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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of social rank (Experiment 1) and familiarity (Experiment 2) on dust-bathing in domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We conducted choice tests between two conditions using actual birds as the stimuli and evaluated the effects in terms of quality and quantity of dustbathing performed. Twenty-four, medium-ranked hens were selected as test subjects. The stimuli presented were combinations of a high-ranked hen, a low-ranked hen, or no hen at all for Experiment 1, and a combination of a familiar hen, an unfamiliar hen, or no hen for Experiment 2. The number and duration of dustbaths, wing tosses as well as other behaviours were measured. For Experiment 1, the test hen performed dustbathing more frequently on the side of the hen, regardless of its social rank, when presented with a choice of a high- or low-ranked hen, or no hen. For Experiment 2, the test hen performed dustbathing more frequently on the side of the familiar hen when presented with a familiar hen or no hen, and more frequently on the side of no hen when presented with an unfamiliar hen and no hen. It was concluded that dustbathing was not affected by social rank, and that the quality and quantity of dustbathing was greater on the side of the familiar hen. However, dustbathing was restricted by the presence of an unfamiliar hen.
The mere exposure, or familiarity, effect is the tendency for people to feel more positive about stimuli to which they have previously been exposed. The Eurovision Song Contest is a two-stage event, in which some contestants in the final will be more familiar to viewers than others. Thus, viewers’ voting is likely to be influenced by this effect. Previous work attempting to demonstrate this effect in this context has been unable to control for contestant quality. The current study, which used a novel procedure to analyse the way in which contestant countries distributed their points (a function of how viewers voted in those countries) between 2008 and 2011, showed that contestants did better if they previously appeared in a semifinal that was seen by voters. This is evidence that the mere exposure effect, alongside previously studied factors such as cultural and geographical closeness, influences the way viewers vote in the Eurovision.
Sequels, spinoffs, serials, and other kinds of generic works are prevalent in Nollywood filmmaking and popular with fans. These spinoffs and other generic works are characterized by a degree of familiarity, made evident in their repetitive and or affiliative dimensions. According to Adejunmobi, familiarity as a mode of media engagement in Nollywood generates specific pleasures connected to the repetitive dimensions of the films and television shows. These highly repetitive works also sustain a type of leisure activity for viewers without dedicated leisure time who combine Nollywood viewing with everyday work. This form of leisure is identified as a leisure of concomitance.
The Attraction emotions are reactions of liking or disliking objects (or aspects of objects) resulting from an object’s appeal (or lack thereof). Appeal, in turn, depends on tastes, which in contrast to goals and standards, tend to be unanalyzable, Hence, the Attraction emotions are the least cognitively complex of all emotions. Tastes are treated broadly and include attitudes and preferences, and the notion of an object is also broad, including anything that is evaluated qua object, meaning that even events or agents’ actions can be viewed as objects. Although issues pertaining to aesthetic judgment are raised, they are not the focus of Attraction emotions. The Attraction emotion identified depends on whether an object is evaluated as being appealing or unappealing and whether it is viewed as itself being capable of emotion. Crossing these dimensions leads to four emotion types: “Affection” and “Enmity” emotions, which pertain to emotion-capable (generally animate) objects, and “Appreciation” and “Distaste” emotions, which pertain to emotion-incapable (generally inanimate) objects.
This study compares the role of exemplars in native and non-native listening. Two English identity priming experiments were conducted with native English, Dutch non-native, and Spanish non-native listeners. In Experiment 1, primes and targets were spoken in the same or a different voice. Only the native listeners showed exemplar effects. In Experiment 2, primes and targets had the same or a different degree of vowel reduction. The Dutch, but not the Spanish, listeners were familiar with this reduction pattern from their L1 phonology. In this experiment, exemplar effects only arose for the Spanish listeners. We propose that in these lexical decision experiments the use of exemplars is co-determined by listeners’ available processing resources, which is modulated by the familiarity with the variation type from their L1 phonology. The use of exemplars differs between native and non-native listening, suggesting qualitative differences between native and non-native speech comprehension processes.
