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Hepatitis B and hepatitis C (HBV/HCV) are important global public health concerns. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal HBV/HCV carrier status and long-term offspring neurological hospitalisations. A population-based cohort analysis compared the risk for long-term childhood neurological hospitalisations in offspring born to HBV/HCV carrier vs. non-carrier mothers in a large tertiary medical centre between 1991 and 2014. Childhood neurological diseases, such as cerebral palsy, movement disorders or developmental disorders, were pre-defined based on ICD-9 codes as recorded in hospital medical files. Offspring with congenital malformations and multiple gestations were excluded from the study. A Kaplan–Meier survival curve was constructed to compare cumulative neurological hospitalisations over time, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to control for confounders. During the study period (1991–2014), 243,682 newborns met the inclusion criteria, and 777 (0.3%) newborns were born to HBV/HCV mothers. The median follow-up was 10.51 years (0–18 years). The offspring from HBV/HCV mothers had higher incidence of neurological hospitalisations (4.5 vs. 3.1%, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% CI 1.37–2.67). Similarly, the cumulative incidence of neurological hospitalisations was higher in children born to HBV/HCV carrier mothers (Kaplan–Meier survival curve log-rank test p < 0.001). The increased risk remained significant in a Cox proportional hazards model, which adjusted for gestational age, mode of delivery and pregnancy complications (adjusted HR = 1.40, 1.01–1.95, p = 0.049). We conclude that maternal HBV or HCV carrier status is an independent risk factor for the long-term neurological hospitalisation of offspring regardless of gestational age and other adverse perinatal outcomes.
The relationship between fatigue and cognition has not been fully elucidated in children and adolescent survivors of brain tumours. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential relationship between fatigue and cognitive impairments in these survivors, as this group is at risk for both types of deficits.
Survivors of paediatric brain tumours (n = 45) underwent a neuropsychological testing on average 4 years after diagnosis. Mean age at follow-up was 13.41 years. Cognition was assessed with neuropsychological tests, and fatigue with the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL™) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Regression analysis, adjusted for cranial radiotherapy and age at diagnosis, was used to investigate the associations between cognitive variables and fatigue subscales. Cognitive variables associated with fatigue were subsequently exploratively assessed.
Significant associations were found for cognitive fatigue and measures of cognitive processing speed; Coding: p = .003, r = .583, 95% CI [9.61; 22.83] and Symbol Search: p = .001, r = .585, 95% CI [10.54; 24.87]. Slower processing speed was associated with poorer results for cognitive fatigue. Survivors with the largest decrease in processing speed from baseline to follow-up also experienced the most cognitive fatigue. Survivors expressed more cognitive fatigue compared to other types of fatigue.
The association between cognitive fatigue and cognitive processing speed in children and adolescents treated for brain tumours is in concordance with the results previously reported in adults. Some survivors experience fatigue without impairment in processing speed, indicating the need for comprehensive assessments. Moreover, the study supports that fatigue is a multidimensional concept which should be measured accordingly.
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effect of the removal of nasal vestibular cysts through a modified longitudinal incision via a transoral sublabial approach.
In 28 cases, a nasal vestibular cyst was removed through a modified longitudinal incision via a transoral sublabial approach. A visual analogue scale score was used to evaluate the numbness of the nasal alar and upper lip. Post-operative complications were recorded. Medical photographs were used for assessment.
For all patients, incisions reached clinical primary healing one week after surgery. All patients were free of post-operative haematoma, infection, oronasal fistula and malformation. In the first week and the first month after surgery, numbness of the nasal alar and upper lip was recorded in few cases. The patients were followed up for 2–57 months without recurrence.
Removal of nasal vestibular cysts via a transoral sublabial approach with a modified longitudinal incision is a minimally invasive and simple surgical method with few complications and a quick recovery.
To investigate predictors for repetition of suicide attempts 1–12 months after a suicide attempt.
Two hundred and sixteen patients who had made a suicide attempt were investigated after 1 month, and 178 were followed up again after 12 months.
During 1–12 months after the suicide attempt, 30 patients reattempted suicide (repeaters). During 0–1 month 13 patients had reattempted suicide (early repeaters), and nine of them also repeated between 1 and 12 months. Repeaters had more often made three or more attempts before index attempt, they more often were in treatment at the index attempt and at 1 month they had lower global functioning and higher suicide ideation. In a Cox Regression analysis two predictors for repetition between 1 and 12 months remained significant; early repetition (OR 6.7, 95% CI, 3.0–14.9) and having GAF-scores below 49 (median cut-off) (OR 3.4 (95% CI, 1.5–7.5).
