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Rabindranath Tagore’s essay on world literature, Viśvasāhitya (1907), is important not just because of the political and historical circumstances of its production, but because it advocates a method of ‘doing’ world literature that potentially frees us from the conundrums besetting the methods used so far if scholars writing on the essay were to read it for what it actually says. In this paper, the Bengali text of this essay is closely interrogated to arrive at the surprising conclusion that the idea of world literature that he arrives at in this essay, in complete contrast to Goethe’s, is not an addition of the national literatures of the world – that, he says, is a very provincial way of looking at the question. Instead, he posits here a philosophical notion related to an understanding of the self and the other which is predicated upon his inheritance of, and interest in, both Upanishadic high theory as well as popular folk culture. His concept (or anti-concept) was premised upon his advice to find the world in the self, and was one that may, perhaps, be mined for its emphasis on particularity and attention to the individual as it exists in relation to the whole.
This essay develops a literary history of the concept “world” in the early modern period, suggesting that particular literary strategies—speculation, scalar juxtaposition, allegory, philology, and lexical play—became integral to imagining, naming, and shaping a particular vision of “world” across a range of media. Through a comparative study of European and South Asian examples, it shows how worldmaking literature in the early modern period can be characterized by “cartographic poesis,” that is, an intent to shape and represent the idea “world,” to bring it into being as a coherent concept and category. It further explores words for “world” and their significations across a range of languages and cultural contexts, highlighting how literature may be a crucial resource for envisioning ideas of global totality.
Recent aDNA analyses demonstrate that the centuries surrounding the arrival of the Beaker Complex in Britain witnessed a massive turnover in the genetic make-up of the island's population. The genetic data provide information both on the individuals sampled and the ancestral populations from which they derive. Here, the authors consider the archaeological implications of this genetic turnover and propose two hypotheses—Beaker Colonisation and Steppe Drift—reflecting critical differences in conceptualisations of the relationship between objects and genes. These hypotheses establish key directions for future research designed to investigate the underlying social processes involved and raise questions for wider interpretations of population change detected through aDNA analysis.
Mailer’s first novel, The Naked and the Dead, was an international bestseller, translated into numerous languages. Thus, from the very start of his career, Mailer has had a notable presence outside of America, and this chapter covers the criticism, reception, and translation of his works across the globe, from China to Slovenia to Russia to France and beyond.
This systematic review estimates the pooled prevalence (PP) of oppositional defiant disorders (ODD) among 5-to-18-year-old YP living in Europe, based on prevalence rates established in the last five years (LFY).
Trends of prevalence rates across countries, gender and level of education were analysed. The random effects pooled prevalence rate (REPPR) for ODD was calculated.
A search strategy was conducted on three databases. Studies were also identified from reference lists and grey literature. Eligible studies were evaluated for reliability, validity, bias, and the REPPR for ODD was calculated.
The European REPPR for ODD is calculated at 1.9% (Figure 1). The REPPR among males is 4.8%, whereas the rate among females is 2.7% (95% CI: 0.7%- 1.4%). The prevalence rate of ODD among primary school children is 1.8 times higher than the prevalence of secondary school children (Figure 2).
Gender, culture and socioeconomic diagnostic inequality may contribute to prevalence differences across countries. Routine screening and addressing these aspects may facilitate early intervention.
Brain research in Europe is a rapidly evolving field, and increasingly at the forefront of science. Although considerable amounts of knowledge and innovative approaches have been generated, the translation into new health interventions is hindered by excessive fragmentation. Effective and efficient collaboration and cooperation among the various initiatives are often identified as a key success factor to achieve brain research full impact. EBRA fully responds to these needs by bringing together the various stakeholders and major brain research initiatives, at European level and beyond. EBRA creates the conditions for real and effective cross fertilisation, dialogue, building consensus and exploiting research potential. On the operational level, EBRA facilitates the emergence of research projects in specific areas in active clusters. A cluster is understood as a research community that can be directed towards basic research, clinical research and/or methodological approaches under a common topic and disease area within brain research. EBRA support clusters to: 1. Consolidate or expand further the research community expand their community, 2. Engage with policy makers and other relevant stakeholders, 3. Build consensus on various issues (research priorities, research roadmap, data sharing, etc.), 4. Promote links with existing research infrastructures, 5. Increase the visibility of the research community through communication and dissemination activities, 6. Coordinate the development of position/consensus papers, white papers, guidelines, meeting reports and/or other cluster outcomes. EBRA currently has 6 existing clusters: EPICLUSTER, Prevention of Severe Mental Disorders (PSMD)-cluster, TRISOMY21-cluster, BRAINFOOD-cluster., PREMOS-cluster and ECIB-cluster.
This systematic review and meta-analysis fills a lacuna in the existing literature on the prevalence of mental disorders (MD) among young people (YP) in Europe.
