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The American administrative state has, of late, been under siege, attacked on two fronts. The war on one front is somewhat parochial – a pitched battle over US constitutional law. It is waged largely by conservative movement lawyers who view the modern administrative state as an affront to the constitutional separation of powers.
The war on the other front has much greater transnational relevance. This second fight pits defenders of modern bureaucratic governance against those who see public administration as hopelessly inefficient, rigid, and unaccountable. This latter group of critics present themselves as more or less comfortable with the constitutionality of the administrative state – and thus claim to raise only technocratic objections.
Cooperative departments and organizations were a ubiquitous but rarely studied aspect of British colonial governance in the twentieth century. The Co-operative College in Britain provided specialized training in colonial cooperation to students from across the British Empire. The cooperative movement was a key part of the emergence of regimes of development in the decades between the 1920s and 1960s, reflecting their emphasis on modular solutions deployed by experts in an increasingly homogenizing ‘developing world’. However, the colonial and post-colonial students at the Co-operative College were also critical of colonialism and capitalism, participating in the anti-colonial internationalist effort to create a more just post-imperial world. As post-colonial governments retained cooperative structures, the former students of the Co-operative College used the movement as a counter-balance to the larger forces of nationalism and neo-colonialism.
Marriages’ dissolution phenomenon had increased in recent years in Tunisia. The impact of divorce on children depends on the interweaving of several factors and is not inevitably pathological. We have noticed in our daily practice a concomitant increase in the number of request for expert opinions concerning children.
Determine the clinical children’s profile of separated parents carried out within the framework of legal expertise.
We carried out a retrospective study in the outpatient child psychiatry ward at Fattouma Bourguiba general hospital in Monastir, Tunisia. Including all the expert reports of children affected by parental separations during a period of two years (2017 to 2019).
56 children were included in our study. The average age were (6.7 years) with a majority of males (58.2%). School failure concerned (24%). In most cases, the request for expertise was made in the context of mistreatment’s suspicion (60.7%), than following the parents’ separation (16.1%). Concerning the clinical picture: a normal psychiatric examination was found in the majority of cases (55.4%), anxiety symptoms concerned (32.1%). Cases of depression, global developmental delay and autism were also found.
According to our study, the vast majority of children presented a normal psychiatric examination. Moreover, a preponderant part of the symptoms seemed to result from educational errors. While parental separation poses risks for children, research shows that these negative effects are not the same for everyone. Several factors can reduce these risks and promote children’s resilience. Thus, first-line psychosocial care should be offered for families and children in seprations’ context.
Hackathons are short design events at which participants collaboratively progress through the entire design process. They pose opportunities for design research, but the existing research is limited, as is the understanding of design activity at hackathons. In our study, we summarize the hackathon design process of 10 interview participants from varying disciplines, levels of experience, and hackathon events. The summarized account reveals a decreased emphasis on the beginning phases of the design process, mainly problem definition, but an increased emphasis on the end, specifically the pitch portion of the event. These differences are mainly due to the limited time frame. We further assess the effect of time limitations at hackathons by comparing hackathons to other instances of design, emphasizing the impact of time constraints on iteration. We conclude our discussion with an exploration of the role expertise has on the design process by comparing the accounts of designers and developers.
This article challenges the assumption that the early modern engineer acted as a reliable agent for colonial authorities. Far from acting as trusted mediators between colony and metropole, experts could exacerbate tensions. The English East India Company knew this, and avoided engineers throughout its early history. This article considers the interplay between authorities in London and their subordinates in Bombay. The company's directors saw engineers as untrustworthy agents who increased expenditure and disrupted the company's system of consultative governance. For much of its early modern history, the company's fortifications and built environments relied on a knowledge network of informal expertise. Examining these experts-in-context reveals how expertise was managed and built environments maintained in colonial settings. When the company did turn to experts in the mid-eighteenth century, it struggled to utilise and incorporate them. This demonstrates that in some colonial contexts experts could be profoundly disruptive.
As jobs become increasingly complex, organizations are challenged with finding effective ways to select and hire successful employees. The high level of uncertainty generally associated with hiring decisions is greater for complex jobs where it is difficult to identify the predictors of good job performance. Intuition research has found expert intuition to be effective in highly uncertain decision environments. However, most employment selection research dismisses the use of intuition and argues that even expert interviewers should not rely on their intuition. To bridge the two research streams, this paper addresses the research question: for complex jobs, can the intuition of expert decision-makers enhance the effectiveness of hiring decisions? The hypotheses were tested via an experimental study design using expert and nonexpert interviewer samples. The results demonstrate that, when recruiting for complex jobs, interviewer expertise does increase the quality of intuitive hiring decisions.
