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This chapter explores how late nineteenth-century self-care guides, exercise manuals, and travel handbooks began to integrate Eastern physical and spiritual practices as health advice. It considers how European and American women became increasingly intrigued by and immersed within practices such as meditation, yoga exercises (asana), and breathing methods (pranayama). Tracing connections between gender and empire, the chapter suggests that engagement with Indian yogic philosophies and physical practices offered women alternatives to Western medicine – an increasingly institutional system from which they were often excluded. In a culture where medical and scientific practices increasingly limited women’s participation and sometimes stifled their capabilities and experiences, many women turned to foreign spaces as sites of healing and participated within alternative systems of self-care that encouraged more flexible and intuitive ways of thinking about the body and its relationship to the mind and spiritual practices.
To lay out the argument that exercise impacts neurobiological targets common to both mood and cognitive functioning, and thus more research should be conducted on its use as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for cognitive impairment in late-life depression (LLD).
This narrative review summarizes the literature on cognitive impairment in LLD, describes the structural and functional brain changes and neurochemical changes that are linked to both cognitive impairment and mood disruption, and explains how exercise targets these same neurobiological changes and can thus provide an alternative or adjunctive treatment for cognitive impairment in LLD.
Cognitive impairment is common in LLD and predicts recurrence of depression, poor response to antidepressant treatment, and overall disability. Traditional depression treatment with medication, psychotherapy, or both, is not effective in fully reversing cognitive impairment for most depressed older adults. Physical exercise is an ideal treatment candidate based on evidence that it 1) is an effective treatment for depression, 2) enhances cognitive functioning in normal aging and in other patient populations, and 3) targets many of the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie mood and cognitive functioning. Results of the limited existing clinical trials of exercise for cognitive impairment in depression are mixed but overall support this contention.
Although limited, existing evidence suggests exercise may be a viable alternative or adjunctive treatment to address cognitive impairment in LLD, and thus more research in this area is warranted. Moving forward, additional research is needed in large, diverse samples to translate the growing research findings into clinical practice.
A single high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HFHC) results in elevated postprandial glucose (GLU), triglycerides (TAG) and metabolic load index (MLI; TAG (mg/dl) + GLU (mg/dl)) that contributes to chronic disease risk. While disease risk is higher in older adults (OA) compared to younger adults (YA), the acute effects of exercise on these outcomes in OA is understudied. Twelve YA (age 23.3 ± 3.9 yrs, n = 5 M/7 F) and 12 OA (age 67·7 ± 6.0 yrs, n = 8 M/4 F) visited the laboratory in random order to complete a HFHC with no exercise (NE) or acute exercise (EX) condition. EX was performed 12 hours prior to HFHC at an intensity of 65 % of maximal heart rate to expend 75 % of the kcals consumed in HFHC (Marie Callender’s Chocolate Satin Pie; 12 kcal/kgbw; 57 % fat, 37 % CHO). Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90 minutes, and then every hour until 6 hours post-meal. TAG levels increased to a larger magnitude in OA (Δ∼61 ± 31 %) compared to YA (Δ∼37 ± 34 %, P < 0·001), which were attenuated in EX compared to NE (P < 0·05) independent of age. There was no difference in GLU between OA and YA after the HFM, however, EX had attenuated GLU independent of age (NE: Δ∼21 ± 26 %; EX: Δ∼12 ± 18 %, P = 0·027). MLI was significantly lower after EX compared to NE in OA and YA (P < 0·001). Pre-prandial EX reduced TAG, GLU and MLI post-HFHC independent of age.
