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In this article, I discuss two approaches to the phenomenon of gesture, constituted by the existential dimension of embodiment, intersubjectivity, affectivity, and language: while Martin Heidegger states that human bodily movement as a whole should be understood as gesture in contrast to the spatial movement of things, Vilém Flusser integrates under this notion a multitude of human practices and activities that common sense hesitates to call gestures. The dilemma of the phenomenology of gesture consists in this tension between the plural concreteness of gestural appearances and the irrepressible temptation to identify a unitary layer that would allow them to hold together.
This Element focuses on the development of drawing (and painting) in childhood. The author begins by examining children's representational drawing, a topic that has received quite wide attention from the nineteenth century on. The author then turns to issues that have received far less attention and discusses the aesthetic property of expression, weighing the claim that young children's highly expressive drawings bear an affinity to twentieth century modernist art. The author then examines the function of drawing for children's emotional development. Next, looking at art prodigies, the author turns to the how of drawing, considering the relation of drawing talent to IQ and to visual-spatial skills. Finally, the author considers the relation between development and education in art and how educators can best nurture children's artistic development.
The sequence of musical development is revisited. The origins of the underlying and evolving theory are considered, along with organisation and classification of the data of children’s compositions. The cumulative and recursive nature of the spiral is re-emphasised, and the dynamic relationship between the left and right side is clarified. The essential qualitative nature of the study is asserted and some possibilities for the future are considered, along with a two-dimensional model for curriculum and student evaluation based on spiral-related outcomes and the musical activities that promote and sustain them.
June Boyce-Tillman and Keith Swanwick’s article on musical development is the second most widely cited paper in the history of the British Journal of Music Education. It appears in many discussions of musical development. A selection of the diverse domains where the paper is cited includes: instrumental teaching, Special Education Needs, primary school teaching, the development of learning for professional musicians, secondary school teaching, musicians’ skill development, adult music teaching and jazz improvisation. However, the background to this work, which was conceived for June Boyce-Tillman’s PhD thesis, is not always so well known. This article presents a research interview with June Boyce-Tillman conducted in August 2017. It explores her musical background and music education experiences, and seeks to enable further discussion of the characteristics which were described in the spiral model. The interview focuses on the concepts of Materials, vernacular, and musical Values, in particular, and the implications of these modes of understanding for classroom practices, including curriculum design.
The study was undertaken to examine the relative abundance (RA) of the major developmental important candidate genes in different grades of immature oocytes (A-grade, B-grade, C-grade and D-grade) and various stages of in vitro-produced embryos (2-cell, 4-cell, 8–16-cell, morula, and blastocyst) of buffalo using RT-qPCR. Results showed that the RA of GLUT1, CX43, HSP70.1 and GDF9 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the A-grade of oocytes than the C-grade and D-grade but did not differ significantly from the B-grade of oocytes. Similarly, RA of BMP15 and Survivin were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in A-grade than the other grades of oocytes, however, poly(A) polymerase expression was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the immature oocytes. The expression of GLUT1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the blastocysts, but the expression of CX43 (P < 0.05; P > 0.05), HSP70.1 (P < 0.05; P > 0.05) and GDF9 (P > 0.05) was higher at the 2-cell stage than the other stages of embryos. Interestingly, the expression levels of poly(A) polymerase (P < 0.05), BMP15 (P < 0.05; P > 0.05) and Survivin (P > 0.05) were higher at the 8–16-cell stage than the other stages of embryos. It is concluded that A-grade of immature oocytes has shown more mRNA abundance for the major developmental important genes; therefore A-grade oocytes may be considered as the most developmentally competent and suitable for handmade cloning research in buffalo.
Darwin's book on expressions of emotion was one of the first publications to include photographs (Darwin, The expression of the emotions in Man and animals, 1872). The inclusion of expression photographs meant that readers could form their own opinions and could, like Darwin, survey others for their interpretations. As such, the images provided an evidence base and an ‘open source’. Since Darwin, increases in the representativeness and realism of emotional expressions have come from the use of composite images, colour, multiple views and dynamic displays. Research on understanding emotional expressions has been aided by the use of computer graphics to interpolate parametrically between different expressions and to extrapolate exaggerations. This review tracks the developments in how emotions are illustrated and studied and considers where to go next.
