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Learning science through an inquiry approach involves children asking questions, exploring and investigating phenomena through the manipulation of materials, gaining experiences and making observations, and developing explanations for those experiences. This approach has many advantages, including engagement in science, enhancing scientific concepts and skills, supporting the use of evidence and allowing children to experience working like scientists. This chapter describes inquiry-based science learning and the components of the scientific inquiry process. Various practical activities that can be used to enhance children’s scientific inquiry skills are also presented.
Text is everywhere, and it is a fantastic resource for social scientists. However, because it is so abundant, and because language is so variable, it is often difficult to extract the information we want. There is a whole subfield of AI concerned with text analysis (natural language processing). Many of the basic analysis methods developed are now readily available as Python implementations. This Element will teach you when to use which method, the mathematical background of how it works, and the Python code to implement it.
How did the Dutch Empire compare with other imperial enterprises? And how was it experienced by the indigenous peoples who became part of this colonial power? At the start of the seventeenth century, the Dutch Republic emerged as the centre of a global empire that stretched along the edges of continents and connected societies surrounding the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In the Dutch Empire, ideas of religious tolerance and scientific curiosity went hand in hand with severe political and economic exploitation of the local populations through violence, monopoly and slavery. This pioneering history of the early modern Dutch Empire, over two centuries, for the first time provides a comparative and indigenous perspective on Dutch overseas expansion. Apart from discussing the impact of the Empire on the economy and society at home in the Dutch Republic, it also offers a fascinating window into the contemporary societies of Asia, Africa and the Americas and, through their interactions, on processes of early modern globalisation.
Within a month of landing at Sydney, John Bigge was in dispute with Lachlan Macquarie over the appointment of the emancipist surgeon, William Redfern, to the magistracy. Over the next fifteen months of his inquiry the commissioner reached conclusions about the future of the Australian colonies sharply at odds with those of the governor. The two men were divided by background, temperament and expectations of empire. Macquarie, a career soldier, always viewed New South Wales as a ‘penitentiary or asylum on a grand scale’. It was destined to grow from a penal to a free society and ‘must one day or other be one of the greatest colonies belonging to the British Empire’, but that would depend upon the rehabilitation of its convicts under his tutelage.
Close relationships are, at the same time, a source of risk and a resource that can mitigate risk, fear, and insecurity. Specifically, close relationships provide the potential for rejection and hurt, but a) close others can behave in ways that diminish these perceived relational risks to encourage deepening connection, and b) involvement in close relationships can mitigate risks external to relationships (i.e., risks in the physical and social environment) to facilitate personal thriving. This chapter will describe the relational risks individuals face when they form interdependent relationships as well as partner behaviors that demonstrate commitment and promote trust (e.g., sacrifice, affectionate touch) to reduce the perceived cost of interdependence. Although all people are subjected to risks when they form interdependent relationships, individuals differ in the extent to which they perceive risks and in the ways in which their partners might mitigate these risks. People with insecure attachment orientations (i.e., high levels of attachment anxiety and/or attachment avoidance) are especially concerned with relational risks, and they benefit when partners enact behaviors that are sensitive to their specific insecurities. In addition to relational risks, this chapter will also describe how partners regulate external risks that people face when they experience threats (e.g., stressors, health problems) or opportunities (e.g., goals, positive challenges). Research suggests that supportive and affectionate partner behaviors provide a sense of security to mitigate external risks and encourage exploration, which may be especially critical for individuals with insecure attachment orientations. Finally, this chapter will conclude with suggestions for future research.
Research on top management team (TMT) diversity suggests that diverse backgrounds improve technological exploration. However, this diversity may also cause demographic faultlines that break a team into subgroups and undermine team performance, and the status difference between CEO and top managers may change inter-subgroup dynamics. We predicted that TMT faultline had an inverted U-shape relationship with technological exploration. Further, we predicted that the effects of TMT faultline were more prominent when the CEO is in the minority subgroup than when the CEO was in the majority subgroup. Using a longitudinal sample from the US IT services industry, the results found that TMT faultline exhibited an inverted U-shape relationship with technological exploration only when the CEO was in the minority subgroup, and such relationship disappeared when the CEO was in the majority subgroup.
