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In most rapidly ageing industrialised countries, ageing problems have become an important social issue. In Japan, owing to the rapidly ageing population, the government has been intervening in both the demand side and supply side of labour to increase employment of older adults. This study examines labour supply responses to the increasing pension eligibility age and labour demand responses to company expansion and the abolition of the employee selection mechanism. This study is based on Japanese longitudinal survey data (Keio Household Panel Survey) from 2008 to 2018. Since employment law revisions and social security revisions are inextricably linked, one way to examine the effect of revisions to both simultaneously is to investigate them by cohort. The difference-in-difference model was used to compare revision-affected cohorts born between April 1953 and January 1956 and unaffected cohorts born between April 1949 and March 1953. It was found that the revisions had almost no impact on the employment of older adults and their receipt of pensions. However, they did have significant positive effects on job transfers and resignations. Hence, although the system was modified, it also gave companies the option of placing older adults in associated companies and of retaining some routes for older adults to retire, much as before the revisions.
This paper studies the impact of immigration on native labor market outcomes in South Korea. We exploit the variation in immigration flows in an education-experience cell and find that, on average, immigration has no harmful effect on the wages or employment of native workers. However, there is a great heterogeneity of wage effects across education groups: high school dropouts suffer from the adverse effects, whereas the effects for college graduates are positive. We find the potential explanation for these differential effects in the suggestive evidence on the degree of substitution. Specifically, we examine the similarity of occupational distribution between natives and immigrants and assimilation patterns for immigrants.
Employers and governments are interested in the use of serological (antibody) testing to allow people to return to work before there is a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. We articulate the preconditions needed for the implementation of antibody testing, including the role of the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.
The recession of the 1970s saw the advent of financialised capitalism and a renewed focus on cost containment in health care. At the same time, new identity politics had displaced the old politics of distribution associated with the welfare state. The political contraction of the welfare state, together with the spread of ‘precarity’ in employment via zero-hours contracts, and the undermining of work conditions, sick pay and pensions have been facilitated by a recasting of personal responsibility. Strong flows of biological, psychological, social, cultural, spatial, symbolic and, especially, material asset flows are conducive to good health and longevity, while weak flows are associated with poor health and premature death. Ideological assaults on the welfare state have been major contributors to growing material and social inequalities. Financial capitalism has witnessed an accelerating rate of mental as well as physical health problems in line with the fracturing of society. The period 1960–2010 set the scene for what many at the time of writing (2020) see as a severe crisis in welfare care.
This chapter explores the prevalence of gender discrimination in the technology sector. It examines why there is such widespread sex discrimination in this field, providing several markers that explain its occurrence, and it looks at specific incidents where harassment has occurred. This chapter proposes a number of different avenues that could be explored to help resolve this pervasive problem, discussing several ways to begin recognizing and addressing these abusive workplace environments. While not exhaustive, these suggestions provide several possible solutions to the present problem of hostile work environments in the technology industry. This chapter also explores the very important issue of sexual assault in the technology sector. And, this chapter briefly looks at how customers can be victimized by the existing culture in this industry. It further explores the potential liability companies and employers are exposed to in the face of this situation.
This book has focused on the primary ways that we often think about the employment relationship in the virtual context: the definition of who is an employee, the way workers organize together in an effort to negotiate with an employer, and some of the more recent issues of workplace harassment that have come to light. Similarly, this text has examined the more basic questions with respect to the litigation of technology-sector workplace claims –coverage, pleading, and aggregation.
This chapter identifies the need for more cooperation between workers and management in light of the steep national decline in unionization. It examines how the lack of formal collective bargaining has directly impacted workers in the technology sector. It further explores the nontraditional efforts at worker organization, including the Freelancer’s Union, Working America, and the Uber Guild. This chapter also looks at workplace participation groups and discusses their role in the employment setting and explains the potential advantages and disadvantages of quasi-unions in the technology sector, exploring how the alt-labor strategy can fit within the contours of the modern economy. It concludes by examining what quasi-unions should look like in the modern economy and it describes the three primary foms such groups could assume.
This chapter sets forth the guidelines for systemic litigation. This chapter examines the Supreme Court’s decision Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Dukes, explaining how the Court has redefined the standard for commonality. Next, this chapter examines the Fair Labor Standards Act – which creates the federal requirements for wage/hour claims. This chapter then examines the federal district court decision in O’Connor v. Uber, which permitted the aggregation of a class on the worker classification issue. This chapter further examines the potential harm of the O’Connor analysis and the need for more clarity in the technology sector. This chapter proposes a framework for analyzing whether class action claims should be permitted to proceed in technology-based cases. Finally, this chapter explores how Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23(c)(4) – issue class certification – can impact the analysis of class action cases.