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a global health crisis. The gut microbiome critically affects the immune system and some respiratory infections are associated with changes in the gut microbiome, here we evaluated the role of nutritional and lifestyle habits that modulate gut microbiota on COVID-19 outcomes in a longitudinal cohort study that included 200 consecutive patients infected with COVID-19. Of these, 122 cases were mild and 78 were moderate, according to WHO classification. After detailed explanation by a consultant in clinical nutrition, participants responded to a written questionnaire on daily sugar, probiotic and prebiotic intake in food, sleeping hours, exercise duration, and antibiotic prescription, during the past one year before infection. daily consumption of prebiotic-containing foods, less sugar, regular exercise, adequate sleep, and fewer antibiotic prescriptions, led to a milder disease and rapid virus clearance. Additionally, data on these factors were compiled into a single score, the ESSAP score (Exercise, Sugar consumption, Sleeping hours, Antibiotics taken, and Probiotics and Prebiotics administration; 0–11 points), median ESSAP score was 5 for both mild and moderate cases; however, the range was 4–8 in mild cases but 1–6 in moderate (p = 0.001, OR:4.2, 95%CI:1.9-9.1), our results showed a negative correlation between regular consumption of yogurt containing probiotics and disease severity (p = 0.007, OR:1.6, 95%CI:1.1-2.1). Mild COVID-19 disease was associated with 10-20 minutes of daily exercise (p = 0.016), sleeping at least 8 hours daily prescribed antibiotics less than 5 times per year (p = 0.077), ate plenty of prebiotic-containing food.
Cycling is a sport characterised by high training load, and adequate nutrition is essential for training and race performance. With the increased popularity of indoor trainers, cyclists have a unique opportunity to practice and implement key nutritional strategies. This study aimed to assess carbohydrate (CHO) intake of cyclists training or racing in this unique scenario for optimising exercise nutrition. A mixed-methods approach consisting of a multiple-pass self-report food recall and questionnaire was used to determine total CHO intake pre, during and post-training or racing using a stationary trainer and compared with current guidelines for endurance exercise. Sub-analyses were also made for higher ability cyclists (>4 W/kg functional threshold power), races v. non-races and ‘key’ training sessions. Mean CHO intake pre and post-ride was 0·7 (sd 0·6) and 1·0 (sd 0·8) g kg/BM and 39·3 (sd 27·5) g/h during training. CHO intake was not different for races (pre/during/post, P = 0·31, 0·23, 0·18, respectively), ‘key sessions’ (P = 0·26, 0·89, 0·98) or higher ability cyclists (P = 0·26, 0·76, 0·45). The total proportion of cyclists who failed to meet CHO recommendations was higher than those who met guidelines (pre = 79 %, during = 86 %, post = 89 %). Cyclists training or racing indoors do not meet current CHO recommendations for cycling performance. Due to the short and frequently high-intensity nature of some sessions, opportunity for during exercise feeding may be limited or unnecessary.
The objective of this scoping review was to examine the research question: In the adults with or without cardiometabolic risk, what is the availability of literature examining interventions to improve or maintain nutrition and physical activity-related outcomes? Sub-topics included: (1) behaviour counseling or coaching from a dietitian/nutritionist or exercise practitioner, (2) mobile applications to improve nutrition and physical activity and (3) nutritional ergogenic aids.
The current study is a scoping review. A literature search of the Medline Complete, CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and other databases was conducted to identify articles published in the English language from January 2005 until May 2020. Data were synthesised using bubble charts and heat maps.
Out-patient, community and workplace.
Adults with or without cardiometabolic risk factors living in economically developed countries.
Searches resulted in 19 474 unique articles and 170 articles were included in this scoping review, including one guideline, thirty systematic reviews (SR), 134 randomised controlled trials and five non-randomised trials. Mobile applications (n 37) as well as ergogenic aids (n 87) have been addressed in several recent studies, including SR. While primary research has examined the effect of individual-level nutrition and physical activity counseling or coaching from a dietitian/nutritionist and/or exercise practitioner (n 48), interventions provided by these practitioners have not been recently synthesised in SR.
SR of behaviour counseling or coaching provided by a dietitian/nutritionist and/or exercise practitioner are needed and can inform practice for practitioners working with individuals who are healthy or have cardiometabolic risk.
Physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for several physical and mental health conditions. It is well established that people with severe mental illness have increased risk of physical health complications, particularly cardiovascular disease. They are also more likely to be physically inactive, contributing to the elevated cardiovascular and metabolic risks, which are further compounded by antipsychotic medication use. Interventions involving physical activity are a relatively low risk and accessible way of reducing physical health problems and weight in people with severe mental illness. They also have wider benefits for mental health symptoms and quality of life. However, many barriers still exist to the widespread implementation of physical activity interventions in the treatment of severe mental illness. A more concerted effort is needed to facilitate their translation into routine practice and to increase adherence to activity interventions.
Regular physical activity is safe and effective therapy for adults with CHD and is recommended by European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The COVID-19 pandemic poses enormous challenges to healthcare teams and patients when ensuring guideline compliance. We explored the implications of COVID-19 on physical activity levels in adult CHD patients.
Materials and methods:
A data-based questionnaire was distributed to adult CHD patients at a regional tertiary centre from October to November 2020.
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, 96 (79.3%) of 125 respondents reported participating in regular physical activity, with 66 (52.8%) meeting target levels (moderate physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week). Commonest motivations for physical activity were general fitness (53.6%), weight loss (36.0%), and mental health benefits (30.4%). During the pandemic, the proportion that met target levels significantly decreased from 52.8% to 40.8% (p = 0.03). The commonest reason was fear of COVID-19 (28.0%), followed by loss of motivation (23.2%) and gym/fitness centre closure (15.2%).
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted exercise levels of adult CHD patients. Most do not meet recommended physical activity levels, mainly attributable to fear of COVID-19. Even before the pandemic, only half of respondents met physical activity guidelines. Availability of online classes can positively impact exercise levels so could enhance guideline compliance. This insight into health perceptions and behaviours of adult CHD patients may help develop quality improvement initiatives to improve physical activity levels in this population.
The present study examined the effects of different temperatures of protein-containing drink after exercise on subsequent gastric motility and energy intake in healthy young men. Twelve healthy young men completed three, 1-d trials in a random order. In all trials, the subjects ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 80% of maximum heart rate. In exercise + cold drink (2°C) and exercise + hot drink (60°C) trials, the subjects consumed 300 ml of protein-containing drink (0·34 MJ) at 2°C or 60°C over a 5-min period after exercise. In the exercise (i.e. no preload) trial, the subjects sat on a chair for 5 min after exercise. Then, the subjects sat on a chair for 30 min to measure their gastric motility with an ultrasound imaging system in all trials. Thereafter, the subjects consumed a test meal until they felt comfortably full. Energy intake in the exercise + hot drink trial was 14 % and 15 % higher than the exercise (P = 0·046, 95% CI 4·010, 482·538) trial and exercise + cold drink (P = 0·001, 95% CI 160·089, 517·111) trial, respectively. The frequency of the gastric contractions in the exercise + hot drink trial was higher than the exercise (P = 0·023) trial and exercise + cold drink (P = 0·007) trial. The total frequency of gastric contractions was positively related to energy intake (r = 0·386, P = 0·022). These findings demonstrate that consuming protein-containing drink after exercise at 60°C increases energy intake and that this increase may be related to the modulation of the gastric motility.
Exercise capacity is a modifiable factor in patients with CHD that has been related to surgical outcomes in adults. We hypothesised that this was true for children undergoing surgical pulmonary valve replacement; therefore, the relationship of preoperative percent predicted peak oxygen consumption to surgical outcomes as measured by total hospital length of stay was explored.
Single centre retrospective cohort study of patients aged 8–18 years who underwent surgical pulmonary valve replacement. The primary predictor was preoperative percent predicted peak oxygen consumption, and primary outcome was total hospital length of stay. Clinical, imaging, and cardiopulmonary exercise test data were reviewed and compared to total hospital length of stay. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between total hospital length of stay and percent predicted peak oxygen consumption.
