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The early recognition of patients with sepsis is difficult and the initial assessment outside of hospitals is challenging for ambulance clinicians (ACs). Indicators that ACs can use to recognize sepsis early are beneficial for patient outcomes. Research suggests that elevated point-of-care (POC) plasma glucose and serum lactate levels may help to predict sepsis in the ambulance service (AS) setting.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the elevation of POC plasma glucose and serum lactate levels may help to predict Sepsis-3 in the AS.
A prospective observational study was performed in the AS setting of Gothenburg in Sweden from the beginning of March 2018 through the end of September 2019. The criteria for sampling POC plasma glucose and serum lactate levels in the AS setting were high or intermediate risk according to the Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment System (RETTS), as red, orange, yellow, and green if the respiratory rate was >22 breaths/minutes. Sepsis-3 were identified retrospectively. A primary and secondary analyses were carried out. The primary analysis included patients cared for in the AS and emergency department (ED) and were hospitalized. In the secondary analysis, patients who were only cared for in the AS and ED without being hospitalized were also included. To evaluate the predictive ability of these biomarkers, the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were used.
A total of 1,057 patients were included in the primary analysis and 1,841 patients were included in the secondary analysis. In total, 253 patients met the Sepsis-3 criteria (in both analyses). The AUC for POC plasma glucose and serum lactate levels showed low accuracy in predicting Sepsis-3 in both the primary and secondary analyses. Among all hospitalized patients, regardless of Sepsis-3, more than two-thirds had elevated plasma glucose and nearly one-half had elevated serum lactate when measured in the AS.
As individual biomarkers, an elevated POC plasma glucose and serum lactate were not associated with an increased likelihood of Sepsis-3 when measured in the AS in this study. However, the high rate of elevation of these biomarkers before arrival in hospital highlights that their role in clinical decision making at this early stage needs further evaluation, including other endpoints than Sepsis-3.
The Gaza Strip lives in a protracted emergency crisis and experienced several Israeli escalations. These escalations have overwhelmed the hospitals and highlighted the need to optimize Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) to form part of the emergency response system. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the emergency preparedness of the Ministry of Health (MoH)-run level-four PHCCs in the Gaza Strip (where Emergency Medical Services are provided along with preventive and curative services).
The study was cross-sectional, used quantitative methods, and utilized two tools. The first tool was a self-administered structured questionnaire exploring Primary Care Providers’ ([PCPs]; doctors and nurses) experiences, perceived capabilities, and training needs. The second tool was an observational checklist used to assess the preparedness of the emergency rooms (ERs) at level-four PHCCs in the Gaza Strip.
Two hundred and thirty-eight PCPs (34.5% doctors and 65.5% nurses) working in 16 level-four PHCCs were included. Overall, 64.4% of the participants had experience working in PHCCs during Israeli escalations, though 35.3% of them were unaware of the contingency plan (CP) of PHCCs. More nurses were aware of CPs than doctors (66.9% versus 42.7%; P <.001). Moreover, 65.7%, 46.7%, and 42.5% of the participants were trained in Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), and Primary Trauma Care (PTC), respectively. However, many had received the training for more than two years, and none of the PHCCs had all its staff trained. Only 36.8% of the participants were trained in Post-Trauma/Post-Operative Care (wound care and dressing), and the percentage of trained nurses was significantly higher than those of doctors (36.8% versus 13.9%; P <.001). The majority of the participants admitted they need ACLS training (89.2%), PTC training (89%), BLS training (81.1%), and Post-Trauma/Post-Operative Care training (76.8%). Only 29.63% of emergency drugs and 37.5% of the equipment and disposables were available in the ERs of all PHCCs, and none of the PHCCs had all the essential emergency drugs, equipment, and disposables available.
Level-four PHCCs in the Gaza Strip are not adequately prepared to respond to emergencies. Generally, PCPs lack appropriate competencies for emergency response, and many PHCCs lack the infrastructure to support Primary Emergency Care (PEC). Thus, PCPs need continuous education and training in disaster preparedness and response and PEC.
Terrorism remains a major threat and concern in many countries around the world. Pediatric populations represent approximately 30% of the world population, and in the event of a terrorist attack, can either be primary targets, to include the possibility of abduction, or unintended victims. They are unique in their vulnerabilities and, therefore, require special consideration.
This study is a semi-quantitative, epidemiological analysis of all terrorism-related pediatric fatalities and injuries sustained from 1970-2019. Data collection was performed using a retrospective database search through the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). Summaries of events including search terms associated with pediatric population were individually reviewed and those describing the deaths, injuries, or abductions were tallied.