By examining some of the more critical and emerging issues facing this industry – defining employment, litigating claims, aggregating cases, and preventing harassment – this book takes on some of the more high-profile instances where the law has not kept pace in this growing area of virtual work.
Few studies have reported real-life data on socio-economic functioning in patients with bipolar disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.
We used Danish nation-wide population-based longitudinal register linkage to investigate socio-economic functioning in 19 955 patients with bipolar disorder, their 13 923 siblings and 20 sex, age and calendar-matched control individuals from the general population. Follow-up was from 1995 to 2017.
Patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder had lower odds of having achieved the highest educational level [OR 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–0.77)], being employed [OR 0.16 (95% CI 0.159–0.168)], having achieved the 80% highest quartile of income [OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.32–0.35)], cohabitating [OR 0.44 (95% CI 0.43–0.46)] and being married [OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.52–0.55)] at first contact to hospital psychiatry as inpatient or outpatient compared with control individuals from the general population. Similarly, siblings to patients with bipolar disorder had a lower functioning within all five socio-economic areas than control individuals. Furthermore, patients and partly siblings showed substantially decreased ability to enhance their socio-economic functioning during the 23 years follow-up compared to controls.
Socio-economic functioning is substantially decreased in patients with bipolar disorder and their siblings and does not improve during long-term follow-up after the initial hospital contact, highlighting a severe and overlooked treatment gap.
Raising employment has been at the heart of EU strategies for over twenty years. Social investment, by now a widely debated topic in the comparative welfare state literature, has been suggested as a way to pursue this. However, there are only a couple of systematic comparative analyses that focus on the employment outcomes associated with social investment. Analyses of the interdependence of these policies with regard to their outcomes are even more scarce. We empirically analyse the extent to which variation in employment rates within 26 OECD countries over the period 1990-2010 can be explained by effort on five social investment policies. We additionally explore the role of policy and institutional complementarities. Using time-series cross-section analyses we find robust evidence for a positive association between effort on ALMPs and employment rates. For other policies we obtain mixed results. ALMPs are the only policies for which we observe signs of policy interdependence, which point at diminishing marginal returns. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates that the interdependence of social investment policies varies across welfare state regimes. Together, this indicates that the employment outcomes of social investment policies are also contingent on the broader framework of welfare state policies and institutions.
This is a systematic review of systematic reviews of secondary health conditions, health promotion interventions, and employment in people with intellectual disabilities. Articles were included if they reported a systematic review of health and employment, secondary health conditions, and health promotion interventions for people with intellectual disabilities. The methodological quality of the included reviews was reviewed using the A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews quality rating system, a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews. Twenty-five systematic reviews were included. There was evidence that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) were at elevated risk for secondary health conditions, health promotion interventions can improve physical and mental health conditions, and employment is associated with better health-related quality of life. Health promotion intervention to help people with ID engage in health promoting behaviors can improve health and their ability to find and maintain employment.
Gulielmus Laurus, a recusant exile and neo-Latin poet from Yorkshire has left a variety of evidence for his existence from 1587 through to the late 1590s, mostly in published verse in which he reflects on his life and experience, protests against the Anglican settlement, and asserts his faith. The article attempts to piece together his biography from the meagre information he gives, and offers two alternative interpretations of the data: one in which he was born around 1565, and one, marginally preferable, which makes him about ten years older. His poems are highly personal documents which reveal his interactions with the ‘republic of letters’ in Belgium, Germany and France, and the intense practical and psychological pressures of life as a friendless exile.
Unemployment and being not in the labour force (NILF) are risk factors for suicide, but their association with self-harm is unclear, and there is continuing debate about the role of confounding by prior mental health conditions. We examine associations between employment status and self-harm and suicide in a prospective cohort, taking into account prior mental-health-related factors.
We used linked data from the New Zealand Integrated Data Infrastructure. The outcomes were chosen to be hospital presentation for self-harm and death by suicide. The exposure was employment status, defined as employed, unemployed, or NILF, measured at the 2013 Census. Confounders included demographic factors and mental health history (use of antidepressant medication, use of mental health services, and prior self-harm). Logistic regression was used to model effects. Analyses were stratified by gender.
For males, unemployment was associated with an increased risk of suicide [odds ratio (OR): 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20–1.84] and self-harm (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.45–1.68) after full adjustment for confounders. NILF was associated with an increased risk of self-harm (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.32–1.55), but less of an association was seen with suicide (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.94–1.49). For females, unemployment was associated with an increased risk of suicide (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.93–1.80) and of self-harm (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.43–1.62), and NILF was associated with a similar increase in risk for suicide (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 0.98–1.75) and self-harm (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.26–1.40).