Three-hundred and seventy patients undergoing pulmonary valve replacement/conduit change between 2003 and 2017 at Boston Children’s Hospital were identified. Ninety had preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise tests within 6 months of surgery. Exclusion for inadequate exercise data (n = 3) and imaging data (n = 1) left 86 patients for review. Patients with percent predicted peak oxygen consumption ≥ 70% (n = 46, 53%) had shorter total hospital length of stay (4.4 days) than the 40 with percent predicted peak oxygen consumption <70% (5.4 days, p = 0.007). Median percent predicted peak oxygen consumption increased over sequential surgical eras (p < 0.001), but total hospital length of stay did not correlate with surgical era, preoperative left ventricular function, or preoperative right ventricular dilation.
Children undergoing surgical pulmonary valve replacement with better preoperative exercise capacity had shorter total hospital length of stay. Exercise capacity is a potentially modifiable factor prior to and after pulmonary valve replacement. Until more patients systematically undergo cardiopulmonary exercise tests, the full impact of optimisation of exercise capacity will not be known.
Previous research has suggested that curcumin potentially induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle via increasing cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. However, the regulatory mechanisms for this phenomenon remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the mechanism by which curcumin activates cAMP-related signalling pathways that upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration in skeletal muscle.
The effect of curcumin treatment (i.p., 100 mg/kg-BW/d for 28 d) on mitochondrial biogenesis was determined in rats. The effects of curcumin and exercise (swimming for 2 h/d for 3 d) on the cAMP signalling pathway were determined in the absence and presence of phosphodiesterase (PDE) or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors. Mitochondrial respiration, citrate synthase (CS) activity, cAMP content and protein expression of cAMP/PKA signalling molecules were analysed.
Curcumin administration increased cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COX-IV) protein expression, and CS and complex I activity, consistent with the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by curcumin. Mitochondrial respiration was not altered by curcumin treatment. Curcumin and PDE inhibition tended to increase cAMP levels with or without exercise. In addition, exercise increased the phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase 4A (PDE4A), whereas curcumin treatment strongly inhibited PDE4A phosphorylation regardless of exercise. Furthermore, curcumin promoted AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and PPAR gamma coactivator (PGC-1α) deacetylation. Inhibition of PKA abolished the phosphorylation of AMPK.
The present results suggest that curcumin increases cAMP levels via inhibition of PDE4A phosphorylation, which induces mitochondrial biogenesis through a cAMP/PKA/AMPK signalling pathway. Our data also suggest the possibility that curcumin utilises a regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial biogenesis that is distinct from the exercise-induced mechanism in skeletal muscle.
In most trials and systematic reviews that evaluate exercise-based interventions in reducing depressive symptoms, it is difficult to separate treatment from prevention.
To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise-based interventions in reducing depressive symptoms in people without clinical depression.
We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, WOS, SPORTDiscus, CENTRAL, OpenGrey and other sources up to 25 May 2020. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared exclusively exercise-based interventions with control groups, enrolling participants without clinical depression, as measured using validated instruments, and whose outcome was reduction of depressive symptoms and/or incidence of new cases of people with depression. Pooled standardised mean differences (SMDs) were calculated using random-effect models (registration at PROSPERO: CRD42017055726).
A total of 14 RCTs (18 comparisons) evaluated 1737 adults without clinical depression from eight countries and four continents. The pooled SMD was −0.34 (95% CI −0.51 to −0.17; P < 0.001) and sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of this result. We found no statistical evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 54%; 95% CI 22–73%). Only two RCTs had an overall low risk of bias and three had long-term follow-up. Multivariate meta-regression found that a larger sample size, country (Asia) and selective prevention (i.e. people exposed to risk factors for depression) were associated with lower effectiveness, although only sample size remained significant when adjustment for multiple tests was considered. According to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation tool, the quality of evidence was low.