Of the over 200,000 terror events, 2,302 events met inclusion criteria. This represented 1.14% of total events which involved death, injury, or abduction. Of 2,032 events, a total of 2,275 pediatric fatal injuries (FI) were recorded, as well as 2,280 pediatric non-fatal injuries (NFI). The most common weapons used in all attacks involving the pediatric population were explosives (1,539 [66.8%]), firearms (543 [23.5%]), other (169 [7.3%]), and melee (83 [3.6%]). A total of 275 of the 2,032 events were related to abductions, with 71 cases involving the abduction of 10 individuals or more.
Pediatric casualties in terrorist events represent a small proportion of overall victims. However, it should be understood that the pediatric population has unique vulnerabilities, and when directly impacted by terrorism, can have long-term physical and psychosocial sequelae, as well as a devastating emotional impact on the community.
This systematic literature review surveyed the evidence for the acceptability and effectiveness of CBT and psychologically based interventions for emergency department (ED) attenders with physical health complaints as their primary concern, in light of over-burdened EDs and the existing evidence base for psychological interventions in other medical settings. The review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42018087860). A systematic search of three databases (APAPsychNet, Cochrane and PubMed) was performed to identify psychological treatment studies targeting physical health problems presenting in the ED, with broad inclusion criteria to capture a coherent understanding of the current knowledge base. A total of 2606 potential studies for inclusion were identified; 45 proceeded to full review. Twenty papers met the full inclusion. Included studies covered four clinical areas: trauma/PTSD-prevention, panic attacks, non-cardiac chest-pain and miscellaneous. A narrative description of findings reflected positive outcomes across all groups, but this was not consistent across any group. Few studies measured ED attendance (20%) or satisfaction/acceptability (10%). The majority of studies (90%) were underpinned by a cognitive behavioural framework, consistent with the current evidence base as applied to the management of medical conditions. Findings suggest there is some evidence that interventions in the ED are effective and acceptable to patients, but interpretation of findings is limited by the mixed quality of designs and risk of bias.
Key learning aims
(1) To understand the current body of evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of psychological interventions in the emergency department.
(2) To gain a clear understanding of the models and format of the delivery of CBT and psychological interventions in an acute setting.
(3) To identify gaps in the evidence to inform future development of CBT-based interventions to improve outcomes and clinical care.
In Australia, aeromedical retrieval provides a vital link for rural communities with limited health services to definitive care in urban centers. Yet, there are few studies of aeromedical patient experiences and outcomes, or clear measures of the service quality provided to these patients.
This study explores whether a previously developed quality framework could usefully be applied to existing air ambulance patient journeys (ie, the sequences of care that span multiple settings; prehospital and hospital-based pre-flight, flight transport, after-flight hospital in-patient, and disposition). The study aimed to use linked data from aeromedical, emergency department (ED), and hospital sources, and from death registries, to document and analyze patient journeys.
A previously developed air ambulance quality framework was used to place patient, prehospital, and in-hospital service outcomes in relevant quality domains identified from the Institutes of Medicine (IOM) and Dr. Donabedian models. To understand the aeromedical patients’ journeys, data from all relevant data sources were linked by unique patient identifiers and the outcomes of the resulting analyses were applied to the air ambulance quality framework.
Overall, air ambulance referral pathways could be classified into three categories: Intraregional (those retrievals which stayed within the region), Out of Region, and Into Region. Patient journeys and service outcomes varied markedly between referral pathways. Prehospital and in-hospital service variables and patient outcomes showed that the framework could be used to explore air ambulance service quality.
The air ambulance quality framework can usefully be applied to air ambulance patient experiences and outcomes using linked data analysis. The framework can help guide prehospital and in-hospital performance reporting. With variations between regional referral pathways, this knowledge will aid with planning within the local service. The study successfully linked data from aeromedical, ED, in-hospital, and death sources and explored the aeromedical patients’ journeys.
There is no all-encompassing or universally accepted definition of the difficult airway, and it has traditionally been approached as a problem chiefly rooted in anesthesiology. However, with airway obstruction reported as the second leading cause of mortality on the battlefield and first-pass success (FPS) rates for out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation (ETI) as low as 46.4%, the need to better understand the difficult airway in the context of the prehospital setting is clear. In this review, we seek to redefine the concept of the “difficult airway” so that future research can target solutions better tailored for prehospital, and more specifically, combat casualty care. Contrasting the most common definitions, which narrow the scope of practice to physicians and a handful of interventions, we propose that the difficult airway is simply one that cannot be quickly obtained. This implies that it is a situation arrived at through a multitude of factors, namely the Patient, Operator, Setting, and Technology (POST), but also more importantly, the interplay between these elements. Using this amended definition and approach to the difficult to manage airway, we outline a target-specific approach to new research questions rooted in this system-based approach to better address the difficult airway in the prehospital and combat casualty care settings.