This study sets out to estimate the pooled prevalence (PP) of ASD, ADHD, Conduct Disorder (CD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Anxiety Disorder (AD), Depressive Disorder
(DD), Eating Disorder (ED), Substance Use Disorders (SUD) and the PP of any of these MD, among 5-to-18-year-old YP living in Europe, based on prevalence rates established in the last five years (LFY).
A search strategy was created following the SPIDER model and conducted on three databases. Studies were also identified from reference lists and grey literature. Eligible studies were evaluated for bias. Trends of prevalence rates across countries, gender and level of education were analysed. The random effects pooled prevalence rate (REPPR) for each MD and for any MD was calculated.
The European REPPR for any mental disorder among YP is 15.5%, translating to almost 1 in 5 YP. ADs are the most common group of MDs with a REPPR of 7.9%, followed by ADHD, ODD, MDD and CD, with REPPR of 2.9%, 1.9%, 1.7% and 1.5% respectively.
A range of challenges towards good mental health are portrayed, including diagnostic limitations, poor awareness on MD, and socioeconomic inequality. It is recommended that these challenges are tackled, and routine screening and early intervention services are developed to improve early identification and prompt treatment. Achieving these goals may positively impact individuals and societies at large, both now and in the future.
We conducted the first detailed mineral magnetic investigation of more than nine loess–paleosol couplets of the composite Titel-Stari Slankamen loess section in Serbia, which provides one of the longest and most complete terrestrial record of paleoclimatic changes in Europe since ~1.0 Ma. The results show that the ferrimagnetic mineral assemblage of the loess units is dominated by partially oxidized multidomain (MD) and pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite; however, with an increasing degree of pedogenesis, the eolian contribution is gradually masked by pedogenic superparamagnetic(SP) and single-domain (SD) ferrimagnets (mainly maghemite). The overall consistency of ferrimagnetic grain-size parameters indicates an absence of dissolution of the fine-grained ferrimagnetic fraction despite changes in climate regime over the past 1.0 Ma. The variations of normalized dJ/dT@120K and normalized χheating@530°C reflect a long-term stepwise increase in aridity during glacials with a major step at ~0.6–0.5 Ma, over the last 1.0 Ma. Overall, the results provide an improved basis for the future use of the magnetic properties of Serbian loess deposits for paleoclimatic reconstruction.
This systematic review estimates the pooled prevalence (PP) of depressive disorders (DD) among 5-to-18-year-old YP living in Europe, based on prevalence rates established in the last five years (LFY).
Trends of prevalence rates across countries, gender and level of education were analysed. The random effects pooled prevalence rate (REPPR) for DD was calculated.
A search strategy was conducted on three databases. Studies were also identified from reference lists and grey literature. Eligible studies were evaluated for reliability, validity, bias, and the REPPR for DD was calculated.
The European REPPR for DD is calculated at 2.0% (95%CI: 1.0%-4.0%). (Figure 1). The REPPR for each depressive disorder is shown in Figure 1. The prevalence among secondary school children is 4.2 times higher than that among primary school children.
Routine screening and early intervention strategies for eating disorders may improve the outcome of young people with these problems.
This systematic review estimates the pooled prevalence (PP) of anxiety disorders (ADD) among 5-to-18-year-old YP living in Europe, based on prevalence rates established in the last five years (LFY).
Trends of prevalence rates across countries, gender and level of education were analysed. The random effects pooled prevalence rate (REPPR) for AD was calculated.
A search strategy was conducted on three databases. Studies were also identified from reference lists and grey literature. Eligible studies were evaluated for reliability, validity, bias, and the REPPR for AD was calculated.
The European REPPR for AD is calculated at 7.9% (Figure 1). The REPPR for each anxiety disorder is shown in Figure 2.
Based on the results in this systematic review, AD are the most prevalent mental disorders among young people in Europe. Early diagnostic and intervention strategies for AD may improve the mental health and wellbeing among young people.
The discovery of previously unknown chocolate flint outcrops in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland (only the second known area after that in the Holy Cross Mountains) has undermined our seemingly solid knowledge of the prehistoric economy, which is based on the distribution pattern of this important raw material. The authors present new interdisciplinary research focused on the prehistoric mining of chocolate flint in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, the distribution of chocolate flint artefacts within the Upland and beyond, and methods to distinguish this material from the Holy Cross Mountains chocolate flint.
This chapter traces the decline of the traditional jury across the criminal justice systems in Europe and argues the case for a hybrid jury to take its place. The chapter contrasts common-law and civil-law systems and considers why the jury has been a remarkably enduring institution across common-law systems but has been less successful in being transplanted onto continental European soil. The chapter also identifies certain pressures in common-law systems that have led to calls for the jury to be made more accountable. The chapter then argues that, against the background of a growing convergence between procedural systems, a case can be made for adopting a modern hybrid jury across Europe that retains the key feature of the traditional jury, namely that laypersons decide the verdict, but combines this with the need for the jury to provide some justification for its verdict.