Exercise-based interventions have a small effect on the reduction of depressive symptoms in people without clinical depression. It could be an alternative to or complement psychological programmes, although further higher-quality trials with larger samples and long-term follow-up are needed.
To investigate the role of potential shared mediators in the association of TV viewing and frequency of ultra-processed food consumption with anxiety-induced sleep disturbance.
Data from the Adolescent School-Based Health Survey, a Brazilian nationally representative survey of ninth-grade adolescents conducted in 2015, were used.
99 791 adolescents (52 015 girls) with a mean age of 14·3 years (range 11–19) participated. All variables were collected through a self-reported questionnaire based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey. Anxiety-induced sleep disturbance was the outcome. Over 4 h/d of TV viewing and daily consumption of ultra-processed foods were the exposures. Body satisfaction, loneliness, self-rated health and eating while watching TV or studying were mediators. Age, ethnicity, food insecurity, type of city (capital or interior), country region and physical activity were covariates. Logistic regression and mediation models (Karlsson–Holm–Breen method) assessed associations.
Both daily ultra-processed food consumption (boys: OR 1·48, 95 % CI 1·30, 1·70; girls: OR 1·46, 95 % CI 1·34, 1·60) and TV viewing (boys: OR 1 24, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·43; girls: OR 1·09, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·19) were associated with higher odds for anxiety-induced sleep disturbance. Loneliness and eating while watching TV or studying (only among girls) consistently mediated the association of both daily ultra-processed food consumption (loneliness: boys 17·4 %, girls 23·4 %; eat while watching TV or studying: girls 6·8 %) and TV viewing (loneliness: boys 22·9 %, girls 45·8 %; eat while watching TV or studying: boys 6·7 %, girls 17·9 %) with anxiety-induced sleep disturbance.
Daily ultra-processed food consumption and TV viewing share mediators and can act in synergic mechanisms in the association with anxiety-induced sleep disturbance. Therefore, future interventions should focus in the reduction of both behaviours in combination.
Energy deficit is common during prolonged periods of strenuous physical activity and limited sleep, but the extent to which appetite suppression contributes is unclear. The aim of this randomised crossover study was to determine the effects of energy balance on appetite and physiological mediators of appetite during a 72-h period of high physical activity energy expenditure (about 9·6 MJ/d (2300 kcal/d)) and limited sleep designed to simulate military operations (SUSOPS). Ten men consumed an energy-balanced diet while sedentary for 1 d (REST) followed by energy-balanced (BAL) and energy-deficient (DEF) controlled diets during SUSOPS. Appetite ratings, gastric emptying time (GET) and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations were measured. Energy balance was positive during BAL (18 (sd 20) %) and negative during DEF (–43 (sd 9) %). Relative to REST, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption ratings were all higher during DEF (26 (sd 40) %, 56 (sd 71) %, 28 (sd 34) %, respectively) and lower during BAL (–55 (sd 25) %, −52 (sd 27) %, −54 (sd 21) %, respectively; Pcondition < 0·05). Fullness ratings did not differ from REST during DEF, but were 65 (sd 61) % higher during BAL (Pcondition < 0·05). Regression analyses predicted hunger and prospective consumption would be reduced and fullness increased if energy balance was maintained during SUSOPS, and energy deficits of ≥25 % would be required to elicit increases in appetite. Between-condition differences in GET and appetite-mediating hormones identified slowed gastric emptying, increased anorexigenic hormone concentrations and decreased fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations as potential mechanisms of appetite suppression. Findings suggest that physiological responses that suppress appetite may deter energy balance from being achieved during prolonged periods of strenuous activity and limited sleep.
Loneliness and physical activity are important targets for research into the impact of COVID-19 because they have established links with mental health, could be exacerbated by social distancing policies, and are potentially modifiable. In this study, we aimed to identify whether loneliness and physical activity were associated with worse mental health during a period of mandatory social distancing in the UK.