Our findings suggest that repetitive behaviour in itself is a strong predictor of future attempts. Strategies focusing on the repetitive behaviour are warranted.
Sex differences in the use of psychiatric services were studied in the Oulu University Central Hospital in Finland during a three-year follow-up. A one-year treated incidence cohort of new patients was used. The total cohort comprised 537 patients (46.7% were males). The annual incidence rate was 6.7 per 1,000 members of the adult population for both males and females. Compared to females, males were younger, more often unemployed, unmarried and lived alone or with parents, and did not as often have an apartment of their own. Males predominated among organic psychoses, personality disorders and dependencies, females among neurotic disorders. Males more often had had previous inpatient care and inpatient care at index contact, and had more admissions, compulsory admissions and emergency outpatient contacts than females. However, there were no sex differences in the use of planned outpatient contacts, in the duration of hospital care and in the total consumption of psychiatric care. Male gender was an independent predictor of hospital admissions.
To characterise frequent use of psychiatric emergency outpatients services, this paper reports results from a prospective investigation of use of psychiatric services by new patients in two Nordic psychiatric services, Frederiksberg in Denmark and Oulu in Finland. One year treated incidence cohorts were used. Total number of patients included was 1,055. The repeat user was defined as a patient having at least three emergency outpatient contacts during a 1-year follow-up. The repeat users constituted 15.8% of the sample and 70.8% of all the emergency contacts in Frederiksberg. In Oulu the respective figures were 9.3% and 33.8%. The number of planned outpatient contacts or the number of hospital admissions of the repeat users did not differ from the non-repeaters. Repeaters in Frederiksberg were more likely to be self-referrals, male, divorced or unmarried, living with their parents, without their own housing, unemployed, aged between 25 and 44 years, and to have a diagnosis of dependency or personality disorder. In Oulu they did not differ from the other patients with regard to sociodemographic or diagnostic characteristics.
The emergency admissions to hospital care in six psychiatric services in four Nordic countries were explored as a part of a Nordic comparative study on sectorised psychiatry. One year treated incidence cohorts were used, with the total cohort comprising 2,454 patients. Of the 803 patients who were admitted to inpatient care during a 1-year follow-up, 82% had at least one emergency admission and 23% repeated emergency admissions. The definition for the repeated emergency admissions was at least two admissions during the follow-up. The mean length of stay in emergency inpatient care per treatment episode for this patient subgroup was 28 days. Their emergency inpatient episodes constituted 30% of all inpatient days during the follow-up. However, the variations between the services and diagnostic subgroups were large. The results of a logistic regression analysis indicated that the following variables predicted repeated emergency admissions: inpatient care at index contact, emergency outpatient contacts or no planned hospital admissions during the follow-up, psychiatric service, age under 45 years, and a diagnosis of psychosis, personality disorder or dependency. The repeated emergency admissions were related to the existence of a special service unit for abusers but not to the rates of outpatient staff or acute beds in the services, to geographical distances, referral practice or existence of emergency services.
The main finding of a former Spanish multicenter study (SMS) on the effectiveness of naltrexone maintenance in heroin addicts, was the high retention rate achieved at 24 weeks of follow-up since naltrexone induction (40%). The authors claimed this rate was one of the highest ever reported in the literature for a non-selected sample of opiate addicts and discussed the possible relevance of a set of variables — like motivations and expectations due to a new treatment — on the findings. To assess the possible effects of these variables, we have compared the retention rates in two similar naltrexone programmes. The first programme (hospital sample) included 56 individuals who were also included in the SMS where they accounted for 37% of the total sample. That programme was developed formerly to the naltrexone marketing. The second sample (ambulatory sample) included 67 individuals who were recruited at least a year apart since naltrexone marketing was approved by the Spanish Health Boards. The time-lag between the beginnig of both studies was in the range of 15 to 25 months.
The subjects in both programmes had similar distributions regarding age (p = 0.27), sex (p = 0.79), weeks on treatment after naltrexone induction (p = 0.20), and program compliance (p = 0.78). The retention rates evaluated over a period of 24 weeks were also similar (p = 0.45). The only difference appeared at 12 weeks of follow-up, showing in higher retention the hospital sample than the ambulatory sample (+23%; p < 0.05). The results are discussed according to other studies and it is concluded that findings reported in the former SMS and in this study are not unusual but compatible with recent research. Also underlined is the potential importance of naltrexone as a concomitant treatment for extinguishing high risk behaviours and the conditional stimuli associated with treatment relapse in heroin addicts.