This publication explores the interactions between the inhabitants of early medieval England and their contemporaries in continental Europe. Starting with a brief excursus on previous treatments of the topic, the discussion then focuses on Anglo-Saxon geographical perceptions and representations of Europe and of Britain's place in it, before moving on to explore relations with Rome, dynasties and diplomacy, religious missions and monasticism, travel, trade and warfare. This Element demonstrates that the Anglo-Saxons' relations with the continent had a major impact on the shaping of their political, economic, religious and cultural life.
Innumeracy, that is, the inability to deal with numbers and provide correct estimates about political issues, is reported to be widespread among the public. Yet, despite the recognition that a conspiracy mindset is an increasingly common phenomenon in Western democracies, this has not been considered as a potential correlate of innumeracy. Using data from an online sample of respondents across 10 European countries, we show that those with a higher propensity to hold a conspiracy worldview tend to overestimate the actual share of the immigrant population living in their own country. This association holds true when accounting for country heterogeneity and other cognitive, affective and socio-demographic factors. Employing a comparative design and refined measurements, the article contributes to our understanding of how a conspiracy mentality may influence perceptions of relevant political facts, questioning basic processes of democratic accountability.
Chapter 4 traces the origins of the global environmental movement in the nineteenth century. It discusses the emergence of transnational environmental networks and the first international NGOs. It examines the first international efforts at environmental protection, mainly for managing shared resources and colonial conservation projects. It then traces the first failed attempts to establish an international environmental agenda, from the 1913 Berne Conference to the League of Nations.
The European financial supervisory architecture is based on a sectoral model with separate authorities for banking, insurance, and securities and markets. New developments in the European financial sector make this sectoral structure increasingly out of date. To deal with these challenges, the EU should commit to a Twin Peaks model as a long-term vision for supervision. The first peak would conduct prudential supervision, focusing on the health and soundness of financial firms. As these financial firms have become increasingly interwoven, the vision of integrated cross-sector prudential supervision is increasingly compelling, even though legal obstacles suggest that this cannot be implemented at the European level in the near term. The second peak would be a strong markets and conduct-of-business supervisor. This supervisor would focus solely on the proper functioning of markets, and the fair treatment of consumers. This Twin Peaks model should guide Europe’s efforts to deal with current challenges.
This chapter describes the experiences with the Twin Peaks framework in the Netherlands, based on various examples from Dutch practice. Based on this analysis, the chapter identifies lessons and best practices for the governance of financial supervision in a national context and from a European perspective.
This chapter evaluates the first ten years of the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs), examines the Review of the European System of Financial Supervision (ESFS) and assesses the accomplishments of the ESFS. The chapter concludes by suggesting that it is difficult to argue that the EU has come closer to a Twin Peaks supervisory model. The creation of the SSM was a big step in that direction, but the ESAs go more towards strengthening functional supervision, at different speeds.
The Eurasian Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus is a large Palearctic, Indohimalayan and Afrotropical Old-World vulture. The species’ range is vast, encompassing territories from the Pyrenees to the Himalayas. We reviewed and analysed a long-term data set for Griffon Vulture in the Balkans to estimate the change in its population size and range between 1980 and 2019. After a large historical decline, the Griffon Vulture population slightly increased in the last 39 years (λ = 1.02) and reached 445–565 pairs in 2019. We recorded a gradual increase of Griffon Vulture subpopulations in Serbia (λ = 1.08 ± 0.003), Bulgaria (λ = 1.08 ± 0.003) and Croatia (λ = 1.05 ± 0.005) and steep to a moderate decline of the species subpopulations in Greece (λ = 0.88 ± 0.005) and North Macedonia (λ = 0.94 ± 0.01). However, species range contracted to half of its former range in the same period. It occurred in 42 UTM squares in the 1980–1990 period and only 20 UTM squares between 2011 and 2019 and concentrated into three source subpopulations in Bulgaria, Serbia, and Croatia. Following reintroductions of the Griffon Vulture in Bulgaria, new colonies were formed at three novel localities after 2010. Regular movements of individuals between the different subpopulations exist nowadays. Therefore, preservation of both current and former core areas used for breeding and roosting is essential for species conservation in the region. However, the Griffon Vulture still faces severe threats and risk of local extinction. Various hazards such as poisoning, collision with energy infrastructure, disturbance and habitat alteration are depleting the status of the Balkan population and its full recovery. Further studies should analyse age-specific survival and mortality, recruitment, genetic relatedness, spatial use to inform the viability of this population in the future.
Scholars have long debated whether populism harms or improves the quality of democracy. This article contributes to this debate by focusing on the impact of populist parties in government. In particular, it inquires: (1) whether populists in government are more likely than non-populists to negatively affect the quality of democracies; (2) whether the role of populists in government matters; and (3) which type of populism is expected to negatively affect the quality of liberal-democratic regimes. The results find strong evidence that the role of populists in government affects several qualities of democracy. While robust, the findings related to (2) are less clear-cut than those pertaining to (1). Finally, regardless of their role in government, different types of populism have different impacts on the qualities of democracy. The results show that exclusionary populist parties in government tend to have more of a negative impact than other forms of populism.