Millions of people visit US national parks annually to engage in recreational wilderness activities, which can occasionally result in traumatic injuries that require timely, high-level care. However, no study to date has specifically examined timely access to trauma centers from national parks. This study aimed to examine the accessibility of trauma care from national parks by calculating the travel time by ground and air from each park to its nearest trauma center. Using these calculations, the percentage of parks by census region with timely access to a trauma center was determined.
This was a cross-sectional study analyzing travel times by ground and air transport between national parks and their closest adult advanced trauma center (ATC) in 2018. A list of parks was compiled from the National Parks Service (NPS) website, and the location of trauma centers from the 2018 National Emergency Department Inventory (NEDI)-USA database. Ground and air transport times were calculated using Google Maps and ArcGIS, with medians and interquartile ranges reported by US census region. Percentage of parks by region with timely trauma center access—defined as access within 60 minutes of travel time—were determined based on these calculated travel times.
In 2018, 83% of national parks had access to an adult ATC within 60 minutes of air travel, while only 26% had timely access by ground. Trauma center access varied by region, with median travel times highest in the West for both air and ground transport. At a national level, national parks were unequally distributed, with the West housing the most parks of all regions.
While most national parks had timely access to a trauma center by air travel, significant gaps in access remain for ground, the extent of which varies greatly by region. To improve the accessibility of trauma center expertise from national parks, the study highlights the potential that increased implementation of trauma telehealth in emergency departments (EDs) may have in bridging these gaps.
Wilderness Medicine (WM) focuses on care delivered in austere or resource-scarce environments. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements and core content for Emergency Medicine (EM) residency and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) fellowship in the United States (US) include some WM topics that are covered to varying degrees in these programs. Furthermore, there are no ACGME-approved WM fellowships or specific curricula. Different training programs may develop WM content and curricula that differ significantly, leading to variations in WM competencies and training. In 2009, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Wilderness Medicine Section created a Fellowship Subcommittee and Taskforce to develop a standardized curriculum and core content for EM-based WM fellowships. However, to date, EMS fellowship and EM residency WM curricula in the US content have not been analyzed for consistency with the ACEP WM fellowship curriculum.
In this study, the WM curricula components of EM residency and EMS fellowship were evaluated using the ACEP WM fellowship curriculum as a control. Potential curriculum gaps for each program type were identified.
Of the 19 WM competencies developed by the ACEP Wilderness Medicine Section Fellowship Subcommittee and Taskforce, EMS fellowship covers more WM topics (16 topics, or 84%) than EM residency (12 topics, or 63%), and combined, they cover 89% of these topics.
By expanding to cover two additional WM topics, all WM curricula topics recommended by the ACEP WM fellowship curriculum could potentially be covered in EM residency + EMS fellowship; however, the depth of education in each topic may vary. It may be beneficial for Graduate Medical Education (GME)-level learners for programs to implement hands-on educational experiences in WM topics.
In the event of a mass-casualty incident (MCI), hospital emergency departments (EDs) may be called upon to provide care to a large number of critically ill patients. As EDs plan for MCIs, determining how to best allocate staff members can play a significant role in the success or failure of a response. In academic EDs, a group that is often overlooked during MCI planning is the resident physicians. We argue that MCI plans at academic hospitals should consider the re-deployment of emergency medicine resident physicians in non-critical hospital rotations back to the ED.
The majority of pediatric medications are dosed according to weight and therefore accurate weight assessment is essential. However, this can be difficult in the unpredictable and peripatetic prehospital care setting, and medication errors are common. The Handtevy method and the Broselow tape are two systems designed to guide Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers in both pediatric patient weight estimation and medication dosing. The accuracy of the Handtevy method of weight estimation as practiced in the field by EMS has not been previously examined.
The primary objective of this study was to examine the field performance of the Handtevy method and the Broselow tape with respect to prehospital patient weight estimation.
This was a retrospective chart review of trauma and non-trauma patients transported by EMS to the emergency department (ED) of a quaternary care children’s hospital from January 1, 2021 through June 30, 2021. Demographic data, ED visit information, prehospital weight estimation, and medication dosing were collected and analyzed. Scale-based weight from the ED was used as the standard for comparison.