This article takes a fresh approach to Walter Ralegh's published account of his voyage to Guiana, The Discoverie of the Large, Rich, and Bewtiful Empyre of Guiana (1596), using it as a case study through which to explore the fragility of sixteenth-century processes of knowledge production about new lands. The article revisits this famous account in order to scrutinise in more detail the types of evidence Ralegh used to support his claims that a rich and powerful empire lay ready to be conquered by the English in the Amazon. This new analysis of Ralegh's narrative highlights the continued centrality of reputational models of authority in early modern travel literature and examines the types of evidence that could be employed by writers to support their suppositions when witness testimony was lacking. Ralegh's narrative illustrates that systems of knowledge production centred on the New World were, at the end of the sixteenth century, still in a state of flux. New ideas about what constituted credible knowledge, from firsthand experience to the collection of material artefacts, competed with older frameworks of authentication and authority. By examining knowledge production in frustration, and by dissecting Ralegh's failure to present a believable vision of El Dorado, this article throws into starker relief the many pitfalls and difficulties that beset those who attempted to present new and credible knowledge about the New World.
The fourth edition of Effective Negotiation provides a practical and thematic approach to negotiation and mediation in professional contexts. Drawing on research and extensive teaching and practical experience, Fells and Sheer describe key elements of negotiations and explain the core tasks involved in reaching an agreement: information exchange, solution-seeking and concession management. This edition features a substantial revision and re-alignment of content, providing discussion of overarching themes and methodologies before moving to focused considerations of the underlying mechanics of negotiation. A new chapter on deadlocks provides detailed analysis of strategically managing and resolving deadlocked negotiations. In addition to the 'Negotiation in Practice' and 'Negotiation Skill Tips' boxes, chapters now include real-world case studies. An accessible, practical and strategic exploration of the complex mechanics and dynamics of negotiation, mediation and dispute resolution, Effective Negotiation remains an essential resource for students and professionals in business and management, law and human resource management.
When negotiators feel they have a good understanding of each other, their interests and their goals, and have a good grasp of where they differ on the issues being negotiated over, it is time to move on to finding ways to meet the aspirations of the two parties and enable them both to achieve a good outcome. The negotiators have the choice of finding solutions through being creative or through the more competitive value-claiming end-game. In every negotiation there is, necessarily, a value-claiming phase where value is distributed among the parties. (This exchange phase will be discussed in Chapter 7.) Effective negotiators will delay value claiming to first explore what value can be created. The value that is the subject of any negotiation is often referred to as a pie; when we engage in exploration we try to increase the size of the pie before deciding how to divide it up. Negotiators don’t have to look to create value in order to come to an agreement and so may be tempted, in the interests of saving time or due to lack of skill, to skip over this exploration phase. The result is that potential for value is not uncovered, and value is ‘left on the table’.
The purpose of this study was to examine contextual factors (empowerment, ownership, and accountability) that facilitate and promote exploration and exploitation behavior. Data were obtained from an American manufacturing company using employee and supervisor surveys (n = 297). Findings indicate that empowerment improved exploitation and that when employees perceived they would have to be accountable for their actions, employees who felt empowered showed lower gains in exploration behaviors compared with those who felt less empowered; in contrast, those having feelings of ownership exhibited higher gains in exploration behavior than those who scored low in ownership. Although ownership was theorized to have a positive effect on exploitative behavior, we found evidence for its negative effects instead. We contribute to the limited individual-level ambidexterity literature by providing empirical evidence on the effects of contextual factors on ambidextrous behavior. This knowledge could help firms better manage employee behavior and implement effective supervisory oversight.
Chinua Achebe’s first novel, Things Fall Apart, has continued to offer—perhaps much more than his third novel, Arrow of God—the most vivid account of the process of early colonial penetration in Africa. This study examines Things Fall Apart through an analytical and conceptual framework that illuminates the five stages of colonialism in Africa. These five stages (exploration, expropriation, appropriation, exploitation, and justification) were necessary in order for colonialism to become both an effective tool for domination and a successful tool of domination; as such, they provide powerful glimpses into Achebe’s fictional representation of the cataclysm embodied by colonial intrusion, not only within the confines of the fictional Igbo universe that he depicts, but also throughout a sub-Saharan African world whose cultural and sociopolitical ethos were shaken to their core. An analysis of these stages, therefore, leads to an understanding of colonialism that defines it not as a series of specific historical events, spaces, and places, but rather as a process or a series of psycho-historical processes with a certain number of inescapable features that conspired to make it an effective tool of and for sustained political, cultural, and economic domination in sub-Saharan Africa. Achebe’s novel can be used as a tool that can help to decipher and foreground the psycho-historical processes inherent in what, ultimately, may be called “the psychology of colonialism.”