Exclusion from employment is associated with a considerably heightened risk of suicide and self-harm for both men and women, even among those without prior mental health problems.
The chapter presents an economy-wide modeling framework that enables analyzing the direct and indirect impacts of policy interventions on sectors in the economy. The chapter reviews studies that model various policy interventions aimed at improving water allocation decisions within an economy-wide context. It focuses on the “macro-micro linkage” framework that facilitates assessment of various linkages among policies and their impacts within individual sectors and on the entire economy. Drawing on country-based studies in Morocco, South Africa, Turkey, and Mexico, the analysis reveals trade-offs among various policy objectives, including priorities placed on different sectors, regional advantages, and general economic efficiency gains versus broader social impacts.
Larger social spending budgets have not produced any net loss of GDP, or in skills, or in work. Without any such costs, Europe’s welfare states have produced greater equality, cleaner government, and even longer life. So says the international evidence for any decade or combination of decades back to 1880, before which there was little social spending at all. The belief that greater social spending must somehow shrink the size of the economic pie is in trouble, and is likely to keep retreating in the wake of the slump of 2020.
Local Content and Sustainable Development in Global Energy Markets analyses the topical and contentious issue of the critical intersections between local content requirements (LCRs) and the implementation of sustainable development treaties in global energy markets including Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America, South America, Australasia and the Middle East While LCRs generally aim to boost domestic value creation and economic growth, inappropriately designed LCRs could produce negative social, human rights and environmental outcomes, and a misalignment of a country's fiscal policies and global sustainable development goals. These unintended outcomes may ultimately serve as disincentive to foreign participation in a country's energy market. This book outlines the guiding principles of a sustainable and rights-based approach – focusing on transparency, accountability, gender justice and other human rights issues – to the design, application and implementation of LCRs in global energy markets to avoid misalignments.
We investigate gender differences across multiple dimensions after 3 months of the first UK lockdown of March 2020, using an online sample of approximately 1,500 Prolific respondents’ residents in the UK. We find that women's mental health was worse than men along the four metrics we collected data on, that women were more concerned about getting and spreading the virus, and that women perceived the virus as more prevalent and lethal than men did. Women were also more likely to expect a new lockdown or virus outbreak by the end of 2020, and were more pessimistic about the contemporaneous and future state of the UK economy, as measured by their forecasted contemporaneous and future unemployment rates. We also show that between earlier in 2020 before the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic and June 2020, women had increased childcare and housework more than men. Neither the gender gaps in COVID-19-related health and economic concerns nor the gender gaps in the increase in hours of childcare and housework can be accounted for by a rich set of control variables. Instead, we find that the gender gap in mental health can be partially accounted for by the difference in COVID-19-related health concerns between men and women.
David P. Farrington was born in 1944 in England and is Emeritus Professor of Criminology at the University of Cambridge. He is director of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD), which was initiated in 1961 by Donald West with 411 males in London, England, who are still followed. The study advanced knowledge about offending and antisocial behavior; drug and alcohol use; risk factors for aggression, violence, bullying, and intimate partner violence from childhood to adulthood; and the relationship between offending and other life problems, such as in accommodation, relationships, and employment. It has advanced knowledge about risk factors for offending, especially those measured in childhood, such as impulsiveness, low school achievement, poor parental supervision, and disrupted families. It has also advanced knowledge about the effects of life events – such as getting married, becoming separated, and becoming unemployed – on the course of development of offending, as well as the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. Farrington has consistently advocated for early intervention targeting risk factors in order to reduce offending. For example, poor parenting can be targeted using home visiting and parent management training, impulsiveness can be targeted with skills training, and low achievement can be targeted in preschool intellectual enrichment programs.
This qualitative study explores the experiences of 23 professional baby-boomers in Australia who are challenging the traditional employment and retirement pathway through non-standard employment (NSE). We focus on professional part-time, casual and self-employed work within the kaleidoscope of various working arrangements that form NSE. Using a phenomenographic approach, we identified variations in how these older baby-boomers experience engagement in NSE. Our findings revealed five interrelated hierarchical categories of description, which posit a generally positive view of NSE and highlight financial stability, flexibility, continued activity, social ties and maintaining self-identity as key conceptions for work engagement. Our study suggests that NSE is an important and under-researched part of the labour market for baby-boomer professionals, that it can offer greater opportunities for engagement and that the traditional hard-boundary view of retirement as a defined lifestage is softening. It extends our understanding of baby-boomer engagement with NSE in the labour market and offers findings that may inform future policy and practice.