Population-based observational cohort study.
Mental health data collected online during COVID-19 from an existing sample of adults aged 50 and over taking part in a longitudinal study of aging. All had comparable annual data collected between 2015 and 2019.
Three-thousand two-hundred and eighty-one participants aged 50 and over.
Trajectories of depression (measured by PHQ-9) and anxiety (measured by GAD-7) between 2015 and 2020 were analyzed with respect to loneliness, physical activity levels, and a number of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using zero-inflated negative binomial regression.
In 2020, PHQ-9 score for loneliness, adjusted for covariates, was 3.23 (95% CI: 3.01–3.44), an increase of around 1 point on all previous years in this group and 2 points higher than people not rated lonely, whose score did not change in 2020 (1.22, 95% CI: 1.12–1.32). PHQ-9 was 2.60 (95% CI: 2.43–2.78) in people with decreased physical activity, an increase of .5 on previous years. In contrast, PHQ-9 in 2020 for people whose physical activity had not decreased was 1.66, 95% CI: 1.56−1.75, similar to previous years. A similar relationship was observed for GAD-7 though the absolute burden of symptoms lower.
After accounting for pre-COVID-19 trends, we show that experiencing loneliness and decreased physical activity are risk factors for worsening mental health during the pandemic. Our findings highlight the need to examine policies which target these potentially modifiable risk factors.
Despite improving survival rates, people with advanced cancer face several physical and psychosocial concerns. Leisure-time physical activity (LPA) has been found to be beneficial after cancer diagnosis, but little is known about the current state of research exploring LPA in advanced cancer. Our objectives were to (a) map the literature examining LPA in people with advanced cancer, (b) report on the terms used to describe the advanced cancer population within the literature, and (c) examine how the concept of LPA is operationalized within the literature.
Our scoping review followed Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. We performed a search of 11 electronic databases and supplementary sources (February 2018; database search updated January 2020). Two reviewers independently reviewed and selected articles according to the inclusion criteria: English-language journal articles on original primary research studies exploring LPA in adults diagnosed with advanced cancer. Descriptive and thematic analyses were performed.
Ninety-two articles met our criteria. Most included studies were published in the last decade (80%) and used quantitative methods (77%). Many study populations included mixed (40%), breast (21%), or lung (17%) cancers. Stages 3–4 or metastatic disease were frequently indicated to describe study populations (77%). Several studies (68%) described LPA programs or interventions. Of these, 78% involved structured aerobic/resistance exercise, while 16% explored other LPA types.
Significance of results
This review demonstrates a recent surge in research exploring LPA in advanced cancer, particularly studies examining exercise interventions with traditional quantitative methods. There remains insufficient knowledge about patient experiences and perceptions toward LPA. Moreover, little is known about other leisure activities (e.g., Tai Chi, dance, and sports) for this population. To optimize the benefits of LPA in people with advanced cancer, research is needed to address the gaps in the current literature and to develop personalized, evidence-based supportive care strategies in cancer care.
P ingestion has been found to alter energy balance, while regular physical exercise (E) was reported to be associated with energy compensation. However, it is not clear whether dietary P would affect energy compensation following structured E. Two experiments were performed, low P (LP) (0·1, 0·2 and 0·3 %P) and high P (HP) (0·3 , 0·6 and 1·2 %P) diets. In each experiment, male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 8), in which a sedentary or a moderate-intensity exercise routine (30 min 5 d a week) was implemented. Energy intake (EI); efficiency and stores; body measures and total energy expenditure (TEEx) were monitored for 6 weeks. In the LP experiment, EI and weight gain were the lowest in the 0·1 and 0·2 %P as compared with the 0·3 %P. In the HP experiment, EI was highest in the high P (0·6 and 1·2 %P) groups, while weight gain was reduced. In both experiments, exercise was able to reduce body fat accumulation and to maintain a higher % lean body mass. In the LP diets experiment, the similarity in TEEx between the sedentary and exercising groups suggests the probability of a reduction in normal daily activities, which indicates the presence of compensation for the energy expended during exercise by a subsequent reduction in EE. In contrast, the elevated TEEx in the HP exercising groups (0·6 and 1·2 %P) argue against the presence of energy compensation. In conclusion, high dietary P decreases the body’s capability to compensate for the energy deficit induced by E, consequently maintaining an elevated TEEx.