The world responded in many different ways to the coronavirus epidemic. Why is that? Three obvious solutions present themselves: different understandings of the nature of the disease and how to tackle it, the nature of the political system in each nation, the history of how pandemics had been dealt with in the past in each country. Upon inspection, none of these explanations seems to work. The scientific understanding of the disease and its means of spreading were broadly similar in all nations. Only at the margins did unorthodox theories hold sway. Most nations claimed to be following expert advice, but what the experts advised differed. Politicians could pick and choose among the counsels they received. Both democracies and autocracies tried each of the three possible approaches to the pandemic, targeted quarantine, broad lockdown, or a hands-off approach. And nations did not obviously follow the tactics they had used in previous epidemics. The heavy hand of past public health interventions, with the state compelling citizens to follow behavioral prescriptions, was harder to implement today.
In this chapter I bring together the findings of the five case studies to offer answers to the research questions about the distribution of authority in statistical systems. I also outline the implications of my study for our understanding of practices of knowledge production and utilisation in policymaking, as well as the role of experts in contemporary liberal democracy. Finally, I consider directions for future research stemming from my study findings.
This introduction sets the context for my study of the governance of official statistical agencies in Australia, Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and United States of America. It presents the theoretical framework used in the study, based on dramaturgical sociology. The research approach is discussed, including the selection of case study countries, the use of in-depth interviews and the dramaturgical approach to data analysis. An overview of the argument of the book is provided along with a summary of the remaining chapters.
This chapter addresses the topic of training in corrective feedback. The chapter discusses the role and importance of training and also how feedback training can assist feedback provision and processing. To this end, empirical studies on both teacher and student training of feedback and their implications are discussed. This discussion is limited to oral corrective feedback, since much of the research on feedback training concerns oral feedback. Pedagogical implications as well as directions for future investigations are also discussed.
Who decides how official statistics are produced? Do politicians have control or are key decisions left to statisticians in independent statistical agencies? Interviews with statisticians in Australia, Canada, Sweden, the UK and the USA were conducted to get insider perspectives on the nature of decision making in government statistical administration. While the popular adage suggests there are 'lies, damned lies and statistics', this research shows that official statistics in liberal democracies are far from mistruths; they are consistently insulated from direct political interference. Yet, a range of subtle pressures and tensions exist that governments and statisticians must manage. The power over statistics is distributed differently in different countries, and this book explains why. Differences in decision-making powers across countries are the result of shifting pressures politicians and statisticians face to be credible, and the different national contexts that provide distinctive institutional settings for the production of government numbers.
This chapter argues that the weight of teachings in the ICJ varies between works. Some works are cited far more than others. The most-cited writers tend to men from Western countries. The judges frequently justify citations of teachings, by arguing that the teachings of high quality, that the writer is an expert, that the writer holds an official position, or that multiple writers agree. It is plausible to view this as factors that influence the weight of teachings. Explanations for why the judges distinguish between works is that they want to make their opinions authoritative, that they want to save time, and that they want to comply with the ICJ Statute Article 38(1). Finally it is argued that the variations between the weight of teachings shows that authority in international law is established through an informal, collective process.
This chapter shows that different ICJ judges seem to assign different weight to teachings. The judges vary greatly in how often they cite teachings (if they cite them at all), and in how they use teachings when citing them. The chapter places the judges in three categories: those who frequently cite teachings and assign them considerable weight, those who occasionally cite teachings and assign them less weight, and those who never cite teachings. The chapter also suggests factors that can explain the variations, with the best one being the judges’ personal philosophies and styles. Judges who are former academics cite more teachings than others, and non-Western judges cite more teachings than their Western counterparts. These correlations may also contribute to explaining the variations between the judges.
This chapter discusses the weight of teachings in the ICJ generally, drawing the conclusion that teachings have generally low weight in the ICJ. Various patterns in the use of teachings are drawn on to support this conclusion. The most striking pattern is the contrast between majority opinions, which almost never cite teachings, and majority opinions, where many judges cite teachings. An attempt is made to explain this, with the most promising explanation being that this is part of the Court’s institutional culture. The Court’s use of teachings is also compared with the use of judicial decisions and works by the International Law Commission, which are generally assigned more weight than teachings. This is because of teachings do not have the official authority of those sources.