This study investigated health-related quality of life outcomes for children with cochlear implants in India using the Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory questionnaire. Cochlear implantation is associated with improved language outcomes. Some studies show this gives higher quality of life after implantation. Previous research demonstrates that India presents unique circumstances that impact perspectives regarding cochlear implantation.
Children (aged under 18 years) who had undergone cochlear implantation were recruited from Vani Pradan Kendra, an organisation for individuals with hearing loss based in Bangalore, India. Demographic data including age, sex, duration of hearing loss and age at implant were collected, and the children's parents or caregivers completed the Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory questionnaire.
Sixty-nine children (mean age: 8.0 ± 3.89 years) were recruited, and all reported improved quality of life after cochlear implantation. There was no effect of age, gender or education on reported benefits. However, a younger age at implant and longer experience with an implant were associated with greater quality of life improvements.
Cochlear implantation leads to improved quality of life, with greater improvements associated with earlier implantation. This supports early intervention in children with profound hearing loss.
Head and neck cancer follow-up length, interval and content are controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the follow-up protocol after curative treatment in head and neck cancer patients.
Clinical data of 456 patients with new malignancy of the head and neck from a tertiary care centre district from 1999 to 2008 were analysed. Time from treatment, symptoms and second-line treatment outcomes of patients with recurrent disease were evaluated.
A total of 94 (22 per cent) patients relapsed during the 5-year follow-up period; 90 per cent of recurrences were found within 3 years. Fifty-six per cent of the patients had subjective symptoms indicating a recurrence of the tumour. All recurrent tumours found during routine follow-up visits without symptoms were found within 34 months after completion of treatment.
Routine follow up after three years is questionable; recurrent disease beyond this point was detected in only 2 per cent of patients. In this study, all late tumour recurrences had symptoms of the disease. Easy access to extra follow-up visits when symptoms occur could cover the need for late follow up.
Plasma levels of very-long-chain SFA (VLCSFA) are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the associations may vary by different biological activities of individual VLCSFA or population characteristics. We aimed to examine the associations of VLCSFA and MetS risk in Chinese adults. Totally, 2008 Chinese population aged 35–59 years were recruited and followed up from 2010 to 2012. Baseline MetS status and plasma fatty acids data were available for 1729 individuals without serious diseases. Among 899 initially metabolically healthy individuals, we identified 212 incident MetS during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Cross-sectionally, each VLCSFA was inversely associated with MetS risk; comparing with the lowest quartile, the multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest quartile were 0·18 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·25) for C20 : 0, 0·26 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·35) for C22 : 0, 0·19 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·26) for C24 : 0 and 0·16 (0·11, 0·22) for total VLCSFA (all Pfor trend<0·001). The associations remained significant after further adjusting for C16 : 0, C18 : 0, C18 : 3n-3, C22 : 6n-3, n-6 PUFA and MUFA, respectively. Based on follow-up data, C20 : 0 or C22 : 0 was also inversely associated with incident MetS risk. Among the five individual MetS components, higher levels of VLCSFA were most strongly inversely associated with elevated TAG (≥1·7 mmol/l). Plasma levels of VLCSFA were significantly and inversely associated with MetS risk and individual MetS components, especially TAG. Further studies are warranted to confirm the findings and explore underlying mechanisms.
Lapses in care during transition in adult CHD patients lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have investigated predictors of poor follow-up in universal healthcare paradigms and select American populations. We studied patients with a wide spectrum of CHD severity within a single American centre to identify factors associated with successful internal transition and maintenance of care. Loss of follow-up was defined as no documented cardiac follow-up for ⩾3 years. Ambulatory cardiology patients aged 16–17 years with CHD were retrospectively enrolled and contacted. A survey assessing demographics, patients’ understanding of their CHD, medical status, and barriers to care was administered. On the basis of chart review of 197 enrolled patients, 74 demonstrated loss of follow-up (37.6%). Of 78 successfully contacted patients, 58 were surveyed, of whom a minority had loss of follow-up (n=16). The status of most patients with loss of follow-up was not known. Maintenance of care was associated with greater complexity of CHD (p<0.01), establishment of care with an adult CHD provider (p<0.001), use of prescription medications (p<0.001), and receipt of education emphasising the importance of long-term cardiac care (p<0.003). Insurance lapses were not associated with loss of follow-up (p=0.08). Transition and maintenance of care was suboptimal even within a single centre. Over one-third of patients did not maintain care. Patients with greater-complexity CHD, need for medications, receipt of transition education, and care provided by adult CHD providers had superior follow-up.