The aim of this study is to present the engagement of adult Poles in physical activity (PA) before and during the coronavirus pandemic, taking into consideration: frequency, duration, and types of the activity, depending on the gender and age of the participants.
The study was conducted using an online survey questionnaire. A total of 688 residents of Poland aged 18 to 58 (28.61 ± 9.5) y participated in the study.
A statistically significant decrease in the frequency of PA was noted in the group of men (P = 0.0001) and in the age group of 39 to 58 y old. The analysis of the duration of a single PA before and during the pandemic has shown a statistically significant reduction in the workout time among both men and women and across all age groups (P = 0.05). There was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of women undertaking flexibility exercises, eg, yoga (P = 0.000), as well as a decrease in marching and walks (P = 0.003). Men significantly less frequently did strength exercises (P = 0.002).
During the pandemic, there was a statistically significant decrease in the frequency and duration of PA. The preferences of the participants as to the type of PA undertaken changed as well.
Implementing disaster exercises in different parts of the health system is one of the important steps in providing and developing disaster risk management plans. Considering the importance of promoting health system preparedness through exercise, the present study aimed to identify and explain necessary and original components for successful implementation of preparedness exercises of the health-care system in disaster.
The study was a qualitative content analysis. Data were collected by purposeful sampling through in-depth and semi-structured individual interviews with 25 health professionals in disaster. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the data, which extracted the initial codes after performing the recorded interviews on paper and immersing them in the data analysis.
The data analysis resulted in the production of 100 initial codes, 14 subcategories, 6 main categories of “coordination and information management,” “standards and indicators,” “conduction and control of the process,” “logistic management and supplies,” “management of treatment operation,” and “management of health operation,” under the original theme of “implementation of exercise.”
The findings of this study can greatly increase the attention of senior managers to preparedness in all areas of the health system, especially managers of prehospitals and hospitals who are the forefront of the response to the disaster. The findings of this study can be considered as a guideline for the implementation of principle and standardized health system preparedness exercises.
Dietary protein is a pre-requisite for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass; stimulating increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS), via essential amino acids (EAA), and attenuating muscle protein breakdown, via insulin. Muscles are receptive to the anabolic effects of dietary protein, and in particular the EAA leucine, for only a short period (i.e. about 2–3 h) in the rested state. Thereafter, MPS exhibits tachyphylaxis despite continued EAA availability and sustained mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling. Other notable characteristics of this ‘muscle full’ phenomenon include: (i) it cannot be overcome by proximal intake of additional nutrient signals/substrates regulating MPS; meaning a refractory period exists before a next stimulation is possible, (ii) it is refractory to pharmacological/nutraceutical enhancement of muscle blood flow and thus is not induced by muscle hypo-perfusion, (iii) it manifests independently of whether protein intake occurs in a bolus or intermittent feeding pattern, and (iv) it does not appear to be dependent on protein dose per se. Instead, the main factor associated with altering muscle full is physical activity. For instance, when coupled to protein intake, resistance exercise delays the muscle full set-point to permit additional use of available EAA for MPS to promote muscle remodelling/growth. In contrast, ageing is associated with blunted MPS responses to protein/exercise (anabolic resistance), while physical inactivity (e.g. immobilisation) induces a premature muscle full, promoting muscle atrophy. It is crucial that in catabolic scenarios, anabolic strategies are sought to mitigate muscle decline. This review highlights regulatory protein turnover interactions by dietary protein, exercise, ageing and physical inactivity.