Chapter 6 provides a summary of our cross-cultural pragmatic analytic framework. The framework breaks down cross-cultural pragmatic data into three units of analysis, expressions, speech acts and discourse, and provides a systematic approach to disentangle and compare these units across linguacultures.
What's wrong with joining corona parties? In this article, I defend the idea that reasons to avoid such parties (or collective harms, more generally) come in degrees. I approach this issue from a participation-based perspective. Specifically, I argue that the more people are already joining the party, and the more likely it is that the virus will spread among everyone, the stronger the participation-based reason not to join. In defense of these degrees, I argue that they covary with the expression of certain attitudes.
John Stuart Mill and Henry Sidgwick grappled with the perspectival problem arising from Bentham’s full rejection of the theological justification for the legislative point of view. Mill’s intriguing suggestion that “wrong” refers to that which should be punished by law, public opinion, or private conscience combined with his assumption that all three are open to revision on utilitarian principles leads to the interesting conclusion that our moral statements about right and wrong are tacit legislative proposals. When deciding whether to voice our moral opinions we must think like legislators enacting a rule. This was in tension with the idea that our public expressions of moral judgment should be spontaneous reactions to the poor choices of others. Sidgwick grasped the implications of this issue more clearly and more self-consciously than did Mill, since it meant that there was a potentially deep disjunction between what is right according to utilitarianism and what utilitarianism tells us to publicly state as right. Sidgwick’s defense of an esoteric morality is the final outcome of the attempt to secularize morality as legislation.
The expert witness practice of psychiatrists is under constant scrutiny by the courts and, in the UK, the General Medical Council, as well as within appraisal and revalidation as part of a doctor's overall practice. Regulation and appraisal of expert witness practice must address not only technical competence, including demonstration of a real understanding of the interface between medicine and law, but also ethical probity, including in respect of bias, which is the most challenging appraisal focus. In psychiatry, there is much room for ‘values expression’, and therefore bias, in the offering of expert opinion. This article first describes various legal and psychological definitions of bias; then addresses the sources and routes to expression of bias within expert witness practice, viewed legally, psychologically and neuroscientifically. Finally, it proposes ways in which inevitable bias can be minimised by the individual practitioner.
Sources of information about Stravinsky’s visits to Spain include the composer’s own comments, few but incisive, to be found in Chroniques de ma vie, Memories and Commentaries and Expositions and Developments. In addition, there are his often noteworthy references to Spanish culture as reported by others, where his strongly worded impressions have been recalled by reliable sources including Romain Rolland, in his vivid memoir,2 and by Robert Craft (and Vera Stravinsky) who described Stravinsky’s first trip to Madrid in 1916 as ‘one of the most exciting months of his life’.3
The impact of The Rite of Spring upon the direction of twentieth-century music is well documented, its repercussions strongly felt ever since its explosive premiere on 29 May 1913. Yet, while audiences revel in this work’s many dynamic and atmospheric qualities, and while composers of all generations since that premiere have engaged with its impressive technical/rhythmical intricacies, The Rite’s impact upon those who are charged with actually delivering the work ‘live’ on the concert platform or in the recording studio, that is, the orchestral musicians, has been relatively neglected. Few, though, would challenge the assertion made by Martyn Brabbins, the current musical director of English National Opera, that The Rite of Spring has ‘single-handedly transformed the role and function of the conductor’.
Stravinsky is a purveyor of shocking comments. Just as he could capture in a single chord the essence of The Rite of Spring, he could frame an aesthetic position with an imminently quotable aperçu: ‘music is, by its very nature, essentially powerless to express anything at all’.1 This remark on the nature of music, published in his 1936 autobiography, is one of his most quoted comments. In fact, it gained enough notoriety to prod Stravinsky to clarify his position some twenty years later, regarding what he called the ‘over-publicized bit about expression (or non-expression)’. Given a chance to repeat himself, he said, he would rephrase the remark; it was not so much that music is ‘powerless to express anything’, he explained, but that ‘music expresses itself’.2 In the first case, music is defined negatively as that which excludes everything but itself; it is not ‘a feeling, an attitude of mind, a psychological mood, a phenomenon of nature’. In the second case, music is given a positive spin as that which includes itself and nothing else; music is its own expression, ‘beyond verbal meanings and verbal descriptions’. In both cases, the composer is saying the same thing – it just depends whether your aesthetic glass is half full or half empty; music in expressing itself is ‘powerless to express anything’ other than itself. That is why Stravinsky staunchly asserted in 1959 that he still stood by his earlier remark of 1936.