This Chapter introduces the concept of deference and illustrates how it functions in international adjudication. Section A links the concept of ‘deference’ to that of ‘authority’. It explains that ‘authority’ refers to an actor’s ability to induce deference from another actor. Linking deference to authority provides a conceptual framework to expand the analysis of possible reasons for deference, and further explains why different adjudicators may structure deference more or less categorically. The Chapter introduces the concept of ‘second-order reasons’, and examines four accounts of authority based upon differing second-order reasons. It uses this analysis to explore why international adjudicators might defer to domestic decision making authority. Section B examines how theories of authority impact the ‘degrees’ of deference. Some theoretical accounts conceptualise authority as conclusive or suspensive, and thus their application in adjudicative reasoning might prompt categorical approaches to deference. Other approaches to conceptualising authority, by contrast, accommodate more flexible analysis. This conceptual framework informs the empirical evaluation in Part II.
People everywhere acquire high levels of conceptual knowledge about their social and natural worlds, which we refer to as ethnoscientific expertise. Evolutionary explanations for expertise are still widely debated. We analysed ethnographic text records (N = 547) describing ethnoscientific expertise among 55 cultures in the Human Relations Area Files to investigate the mutually compatible roles of collaboration, proprietary knowledge, cultural transmission, honest signalling, and mate provisioning. We found relatively high levels of evidence for collaboration, proprietary knowledge, and cultural transmission, and lower levels of evidence for honest signalling and mate provisioning. In our exploratory analyses, we found that whether expertise involved proprietary vs. transmitted knowledge depended on the domain of expertise. Specifically, medicinal knowledge was positively associated with secretive and specialised knowledge for resolving uncommon and serious problems, i.e. proprietary knowledge. Motor skill-related expertise, such as subsistence and technological skills, was positively associated with broadly competent and generous teachers, i.e. cultural transmission. We also found that collaborative expertise was central to both of these models, and was generally important across different knowledge and skill domains.
Expertise bears a great importance in several realms of human intellectual activity. The topic has been addressed in depth in the model domain of chess, with a central focus in the evaluation of the premises posited from the deliberate practice approach, which advocates for expert performance being dependent on practice. A considerable and consistent body of evidence suggests, however, that deliberate practice alone is unable to explain the individual variability in chess expertise. This chapter addresses this controversy by framing these findings in the more extensive nature versus nurture debate. The chapter also explores the cognitive decline in human intellectual activity, which appears to occur in a lesser extent in the chess domain. Two interrelated factors may be highly protective of the cognitive decline in chess: the level of expertise attained, and the tournament activity.
The problem of public knowledge is rooted in the tension between technocracy and populism. Public knowledge is important to the proper functioning of democracy, but knowledge associated with the public is frequently dismissed and devalued in policy-making contexts. Because encounters between democracy and expertise are a common part of environmental politics and environmental discourse, the problem of public knowledge is endemic to environmental sociology. The first section of this chapter draws on political theory to explore how and why public knowledge is important for democracy. The second section draws on the philosophy of science as well as the broader field of science and technology studies (STS) to explore how and why public knowledge is devalued and dismissed. The last section briefly explores the flaws of participatory strategies that are commonly proposed as solutions to the problem of public knowledge, and concludes by suggesting that public knowledge is less contradictory if we treat “public” as a role rather than a group of people.
There is no consensus on who might be qualified to conduct ethical analysis in the field of health technology assessment (HTA). Is there a specific expertise or skill set for doing this work? The aim of this article is to (i) clarify the concept of ethics expertise and, based on this, (ii) describe and specify the characteristics of ethics expertise in HTA.
Based on the current literature and experiences in conducting ethical analysis in HTA, a group of members of the Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Interest Group on Ethical Issues in HTA critically analyzed the collected information during two face-to-face workshops. On the basis of the analysis, working definitions of “ethics expertise” and “core competencies” of ethics experts in HTA were developed. This paper reports the output of the workshop and subsequent revisions and discussions online among the authors.
Expertise in a domain consists of both explicit and tacit knowledge and is acquired by formal training and social learning. There is a ubiquitous ethical expertise shared by most people in society; nevertheless, some people acquire specialist ethical expertise. To become an ethics expert in the field of HTA, one needs to acquire general knowledge about ethical issues as well as specific knowledge of the ethical domain in HTA. The core competencies of ethics experts in HTA consist of three fundamental elements: knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
The competencies described here can be used by HTA agencies and others involved in HTA to call attention to and strengthen ethical analysis in HTA.