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The chapter focuses on education as a social variable. It critically reviews classical approaches and suggests news ways of integrating education as a variable in sociolinguistic research in Arabic. These approaches are illustrated by examples from qualitative and quatitative studies.
Research on English relative clauses shows that, in most studies, subject relatives are comprehended more accurately than object relatives by both monolingual and bilingual children. The current study focuses on Czech-English bilingual children and extends this line of research in two ways. First, it includes a condition in which the noun phrases involved in the action differ in number (one is singular and the other is plural), a manipulation that was never tested on bilinguals. Second, it includes a fine-grained measure of language exposure, since the exposure has been linked to the acquisition of complex structures. Thirty-eight Czech-English bilinguals (aged 8–11 years) were tested on their comprehension of relative clauses using a picture matching paradigm. Results show that sentences with number mismatch were comprehended more accurately than match sentences and that subject relatives were comprehended more accurately than object relatives. In addition, in the subject relatives subset, higher exposure to English corresponded to poorer performance in relative clauses with number mismatch. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed.
Any assessment of the international investment regime and its legitimacy crisis requires a preliminary understanding of their important and relevant features. However, the sprawling nature of both defies most doctrinal and qualitative attempts at description. The regime is based on a decentralized network of legal instruments, different procedural mechanisms and ad hoc proceedings, while the accompanying chorus of critique and counter-critique is populated with multiple actors and interests across the world. This chapter seeks to capture this distinct and fragmented universe. First, the authors map consent to arbitration, not on a generic per signed bilateral investment treaty basis, but rather by tracking multilateral, bilateral and unilateral consents in force. Second, they provide a description and overview of the over 1,100 registered cases up to January 2020, focusing inter alia on case outcomes, rules, cases types, institution, parties, economic sector and legal basis. Third, they trace discontent with regime, charting the origin of legitimacy crisis and its maturing over time. It ends by discussing both state-led efforts at reform and the extent to which arbitrators themselves have adjusted reflexively to the backlash.
Patients with hoarding disorder (HD) experience difficulties discarding that result in excess clutter in the home. HD causes distress and impairment for patients and family members and represents a significant public health burden, highlighting a need for treatment research. In this chapter, we provide an overview of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for hoarding, a promising avenue to treat core HD features in a collaborative and time-limited manner. We begin by discussing etiological factors for HD, including familial features, information-processing deficits, and core beliefs about the self and possessions. Next, we describe HD assessment, including standardized measures and case conceptualization considerations. After discussing the research evidence for individual and group CBT for HD, we provide an overview of treatment components, including psychoeducation, motivational enhancement, skills training, behavioral exposures, cognitive techniques, and relapse prevention. Barriers to treatment are also considered. We end with a case vignette illustrating the successful application of CBT for HD in an individual outpatient setting.
Contamination concerns and checking remain two of the most prevalent forms of presentation in OCD, reported by 25–50% of sufferers, with checking the most common compulsion. Since they cover a broad spectrum of concerns and complexity, the assessment and treatment of contamination and checking carries its own challenges for the therapist. This chapter explores the nature of contamination and checking concerns and provides an overview of recent research. Practical advice and guidance will guide the therapist from initial assessment to formulation and the development of an effective treatment protocol. The prevalence of covert safety-seeking behaviors such as rumination is discussed as a frequent obstacle in treatment. It advocates a move away from graded hierarchies for exposure and considers what effective exposure should consist of, encouraging the use of creativity and playfulness. A range of both common and less common presentations is used to illustrate key concepts.
Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have impairments in their language-learning abilities that may influence interactions with environmental opportunities to learn two languages. This study explores relationships between proficiency in L1 and L2 and a set of environmental and personal variables within a group of school-age Spanish–English bilingual children with DLD and a group of typically-developing peers. Within each group, current usage in the home, length of L2 exposure, gender, maternal education, analytical reasoning, and number of L1 conversational partners were used to predict proficiency in each language. Results showed that home language environment, particularly home L2 usage, strongly predicted L1 proficiency but had less influence on the L2. Female gender predicted L1 skills in both groups, whereas analytical reasoning predicted both L1 and L2 but only for children with DLD. This study expands the limited literature on how children with DLD interact with their environment to learn two languages.