The chapter’s focus is on the effect of task design and implementation conditions on fluency, including task design, implementation conditions and the role of interlocutors. The intention is to highlight the value of adapting research and teaching to use tasks for promoting fluency in real-world communication, taking account of pragmatic demands and cultural norms. We suggest ways in which tasks can be better used to investigate fluency, not only from an information processing perspective, but through an interactional lens, exploring speakers’ communicative strategies in fulfilling listeners’ expectations and communicative needs.
Chapter One studies how Rome figures in the murky processes by which individuals settled their relation to the world. In the process, it establishes something of the range of conditions under which medieval and early modern writers negotiated their own absorption into the matter of Rome. The chapter pursues at length medieval and early modern habits of attending not so much to the wonders of Rome, but rather to all that is most ordinary, obvious (in the word’s etymological reference to that which is encountered ‘in the way’), and ubiquitous in what Rome left in its wake when it relinquished its formal, administrative hold on the provinces of Britannia. These preoccupations open onto a wide span of time: from the middle of the sixth to the middle of the seventeenth century. The texts and problems that dominate the chapter range from Gildas and Bede to Sir Thomas Browne in the late seventeenth century.
Scholars have established that Rome is at once a place and an idea. This double formula, however, which limits Rome to a specific distant place (distant, that is, from the perspective of Britain) and an idea (that is, an immaterial concept or notion of that distant place), needs to be supplemented by an acknowledgement that the Roman Empire had left in its wake material remains and cultural practices that ensured that Rome could always be close-to-hand, familiar, and domestic—even a thousand or more miles from the Eternal City. Ruins, roads, the Latin language and the thickets of its grammar, cultural and spiritual institutions, liturgical texts and devotional regimens: these phenomena ensured that Rome could be, even as far away as Medieval or Renaissance Britain, experienced as near rather than far, and as a network of material remains and cultural practices rather than as an abstract idea. The book gathers these disparate phenomena under the rubric of the ‘fact’ of Rome (with an eye to the word’s derivation from the Latin factum) in an effort to show that lives lived in Medieval and Renaissance Britain were continually immersed in versions of Rome that oscillated between conspicuousness and invisibility.
Age-related changes in memory are a common but worrisome occurrence in many people’s lives. However, these changes are not ubiquitous. Healthy aging appears to impact memory for associative/relational details, i.e., the ability to recollect, more so than memory for item information. We propose that alterations in the recruitment of prefrontally mediated cognitive control processes, such as strategy use and inhibitory control, underlie these age-related memory deficits in healthy adults. These processes are particularly critical for remembering specific relational details and for being able to resolve interference between competing memories. Critically, evidence suggests that while there are large individual differences in the impact of aging on memory, various methods of support/intervention can improve memory performance in healthy older adults. We discuss how recent developments in neuroscience analysis methods have enhanced our understanding of how aging affects the control processes that support episodic learning and retrieval. We further suggest that future studies should test more diverse samples of adults and assess the role of lifestyle factors on individual differences in patterns of episodic memory performance and supporting brain activity and structure.
Chapter 3 focuses on discussions of simile (tashbīh) in the nonphilosophical critical tradition, namely, in al-Jurjānī’s Asrār al-balāgha (The Secrets of Eloquence), which forms the site of the most elaborate articulation of an aesthetic theory of wonder. The chapter argues that the pleasure that arises from simile is attributed to its ability to elucidate (bayān), which in turn allows the listener to go through an experience of discovery and wonder. The more effort is required to grasp a simile and the stranger it is, the more beautiful it is. The chapter goes on to show how the principles that enhance the strangeness and farfetchedness of simile put forth by al-Jurjānī are later systematized and organized in the science of eloquence as formalized by al-Sakkākī and al-Khaṭīb al-Qazwīnī. While the specific elements that allow for an experience of discovery in simile are unique to that figure, the general discovery-based theory of aesthetic experience forms the foundation for the aesthetics of metaphor and sentence construction, as well, which are tackled in Chapters 4 and 5.
Objectives. – Studies on the relation between local cerebral activation and retrieval success usually compared high and low performance conditions, and thus showed performance-related activation of different brain areas. Only a few studies directly compared signal intensities of different response categories during retrieval. During verbal recognition, we recently observed increased parieto-occipital activation related to false alarms. The present study intends to replicate and extend this observation by investigating common and differential activation by veridical and false recognition.