Commercial broiler production systems based on market initiatives to improve animal welfare beyond minimum legal requirements have emerged in several European countries. A common factor in the ‘higher welfare’ indoor systems is the application of environmental enrichment, with or without natural light, to promote locomotor activity and natural behaviours of the broiler chickens. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of a commercial enrichment programme for fast-growing indoor-housed broiler chickens, with or without natural light entering the broiler house. Enrichment materials were selected in relation to perceived minimal hygiene risk and ease of cleaning in between production cycles. Selected enrichments were a combination of wood shavings bales (1.5 bale/1000 chickens), round metal perches (2.7 m/1000 chickens) and metal chains as pecking objects (1/1000 chickens). Three treatments were studied: control (C) without enrichment and natural light, enriched (E) with enrichments as previously defined but without natural light and enriched plus natural light (EL) with enrichments as previously defined and natural light entrance. The experiment was carried out during five subsequent production cycles on one commercial broiler farm with three identical houses. EL could only be assigned to the middle house that was equipped with roof windows (light entrance area: 3% of floor space). C and E were in the two outer houses (alternated in between production cycles). Behaviour was observed during daytime at days 25 and 39 of age by scan sampling. Lameness, footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and injuries were scored at the same ages, in addition to the response of the chickens to a novel object. Results showed that the treatments only affected broiler behaviour. E flocks showed significantly more resting as compared with EL and C. EL flocks showed significantly more walking, exploration and foraging behaviour as compared with E and C. Thus, broiler activity was highest in the EL treatment and lowest in the E treatment, with the C treatment in between. No treatment effects were found on the other welfare indicators and only a few tendencies for treatment effects were found for the novel object test, with E birds tending to be more reluctant to approach the object as compared with EL and C birds. We concluded that providing environmental enrichment and natural light-stimulated activity and natural behaviours in broiler chickens, whereas providing enrichment only seemed to have the opposite effect as compared with control flocks without enrichment.
The Arctic has claimed much interest in both popular discourse and academic scholarship, most notably concerning the voyages of Sir John Franklin. However, the explorers of the British Navy were not the only representatives of imperial expansion in what is now the Canadian Arctic. During the second half of the nineteenth century, the Church Missionary Society (CMS), the evangelical missionary society of the Church of England, undertook a substantial programme of evangelism throughout the region, not just aiming to convert indigenous people, but also to claim the land for the British empire and establish a strong presence in the region as an integral aspect of the providential expansion of empire. This article contends that the CMS attempted to achieve those aims through the creation of permanent infrastructure which brought the region into the fold of empire in a way that exploration could not, as missionaries used buildings to transform the land and its inhabitants as part of the duty of empire and its agents towards all its inhabitants. In claiming the land for empire, architecture was not just a by-product of occupation but rather a vital and integral agent in securing northern territories for God and empire.
Exploration is a fundamental problem in robotics, and multi-robot systems exploration has been extensively studied in this field. In order to overcome the problem of a non-optimal target being selected in the exploration process, a revised single linkage clustering frontier cell (CFC) algorithm is proposed to calculate the exploration benefit of all available frontier cells. Moreover, there exist unexplored islands for most of the bidding-based multi-robot coordination algorithms in the exploration of unknown environments. To deal with this problem, some rules switched by emotion states are proposed. So, the proposed bidding coordination algorithm with CFC and an emotion switch has a hierarchical architecture. The upper level is modeled as an automaton, which is used to represent emotion status, and the emotion variables decide whether a robot will participate in a bid and explore an unknown area abiding by the walking rules. In the lower level, the robots perform bidding activities with CFC and the walking rules according to the emotion variables. We tested and evaluated our approach by means of experiments both in a simulated environment and with real robots. The experiments results demonstrate that the exploration efficiency is improved, and our algorithm has a greater coverage rate than classic bidding-based coordination algorithms.
We consider a problem where robots are given a set of task locations to visit with coarsely known distances. The robots must find the task ordering that reduces the overall distance to visit the tasks. We propose an abstraction that models the uncertainty in the paths, and a Markov Decision Process-based algorithm that selects paths that reduces the expected distance to visit the tasks. We also describe a distributed coordination algorithm to resolve path conflicts. We have shown that our task selection is optimal, our coordination is deadlock-free, and have experimentally verified our approach in hardware and simulation.
Ambidexterity organization, which is defined as the ability of an organization to simultaneously pursues exploration and exploitation, has received attention by researchers who have examined its beneficial effect on organizational performance and success. This study attempted to examine the positive effect of ambidextrous organization culture (AOC), which is regarded as the core characteristic of ambidextrous organizations by using a multilevel model. Specifically, this study examined the effects of AOC on members’ job performance and the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between AOC and job performance. The results indicated that AOC had a significantly positive relationship with job performance even after controlling various organizational and individual variables. Moreover, we found that psychological capital fully mediated the relationship between AOC and members’ job performance. This study provides theoretical contributions by empirically examining the positive effect and mechanism of AOC. Furthermore, this study offers practical implications in how practitioners can manage their organizational culture, by helping shape the direction of organizational culture management.