Linda Radzik claims that rebukes can and often should be seen as informal social punishments. In this chapter, Christopher Bennett disagrees. However, because he does not want the dispute to be a merely verbal one, his aim in this response is to draw out what is at issue when we disagree over whether something should be classed as punishment. Having set out the key parts of Radzik’s position and registered some concerns that he has about it, Bennett sets out a taxonomy of things that we can do with blame or social punishment, aiming to show why we might have reason to put different kinds of responses into different categories. Which of these categories we decide to call ‘punishment’ does not matter too much as long as we are clear on the underlying differences between these types of response and the different types of challenge they set us in any attempt to justify or practice them.
What can be done about the relative lack of doctrinal protections for privacy while in public? How can society – and the law – begin to recognize and appreciate that privacy while navigating public space is of critical importance, particularly for marginalized communities, and worthy of doctrinal protection? In this chapter, after first elaborating and deepening extant proffered justifications for a right to public privacy, I bolster these justifications by underscoring what is, perhaps, a more direct constitutional/doctrinal value served by a right to public privacy. In addition to facilitating future speech and attempts to freely associate (as rightly emphasized by many defenders of public privacy), attempts to preserve a degree of privacy or anonymity in public (often undertaken by members of marginalized groups) are frequently a form of performative and expressive opposition to an ever expanding surveillance society and, as explained in Chapter 3, may be protected as symbolic, expressive conduct under the First Amendment.
This chapter turns to the implications, or payoffs, of a theory of performative privacy. There are both doctrinal and discursive benefits to conceptualizing efforts to maintain privacy in public as acts of performative privacy.
Privacy often suffers in courts of law and as a legislative or regulatory priority. Privacy, in effect, is marginalized as a right and frequently ranked below security or law enforcement concerns. Often it is even ranked below administrative, personal, or corporate convenience. At the same time, privacy is of acute significance for members of marginalized communities – queer folk, racial and religious minorities, women, immigrants, people living with disabilities, people living in poverty, workers, and those at the intersections.
Limited legal protections for privacy leave minority communities vulnerable to concrete injuries and violence when their information is exposed. In Privacy at the Margins, Scott Skinner-Thompson highlights why privacy is of acute importance for marginalized groups. He explains how privacy can serve as a form of expressive resistance to government and corporate surveillance regimes - furthering equality goals - and demonstrates why efforts undertaken by vulnerable groups (queer folks, women, and racial and religious minorities) to protect their privacy should be entitled to constitutional protection under the First Amendment and related equality provisions. By examining the ways even limited privacy can enrich and enhance our lives at the margins in material ways, this work shows how privacy can be transformed from a liberal affectation to a legal tool of liberation from oppression.
Informed by the ‘assembly’ jurisprudence of the United Nations Human Rights Committee, this article addresses fundamental questions about the meaning and scope of ‘assembly’ in Article 21 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In seeking to determine when the right of peaceful assembly might properly be engaged, the article explores the interrelationship of assembly with expression and association and proposes a definition of ‘assembly’—for the purposes of its protection—as ‘an intentional gathering by two or more people (including in private and online/virtual spaces)’. Such definitional reflection is particularly timely in light of the Human Rights Committee's drafting of General Comment No 37 on Article 21.
Introduces the main argument, that much about the instrumental music of the later eighteenth century can be grasped with reference to the concept of sociability. The concept is defined and placed alongside other rubrics such as expression, language and behaviour. Sociability is separated into affective and technical spheres. Haydn, a market leader both critically and commercially, is the central figure for the study. The modern reception of later eighteenth-century style is discussed with particular reference to Haydn and Mozart, noting the critical tendency to occupy a moral high ground above the image of a ‘shallow sociability’, and concluding with the challenge ‘When else … in Western music history has a whole style been so often understood negatively, as a problem in need of a solution?’. Then I investigate the listener-friendliness of the style: the pronounced orientation of this music towards a listening subject was historically novel. This music both challenges listeners and puts them at their ease.