Methods. – Fifteen healthy volunteers performed a verbal recognition paradigm using 160 learned target and 160 new distracter words. The subjects had to indicate whether they had learned the word before or not. Echo-planar MRI of blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes was performed during this recognition task. Words were classified post hoc according to the subjects’ responses, i.e. hits, false alarms, correct rejections and misses. Response-related fMRI-analysis was used to compare activation associated with the subjects’ recognition success, i.e. signal intensities related to the presentation of words were compared by the above-mentioned four response types.
Results. – During recognition, all word categories showed increased bilateral activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, the inferior temporal gyrus, the occipital lobe and the brainstem in comparison with the control condition. Hits and false alarms activated several areas including the left medial and lateral parieto-occipital cortex in comparison with subjectively unknown items, i.e. correct rejections and misses. Hits showed more pronounced activation in the medial, false alarms in the lateral parts of the left parieto-occipital cortex.
Conclusions. – Veridical and false recognition show common as well as different areas of cerebral activation in the left parieto-occipital lobe: increased activation of the medial parietal cortex by hits may correspond to true recognition, increased activation of the parieto-occipital cortex by false alarms may correspond to familiarity decisions. Further studies are needed to investigate the reasons for false decisions in healthy subjects and patients with memory problems.
This personal take describes the motivation, development and eventual commercial release of TouchKeys, an augmented musical keyboard which measures the motion of the player’s fingers on the key surfaces. Digital musical instruments typically lack the mechanical constraints of their acoustic counterparts. Instead, the major obstacle facing novel digital instruments is the time it takes a performer to learn them. TouchKeys preserves the familiar action and layout of the keyboard while adding new techniques such as vibrato and pitch bends, aiming to connect to the expertise of trained keyboardists while providing a gentler learning curve compared to other novel instruments.
Humans can recollect past events in details (recollection) and/or know that an object, person, or place has been encountered before (familiarity). During the last two decades, there has been intense debate about how recollection and familiarity are organized in the brain. Here, we propose an integrative memory model which describes the distributed and interactive neurocognitive architecture of representations and operations underlying recollection and familiarity. In this architecture, the subjective experience of recollection and familiarity arises from the interaction between core systems (storing particular kinds of representations shaped by specific computational mechanisms) and an attribution system. By integrating principles from current theoretical views about memory functioning, we provide a testable framework to refine the prediction of deficient versus preserved mechanisms in memory-impaired populations. The case of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered as an example because it entails progressive lesions starting with limited damage to core systems before invading step-by-step most parts of the model-related network. We suggest a chronological scheme of cognitive impairments along the course of AD, where the inaugurating deficit would relate early neurodegeneration of the perirhinal/anterolateral entorhinal cortex to impaired familiarity for items that need to be discriminated as viewpoint-invariant conjunctive entities. The integrative memory model can guide future neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies aiming to understand how such a network allows humans to remember past events, to project into the future, and possibly also to share experiences.
At present, there is no comprehensive psycholinguistic database containing Swedish words with ratings of word properties such as e.g. imageability, although researchers carrying out psycholinguistic studies in Swedish face the need to be able to control for and systematically vary such properties. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the possibility of transferring English word ratings to Swedish. Imageability, familiarity and age of acquisition (AoA) ratings were obtained for a sample of Swedish words (N = 99). These ratings were then compared with the corresponding English ratings from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Psycholinguistic Database (Coltheart 1981) using Spearman correlation. Swedish and English word ratings were found to be highly correlated for imageability and AoA, and moderately correlated for familiarity. Following these results, we suggest that, in general, ratings of these variables can be reliably transferred between the two languages, although some caution should be taken, since for some individual words, some ratings might differ substantially for their Swedish and English translations.
This paper considers the syntactic and semantic properties of two vocabulary items in Tagalog, ang and ng. It is shown that although ang and ng appear to encode definiteness (via familiarity), they are in fact unmarked for definiteness, being compatible with both familiar and novel readings. Crucial data from modification by weak quantifiers are presented in favour of this description. The default interpretation of ang and ng as familiar and novel, respectively, arises due to their syntactic position (subject versus object). Given that ang and ng mark case, it is argued that they are case markers in K° and not determiners.