To prospectively assess treatment outcomes of chronic rhinosinusitis patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery and post-operative medical treatment over a prolonged follow-up period.
Patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery in the tertiary referral practice of a single surgeon were studied prospectively. Symptoms were scored by patients pre-operatively and over a minimum follow-up period of 12 months.
The study comprised 200 non-consecutive patients. The median pre-operative symptom score was 16 (out of a maximum of 25) (95 per cent confidence interval = 15 to 17). Symptom scores reduced to a median of 7 (95 per cent confidence interval = 6 to 8) after 12 months of follow up (p < 0.0001). The median symptom score improved for all symptoms and across all patient subgroups.
Extensive functional endoscopic sinus surgery offers significant and durable symptom improvement in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to medical treatment. This improvement extends to all patient subgroups. Prolonged medical therapy is recommended after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
To study and review the short- and long-term effects of intranasal steroids on obstructive adenoids.
In this prospective cohort study, 19 children previously treated with mometasone furoate for 3 months were contacted at 3, 6 and 12 months after cessation of treatment. Main outcome measures included: change in severity of nasal obstruction, allergic rhinitis and obstructive symptoms. A systematic review of literature was also performed.
By one year, 25 per cent of patients required adenoidectomy; the remaining children had no significant change in clinical score (p = 0.464), obstruction severity (p = 0.191) or allergic symptoms (p = 0.284). Fourteen pertinent studies were identified; all but one study showed improvement in the patients’ symptoms and/or degree of obstruction. Two studies with follow up reaching 25 months showed positive effects.
The short-term positive effect of some intranasal steroids on obstructive adenoids seems to persist in a significant number of patients after the cessation of treatment.
This study aimed to measure changes in disease-specific quality of life in children following tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy.
A multicentre prospective cohort study was performed involving seven ENT departments in England. A total of 276 children entered the study over a 2-month period: 107 underwent tonsillectomy and 128 adenotonsillectomy. Forty-one children referred with throat problems initially managed by watchful waiting were also recruited. The follow-up period was 12 months. Outcome measures were the T14, parental impressions of their child's quality of life and the number of days absent from school.
One-year follow-up data were obtained from 150 patients (52 per cent). The mean baseline T14 score in the non-surgical group was significantly lower (T14 = 23) than in the tonsillectomy group (T14 = 31) or the adenotonsillectomy group (T14 = 35; p < 0.001). There was a significant improvement in the T14 scores of responders in all groups at follow up. The effect size was 1.3 standard deviations (SD) for the non-surgical group, 2.1 SD for the tonsillectomy group and 1.9 SD for the adenotonsillectomy group. Between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. A third of children in the non-surgical group underwent surgery during the follow-up period.
Children who underwent surgical intervention achieved a significant improvement in disease-specific quality of life. Less severely affected children were managed conservatively and also improved over 12 months, but 1 in 3 crossed over to surgical intervention.
The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the association of the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), smoking habits and physical activity with all-cause mortality in an Italian population during a 20-year follow-up study. A total of 1693 subjects aged 40–74 who enrolled in the study in 1991–5 were asked about dietary and other lifestyle information at baseline. Adherence to the MeDi was evaluated by the Mediterranean dietary score (MedDietScore). A healthy lifestyle score was computed by assigning 1 point each for a medium or high adherence to the MedDietScore, non-smoking and physical activity. Cox models were used to assess the associations between lifestyle factors and healthy lifestyle scores and all-cause mortality, adjusting for potential confounders. The final sample included 974 subjects with complete data and without chronic disease at baseline. During a median of 17·4 years of follow-up, 193 people died. Subjects with high adherence to the MedDietScore (hazard ratio (HR) 0·62, 95 % CI 0·43, 0·89)), non-smokers (HR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·98) and physically active subjects (HR 0·55, 95 % CI 0·36, 0·82) were at low risk of death. Each point increase in the MedDietScore was associated with a significant 5 % reduction of death risk. Subjects with 1, 2 or 3 healthy lifestyle behaviours had a significantly 39, 56, and 73 % reduced risk of death, respectively. A high adherence to MeDi, non-smoking and physical activity were strongly associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality in healthy subjects after long-term follow-up. This reduction was even stronger when the healthy lifestyle behaviours were combined.