To determine the association between hearing loss and environmental Pb, Cd and Se exposure, a total of 1503 American adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2011–2012) were assessed. The average of four audiometric frequencies (0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) was used to identify speech-frequency hearing loss (SFHL), while the average of 3 audiometric frequencies (3, 4 and 6 kHz) was used to identify high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). HFHL adjusted OR determined by comparing the highest and lowest blood Pb and Cd quartiles were 1·98 (95 % CI: 1·27, 3·10) and 1·81 (95 % CI: 1·13, 2·90), respectively. SFHL was significantly associated with blood Cd with the OR = 2·42 for the highest quartile. When further stratified by age, this association appeared to be limited to adults aged 35–52 years. After stratified by gender, except for Pb and Cd, we observed that blood Se showed a dose-dependent association with SFHL in men. In women, only Cd showed a dose-dependent association with speech and high-frequency hearing loss. Hearing loss was positively associated with blood levels of Pb and Cd. Additionally, our study provided novel evidence suggesting that excessive Se supplement would increase SFHL risk in men.
Human–wildlife interactions (HWIs) occur in many rural African communities, with potential impacts on livelihood vulnerability. High livelihood vulnerability may force communities to employ strategies that increase the risk of negative HWIs, yet the extent to which HWIs drive or are driven by vulnerability is unclear. We hypothesized that more vulnerable households are more likely to be exposed to wildlife and experience negative interactions. To test this hypothesis, we calculated the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) of rural households in and around Quirimbas National Park (north-eastern Mozambique) and assessed whether there is a link between livelihood vulnerability and HWIs. We found a two-way association between LVI and HWIs, with more vulnerable households indeed taking greater risks and encountering wildlife when fetching water from rivers, whereas less vulnerable households tended not to employ strategies likely to increase wildlife encounters. We also observed that HWIs exert a strong effect on livelihood vulnerability, suggesting that HWIs should be included as an exposure factor in vulnerability assessments for rural households. We recommend that livelihood strategies and community vulnerability should be considered when designing HWI mitigation schemes and implementing conservation measures.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is considered the most prevalent anxiety disorder with the highest disease burden amongst anxiety disorders. Despite available effective treatment with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, a majority of individuals with SAD do not seek treatment and many drop out when confronted with elements of exposure. Several studies highlight the many advantages virtual reality exposure holds over in vivo exposure. In this study, we investigate the added effect of real-time biofeedback during virtual reality exposure.
The current study is part of a large scale study called VR8. The current study aims to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a VR-biofeedback-intervention for adults with mild to severe social anxiety disorder, before continuing randomized controlled trials.
Data from semi-structured interviews and surveys will be compared to biodata collected during VR exposure. Participants include a minimum of (n=10) patients and (n=10) clinicians from the Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark. Surveys include questionnaires used for assessment of anxiety symptoms, usability of technology, and presence in the virtual environment. Collected biodata includes heart rate variability and electrodermal activity. Behavioral markers include eye-gaze. The findings will be analyzed and discussed in a mixed methods design.
The study is ongoing. Preliminary results will be available at presentation.
Successful development and implementation of a biofeedback-informed virtual reality exposure intervention may provide increased reach for patients and individuals who would have otherwise not sought- or dropped out of regular treatment, as well as inform the clinician on how to proceed during virtual exposure.
Conflict of interest
Prof. Stephané Bouchard is consultant to and own equity in Cliniques et Développement In Virtuo, which develops virtual environments, and conflicts of interests are managed according to UQO’s conflict of interests policy; however, Cliniques et Développeme
This chapter describes the potential emergence of body image concerns in individuals with ARFID. It also introduces a self-test called the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) that readers can take to determine whether body-image concerns are problematic for them. Lastly, it introduces strategies such as behavior experiments and reducing comparison-making to help reduce body-image concerns.