Previous research suggests that situation model construction may be influenced by a reader’s ability to embody the first-person perspective of the protagonist, including character emotions, during online comprehension. This study examined the effect of narrative point-of-view and readers’ own prior personal experience on reading engagement and comprehension. Participants read eighty short story passages on a computer screen, each describing either a familiar or an unfamiliar event. Stories were written in the first or third person, and either featured or did not feature a shift in protagonist emotions in the last sentence of the text. The results indicated that the use of third-person narrative point-of-view had an overall effect on reading engagement and enhanced readers’ ability to monitor changing character emotions. First-person narrative point-of-view, however, promoted protagonist empathy when participants read about unfamiliar events. The results also provide support for the conclusion that readers were more engaged with the story and constructed more effective situation models when they had prior personal experience of story events.
It would be reasonable to expect that our previous experience regarding a stimulus that predicts harm would make the subsequent identification of that stimulus easier when harm happens again. Forty-eight volunteers were submitted to both phases of this sequence of events: learning of the predictive relationship and later priming. A face with neutral expression (CS+) was paired with a moderately aversive electric shock and another (CS−) with a neutral tone. Subsequently, these two faces, as well as other known and new faces, were presented for familiarity judgments. Both the CS+ and the CS− faces were preceded by an aversive stimulus (aversive prime) in one occasion and by a neutral stimulus (neutral prime) in another. The familiarity judgment regarding the CS+ was faster after the aversive prime than after the neutral prime, but there was no difference regarding the CS−. The differential effect of the aversive prime over the CS+ and the CS− showed a significant but small correlation with the differential skin conductance response to CS+ and CS− (signal learning), and with the differential evaluation of those stimuli in terms of like-dislike (evaluative learning). The scope of these results, as well as the usefulness of this methodological model, is discussed.
This experiment compares the yes-no and forced recognition tests as methods of measuring familiarity. Participants faced a phase of 3 study-test recognition trials in which they studied words using all the letters of the alphabet (overlapping condition, O), and an additional phase in which targets and lures did not share any letters (non-overlapping condition, NO). Finally, subjects performed a forced-choice task in which they had to choose one of two new words, each from one of the subsets (Parkin et al., 2001). Results in the NO condition were better than in the O condition in the yes-no recognition test, while the forced-choice rate was significantly higher than .50, showing their sensitivity to familiarity. When the letter set of the words for study in the third list of the NO condition was switched, the difference between NO and O conditions disappeared in yes-no test, while the force-choice rate was not higher than .50. We conclude that both the yes-no test and the forced-choice test are valid and equivalent measures of familiarity under the right conditions.
A method to analyze the role of familiarity in recognizing pictures of everyday scenes is introduced. The idea is to manipulate two within-subjects conditions: an experimental condition where the scenes repeat perceptual information (e.g. buildings and/or vehicles) and a control condition. The results show the two conditions did not differ in terms of hit rates, but in the experimental condition there were significantly fewer false alarms, yielding better results, which supports the findings of past research studies that have used verbal materials. This perceptual facilitation was maintained throughout a week-long retention interval. Finally, a detailed analysis of this facilitation shows it was due to a significant reduction in false alarms on know judgments, emphasizing familiarity's role in explaining this effect.
A modified way of administering the process dissociation procedure to the false fame paradigm is described. Multidimensional signal detection theory (SDT) is used to correct for recollection as well as familiarity false alarms, and two experiments are reported that compare this method of false alarm correction with the hybrid procedure preferred by Jacoby et al. (1993). In experiment 1, it is shown that recollection and familiarity are lost at the same rate in normal subjects over a delay of 1 d when an SDT analysis is used. Analysis with the hybrid procedure fails to find any forgetting over the 1-d delay. In experiment 2, amnesics are shown to have preserved familiarity in the face of impaired recollection for names when the results are analyzed by either method. An additional analysis showed that the amnesics' familiarity was normal even for relatively novel surnames. The SDT analysis also revealed that the amnesics, relative to controls, showed a conservative recollection and a liberal familiarity response bias. The results indicate that it is important to correct for recollection as well as familiarity false alarms. (JINS, 1995, I, 469–482.)