Background: Healthcare use and costs are about 81% higher for morbidly obese individuals compared to non-obese persons, and 47% higher compared to the non-morbidly obese population. The benefits of bariatric surgery for health are well established, but its mid-term impact on healthcare use and costs remains controversial.
Methods: This study examines the trends in healthcare use and costs in a Brazilian cohort during a 4-year period before and after surgery. Healthcare use and direct costs related to inpatients and outpatients were retrieved from a healthcare insurance company database from which all cohort members were selected.
Results: Between 2004 and 2010, 4,006 individuals underwent bariatric surgery. Most patients were female (80%) with a mean age of 36.2 years and a mean body mass index of 42.8 kg/m2. Elevated blood pressure was present in 38% of cases and diabetes was found in 12.5% of subjects. Hospital admissions increased consistently after surgery, even after excluding hospitalizations for esthetic surgery and pregnancy-related care. The most prevalent conditions in this group were gastrointestinal diseases. Emergency department visits increased after bariatric procedures, in particular for genitourinary and hematologic problems. Adjusted costs were higher after surgery as assessed during a 4-year follow-up period.
Conclusion: Results indicate that costs and hospital admissions after bariatric surgery increase following this procedure, even when elective interventions are excluded. Healthcare providers and policy makers need to be aware that a decrease in obesity-related diseases following bariatric surgery does not reduce healthcare use and costs.
To determine the value of non echo planar, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for detection of residual and recurrent middle-ear cholesteatoma after combined-approach tympanoplasty.
The magnetic resonance imaging findings after primary surgery for cholesteatoma were compared with intra-operative findings at ‘second-look’ surgery or with clinical follow-up findings.
Forty-eight magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed in 38 patients. Second-look surgery was performed 21 times in 18 patients. The remaining patients were followed up at the out-patient clinic. There were no false-positive findings with non echo planar, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; however, there were four false-negative findings. The mean maximum diameter of recurrent cholesteatoma, as assessed using magnetic resonance imaging, was 11.7 mm (range, 4.4–25.3 mm). The sensitivity of non echo planar, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for detecting cholesteatoma prior to second-look surgery was 0.76, with a specificity of 1.00. When clinical follow up of the non-operated ears was included in the analysis, sensitivity was 0.81 and specificity was 1.00.
Recurrent cholesteatoma can be accurately detected using non echo planar, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Our study, however, also showed some false-negative results. Therefore, strict out-patient follow up is mandatory for those considering using this technique instead of standard second-look surgery.
During the late 1930s and early 1940s Japanese researchers carried out a large and well-funded study of customary law in rural North China. The results of that research, published in the 1950s, have been one of the major sources for theories about prewar Chinese rural society. In the last twenty years Japanese and Chinese researchers have undertaken follow-up studies of the same villages. This review article introduces Chinese and Japanese follow-up studies on the kankō chōsa villages, the new materials and approaches they have used, and their contributions to on-going debates about Chinese rural society and social change.
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder associated with structural brain abnormalities already present at the onset of the illness. Whether these brain abnormalities might progress over time is still under debate.
The aim of this study was to investigate likely progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia during the first 3 years after initiating antipsychotic treatment. The study included 109 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and a control group of 76 healthy subjects. Subjects received detailed clinical and cognitive assessment and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at regular time points during a 3-year follow-up period. The effects of brain changes on cognitive and clinical variables were examined along with the impact of potential confounding factors.
Overall, patients and healthy controls exhibited a similar pattern of brain volume changes. However, patients showed a significant lower progressive decrease in the volume of the caudate nucleus than control subjects (F1,307.2 = 2.12, p = 0.035), with healthy subjects showing a greater reduction than patients during the follow-up period. Clinical and cognitive outcomes were not associated with progressive brain volume changes during the early years of the illness.
Brain volume abnormalities that have been consistently observed at the onset of non-affective psychosis may not inevitably progress, at least over the first years of the illness. Taking together with clinical and cognitive longitudinal data, our findings, showing a lack of brain deterioration in a substantial number of individuals, suggest a less pessimistic and more reassuring perception of the illness.