This work investigated the effects of repeated sweet taste exposure at breakfast on perceptions and intakes of other sweet foods, while also examining the effects due to duration of exposure (1/3 weeks), test context (breakfast/lunch) and associations between taste perceptions and intakes. Using a randomised controlled parallel-group design, participants (n 54, 18 male, mean age: 23·9 (sd 5·8) years, mean BMI: 23·6 (sd 3·5) kg/m2) were randomised to consume either a sweet breakfast (cereal with sucralose) (n 27) or an equienergetic non-sweet breakfast (plain cereal) (n 27) for 3 weeks. On days 0 (baseline), 7 and 21, pleasantness, desire to eat and sweetness were rated for other sweet and non-sweet foods and sweet food consumption was assessed in an ad libitum meal at breakfast and lunch. Using intention-to-treat analyses, no statistically significant effects of exposure were found at breakfast (largest F2,104 = 1·84, P = 0·17, ηp2 = 0·03) or lunch (largest F1,52 = 1·22, P = 0·27, ηp2 = 0·02), and using Bayesian analyses, the evidence for an absence of effect in all rating measures was strong to very strong (smallest BF01 = 297·97 (BF01error = 2·68 %)). Associations between ratings of pleasantness, desire to eat and intake were found (smallest r = 0·137, P < 0·01). Effects over time regardless of exposure were also found: sugars and percentage energy consumed from sweet foods increased throughout the study (smallest (F2,104 = 4·54, P = 0·01, ηp2 = 0·08). These findings demonstrate no effects of sweet taste exposure at breakfast for 1 or 3 weeks on pleasantness, desire for, sweetness or intakes of other sweet foods in either the same (breakfast) or in a different (lunch) meal context.
Objectives: The present study investigated the exposure effect of plus-size models on body dissatisfaction and mood, and the nature of participants’ commenting behaviour towards images of plus-size models. Method: The study was comprised of 92 female university students who were exposed to Facebook photos of plus-size models. Participants were randomly allocated to having the exposed photo paired with positive, negative, or neutral comments, and participants were asked to leave an anonymous comment on each picture. Results: Results showed that participants had less body dissatisfaction and better mood after exposure to plus-size models regardless of the comment condition. Additionally, comment condition significantly influenced the type of comments participants contributed — in photos paired with negative comments, participants were significantly more likely to leave negative comments themselves, with 40% of participants leaving negative comments compared with 4% in the positive condition, and 12% in the neutral condition. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the negative comments of plus-size models can encourage bystanders to contribute negative comments themselves; reinforcing the need to develop better protocols to oppose cyberbullying and encourage an online environment of positivity.
The Language Aptitude Outside the Classroom (LAOC) study investigates the factors that contribute to successful English-learning among newly arrived parent-child immigrants. Two types of factors are considered: cognitive abilities (aptitude measured with the LLAMA tests and working memory) and contextual-affective factors (exposure and anxiety). Participants are pairs of Spanish-speaking immigrants in the US. Each pair consists of a parent and their child aged 7–16. Their English proficiency is measured longitudinally during a one-year period using a listening comprehension test, a verbal fluency test, and an oral narrative (frog story). This contribution focuses on the lexical diversity of the oral narratives (Guiraud Index). Linear mixed models were run on the entire sample and on adults and children separately using time, aptitude, working memory, exposure to English, and anxiety as predictors of lexical diversity of the oral narratives (random effect = dyad, random slope = time). The results show that the development of lexical diversity over a one-year period is predicted by exposure to the language (and, for the children, anxiety). Two subtests of the LLAMA aptitude battery are also significant predictors when the entire sample is considered, but this effect nevertheless disappears for the adults when modeled separately from the children.
