gas reservoirs. Multi-wavelength studies of local galaxies and their stellar and gas components will help shed light on early phases of galaxy evolution and properties of the ISM at high-z.
We present a suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of galaxies at z⩾ 5using the state-of-the-art models for the multi-phase ISM, star formation, and stellar feedback from the FIRE project. We present a series of key results from these simulations, including the stellar mass–halo mass relation, the ultraviolet luminosity functions, dust attenuation and dust temperatures, the ubiquitous formation of bound star clusters, morphology and clumpiness, and the escape fractions of ionizing photons from high-redshift galaxies. We discuss how different simulations in the literature agree and disagree and what observations are most useful for testing the models in the era of ALMA and JWST.
Many astrophysical and galaxy-scale cosmological problems require a well determined gravitational potential which is often modeled by observers under strong assumptions. Globular clusters (GCs) surrounding galaxies can be used as dynamical tracers of the luminous and dark matter distribution at large (kpc) scales. A natural assumption for modeling the gravitational potential is that GCs accreted in the same dwarf galaxy merger event move at the present time on similar orbits in the host galaxy and should therefore have similar actions. We investigate this idea in one realistic Milky Way like galaxy of the cosmological N-body simulation suite Auriga. We show how the actions of accreted stellar particles in the simulation evolve and that minimizing the standard deviation of GCs in action space, however, cannot constrain the true potential. This approach known as ‘adaptive dynamics’ does therefore not work for accreted GCs.
We study the evolution of star clusters in the Galactic tidal field starting from their birth in molecular clumps. Our model clusters form according to the local-density-driven cluster formation model in which the stellar density profile is steeper than that of gas. As a result, clusters resist the gas expulsion better than predicted by earlier models.
We vary the impact of the Galactic tidal field λ, considering different Galactocentric distances (3-18 kpc), as well as different cluster sizes. Our model clusters survive the gas expulsion independent of λ.
We investigated the relation between the cluster mass at the onset of secular evolution and their dissolution time. The model clusters formed with a high star-formation efficiency (SFE) follow a tight mass-dependent dissolution relation, in agreement with previous theoretical studies. However, the low-SFE models present a shallower mass-dependent relation than high-SFE clusters, and most dissolve before reaching 1 Gyr (cluster teenage mortality).
Because of their young ages and compact densities, young massive star clusters (YMCs) are widely considered as potential proto-globular clusters. They are ubiquitous in environments with ongoing star formation activity such as interacting luminous infrared galaxies. To determine the galactic environmental effects on the star cluster formation and evolution, we study the YMC population of Arp 299 (NGC 3690E/NGC 3690W) using data taken with the HST WFC3/UVIS camera. By fitting the multiband photometry with the Yggdrasil models, we derive the star cluster masses, ages and extinction. While the cluster mass-galactocentric radius relation of NGC 3690E indicates that there could be an influence of the gas density distribution on the cluster formation, the age distribution of the western component suggests that YMCs in that galaxy endure stronger disruption mechanisms. With a cluster formation efficiency of 19 percent, star formation happening in bound clusters in Arp 299 is 3–5 times higher than that of a typical normal spiral.
For the first time, we report the identification of NUV bright red clump (RC) stars and the extension of RC stars over two magnitudes both in color and magnitude axis in NUV vs (NUV – optical) color magnitude diagram. We find that the extension of RC is not due to photometric uncertainties. We suggest that the extension could be an effect of field star contamination. We also suggest that if it is an intrinsic property of the cluster then age and/or metallicity spread within the cluster could be the possible reasons for extended RC.
Some ultra-compact dwarf galaxies have large dynamical mass to light (M / L) ratios and also appear to contain an overabundance of LMXB sources, and some Milky Way globular clusters have a low concentration and appear to have a deficit of low-mass stars. These observations can be explained if the stellar IMF becomes increasingly top-heavy with decreasing metallicity and increasing gas density of the forming object. The thus constrained stellar IMF then accounts for the observed trend of metallicity and M / L ratio found amongst M31 globular star clusters. It also accounts for the overall shift of the observationally deduced galaxy-wide IMF from top-light to top-heavy with increasing star formation rate amongst galaxies. If the IMF varies similarly to deduced here, then extremely young very massive star-burst clusters observed at a high redshift would appear quasar-like (Jerabkova et al. 2017).
Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are found in at least 70% of all galaxies, but their formation path is still unclear. In the most common scenarios, NSCs form in-situ from the galaxy’s central gas reservoir, through merging of globular clusters (GCs), or through a combination of the two. As the scenarios pose different expectations for angular momentum and stellar population properties of the NSC in comparison to the host galaxy and the GC system, it is necessary to characterise the stellar light, NSC, and GCs simultaneously. Wide-field observations with modern integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) allow to perform such studies. However, at large distances, NSCs usually are not resolved in MUSE observations. The particularly large NSC (Reff ∼ 66 pc) of the early-type galaxy FCC 47 at distance of ∼20 Mpc is an exception and is therefore an ideal laboratory to constrain NSC formation of external galaxies.
We present a model for hydrodynamic + N-body simulations of star cluster formation and evolution using AMUSE. Our model includes gas dynamics, star formation in regions of dense gas, stellar evolution and a galactic tidal spiral potential, thus incorporating most of the processes that play a role in the evolution of star clusters.
We test our model on initial conditions of two colliding molecular clouds as well as a section of a spiral arm from a previous galaxy simulation.
It has been a long-standing open question why observed globular cluster (GC) populations of different metallicities differ in their ages and spatial distributions, with metal-poor GCs being the older and radially more extended of the two. We use the suite of 25 Milky Way-mass cosmological zoom-in simulations from the E-MOSAICS project, which self-consistently model the formation and evolution of stellar clusters and their host galaxies, to understand the properties of observed GC populations. We find that the different ages and spatial distributions of metal-poor and metal-rich GCs are the result of regular cluster formation at high redshift in the context of hierarchical galaxy assembly. We also find that metallicity on its own is not a good tracer of accretion, and other properties, such as kinematics, need to be considered.
On observational grounds we now know a huge amount about the characteristics of massive star clusters in galaxies of all types, from the smallest dwarfs to the most massive giants and even into the Intracluster Medium. The old globular clusters (GCs) in particular exhibit a high degree of uniformity across all these environments in their physical properties including scale size, luminosity distribution, metallicity distribution, and age. As survivors of a long period of dynamical evolution, they are “unusual, but not special” among star clusters.
The past few years have seen major advances in theoretical modelling that are starting to reveal how these massive star clusters formed in the early stages of galaxy evolution. Several suites of models point to their emergence in GMCs (Giant Molecular Clouds), which provide the turbulent big reservoirs of gas within which star clusters can be built. At cluster masses ∼105M⊙ and above, clusters form hierarchically through a nearly equal combination of direct gas accretion, and mergers with smaller clusters scattered throughout the GMC. GCs and YMCs (young massive clusters) in this high mass range should therefore be composite systems right from birth. To make such high-mass clusters, host GMCs of ∼107M⊙ are needed, and these are most commonly found in galaxies at redshifts z ≳ 2.
The formation of Low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) is favored within dense stellar systems such as Globular Clusters (GCs). The connection between LMXB and Globular Clusters has been extensively studied in the literature, but these studies have always been restricted to the innermost regions of galaxies. We present a study of LMXB in GCs within the central 1.5 deg2 of the Fornax cluster with the aim of confirming the existence of a population of LMXB in intra-cluster GCs and understand if their properties are related to the host GCs, to the environment or/and to different formation channels.
Nuclear star clusters are found at the centers of most galaxies. They are the densest stellar systems in the Universe, and thus have unique and interesting stellar dynamics. We review how common nuclear star clusters are in galaxies of different masses and types, and then discuss the typical properties of NSCs. We close by discussing the formation of NSCs, and how a picture is emerging of different formation mechanisms being dominant in lower and higher mass galaxies.
RR Lyrae variables are powerful tools to study their host stellar populations. Globular clusters and dwarf galaxies are old and usually host this type of variables. With a growing number of low luminosity objects discovered in the halo of the Milky Way, classifying stars clusters and galaxies has become more challenging. In this study, we examine the properties of RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We construct a catalog of RR Lyrae variables in the Local Group globular clusters and dwarf galaxies from previously published data and compare the properties of RR Lyrae variables between those two types of stellar systems. Our goal is to search for a physical difference in the properties of RR Lyrae variables in those two classes of stellar systems. We also analyze the global trend of RRLs in these systems to understand more about their formation and evolution history.