Worry is a common symptom that can become excessive and is related to several negative health outcomes. Our research group recently developed an online treatment for teenagers with excessive worry with a parallel programme for their parents. The treatment is characterized by a specific focus on exposure to uncertainty and other avoided stimuli, and includes a substantial amount of parental involvement. The aim of this study was to explore how teenagers and their parents experienced the treatment, especially how they perceived working independently with exposure tasks, parental involvement in the treatment programme, and a fixed treatment format. An experienced, independent clinical psychologist interviewed eight teenagers and nine parents in total. The verbatim transcripts were analysed with thematic analysis and two main themes emerged: ‘Seeing the worry in a new light’ and ‘Changing within a set format’, which both consisted of three subthemes. Based on the analysis, we concluded that teenagers can work actively with exposure and experience it as helpful even though it can be difficult and strange at first, and that parental involvement can be perceived as beneficial by both teenagers and their parents. While the online format placed a substantial responsibility on the families, and some would have wanted additional therapist support, working independently with one’s difficulties was acceptable.
Key learning aims
(1) To learn about experienced benefits and obstacles of exposure in the treatment of worry.
(2) To learn about teenagers’ experiences of working independently with exposure.
(3) To consider the impact of parental involvement in psychological treatments for teenagers.
(4) To consider pros and cons of online treatment for teenagers and their parents.
(5) To consider the use of qualitative research approaches to inform further development of psychological treatments for teenagers with excessive worry.
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is associated with adverse health outcomes and is found in many canned foods. It is not understood if some BPA contamination can be washed away by rinsing. The objective of this single-blinded crossover experiment was to determine whether BPA exposure, as measured by urinary concentrations, could be decreased by rinsing canned beans prior to consumption. Three types of hummus were prepared from dried beans, rinsed, and unrinsed canned beans. Fourteen healthy participants ate two samples of each hummus over six experimental days and collected spot urine specimens for BPA measurement. The geometric mean BPA levels for dried beans BPA (GM = 0.97 ng/ml, 95%CI = 0.74,1.26) was significantly lower than rinsed (GM = 1.89 ng/ml, 1.37,2.59) and unrinsed (GM = 2.46 ng/ml, 1.44,4.19). Difference-in-difference estimates showed an increase in GM BPA from pre- to post-hummus between unrinsed and rinsed canned beans of 1.39 ng/ml, p-value = 0.0400. Rinsing canned beans was an effective method to reduce BPA exposure.
While exposure and response prevention (ERP) is the most effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), less is known about the specific mechanisms underlying symptom change after ERP.
We tested the hypothesis that the frequency of self- and therapist-guided ERP related to the extent of symptom reduction and that this link is mediated by increased self-efficacy.
In a sample of 377 in-patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD receiving in-patient CBT, we assessed symptoms (YBOCS-SR) and self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), before and after treatment, as well as the frequency of therapist- and self-guided ERP sessions.
Patients with more therapist-guided ERP sessions during treatment showed more symptom reduction and the association of self-guided ERP on outcome was mediated by enhanced self-efficacy.
These findings highlight the importance of both therapist- and self-guided ERP sessions and suggest that therapists should conduct a sufficient number of ERP sessions to optimise treatment.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) framework aims to understand how environmental exposures in early life shape lifecycle health. Our understanding and the ability to prevent poor health outcomes and enrich for resiliency remain limited, in part, because exposure–outcome relationships are complex and poorly defined. We, therefore, aimed to determine the major DOHaD risk and resilience factors. A systematic approach with a 3-level screening process was used to conduct our Rapid Evidence Review following the established guidelines. Scientific databases using DOHaD-related keywords were searched to capture articles between January 1, 2009 and April 19, 2019. A final total of 56 systematic reviews/meta-analyses were obtained. Studies were categorized into domains based on primary exposures and outcomes investigated. Primary summary statistics and extracted data from the studies are presented in Graphical Overview for Evidence Reviews diagrams. There was substantial heterogeneity within and between studies. While global trends showed an increase in DOHaD publications over the last decade, the majority of data reported were from high-income countries. Articles were categorized under six exposure domains: Early Life Nutrition, Maternal/Paternal Health, Maternal/Paternal Psychological Exposure, Toxicants/Environment, Social Determinants, and Others. Studies examining social determinants of health and paternal influences were underrepresented. Only 23% of the articles explored resiliency factors. We synthesized major evidence on relationships between early life exposures and developmental and health outcomes, identifying risk and resiliency factors that influence later life health. Our findings provide insight into important trends and gaps in knowledge within many exposures and outcome domains.