A total of 509 patients <13 years of age were included in this study. The EMS providers using the Broselow method estimated patient weight to within +/-10% of ED scale weight in 51.3% of patients. When using the Handtevy method, the EMS providers estimated patient weight to within +/-10% of ED scale weight in 43.7% of patients. When comparing the Handtevy versus Broselow method of prehospital weight estimation, there was no significant association between method and categorized weight discrepancy (over, under, or accurate estimates – defined as within 10% of ED scale weight; P = .25) or percent weight discrepancy (P = .75). On average, prehospital weight estimation was 6.33% lower than ED weight with use of the Handtevy method and 6.94% lower with use of the Broselow method.
This study demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the use of the Handtevy or Broselow methods with respect to prehospital weight estimation. While further research is necessary, these results suggest similar field performance of the Broselow and Handtevy methods.
Suicide is a universal, complex, and multifaceted public health problem that is among the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. The impact of suicide affects families, communities, and societies; hence its prevention is an emerging priority for public health systems.
The current systematic review aims to investigate the efficacy of distance suicide prevention strategies implemented through synchronous technology-based interventions (i.e., any digital tool that allows interactive and immediate real-time communication conducted remotely).
The bibliographic search has been carried out in the electronic databases MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science, with no restrictions on the publication period and limited to publications in English or Spanish. Two reviewers independently will conduct screenings, data extraction, risk of bias (RoB), and methodological quality assessment.
The preliminary data searches seem to support the effectiveness of providing active contact to persons who have made a suicide attempt and indicate that receiving early specialized assistance decreases the relative risk of recurrence. The reduction would be attributable to improved detection of patients at increased risk and effective referral to emergency services.
Telematics suicide prevention has been an emergent field for years, facilitated by the notably increased in acceptance and availability. Considering that distance programmes can reach affected individuals regardless of their location, it stands to reason that these interventions will be part of future suicide prevention efforts. The results will be discussed regarding (a) the effect size of the intervention outcomes and (b) the main moderators of the effectiveness found.
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) are a serious public health problem. Suicide prevention programs have been established over the years but many people who are suicidal do not seek treatment, and when they do they will end up in low-threshold sectors such as the Emergency Department in general hospitals. Previous studies about STB are mostly narrative, rather than a date-driven approach and limited in sample size.
The main goal of this study is to describe the prevalence and evolution of STB (ideation, plan or attempt) of the psychiatric patient referred to the Emergency Department of the University Hospital Gasthuisberg (Leuven, Belgium) over a 12 year period.
During a 12 year period (2003-2015), all patients with a psychiatric referral to the Psychiatric Emergency Room (PER) of the University Hospital Gasthuisberg (Leuven, Belgium) were included (N˜25.000). We use descriptive statistics to summarize the data set, focusing on STB in terms of raw numbers, symptoms at referral, mental disorders and demographic characteristics.
Around 1/9 patients presents with suicide attempt; another 1/5 with suicidal thoughts. STB accounts for 35% of psychiatric primary complaints at the PER. Women were more likely to present with STB. The proportion of STB referrals remains stable over the years.
Despite several reforms in mental health care, the PER remains a major entry point into mental healthcare for large proportions of STB patients.
To identify implementation strategies for collaborative care (CC) that are successful in the context of perinatal care.
Perinatal depression is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and is associated with adverse maternal, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes. Although treating depressive symptoms reduces risks to mom and baby, barriers to accessing psychiatric treatment remain. CC has demonstrated benefit in primary care, expanding access, yet few studies have examined the implementation of CC in perinatal care which presents unique characteristics and challenges.
We conducted qualitative interviews with 20 patients and 10 stakeholders from Collaborative Care Model for Perinatal Depression Support Services (COMPASS), a perinatal collaborative care (pCC) program implemented since 2017. We analyzed interview data by employing the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework to organize empirically selected implementation strategies from Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) to create a guide for the development of pCC programs.
We identified 14 implementation strategies used in the implementation of COMPASS. Strategies were varied, cutting across ERIC domains (eg, plan, educate, finance) and across EPIS contexts (eg, inner context – characteristics of the pCC program). The majority of strategies were identified by patients and staff as facilitators of pCC implementation. In addition, findings show opportunities for improving the implementation strategies used, such as optimal dissemination of educational materials for obstetric clinicians. The implementation of COMPASS can serve as a model for the process of building a pCC program. The identified strategies can support the implementation of this evidence-based practice for addressing postpartum depression.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenged health care systems in an unprecedented way. Due to the enormous amount of hospital ward and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, regular care came to a standstill, thereby overcrowding ICUs and endangering (regular and COVID-19-related) critical care. Acute care coordination centers were set up to safely manage the influx of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, treatments requiring ICU surveillance were postponed leading to increased waiting lists.
A coordination center organizing patient transfers and admissions could reduce overcrowding and optimize in-hospital capacity.
The acute lack of hospital capacity urged the region West-Netherlands to form a new regional system for patient triage and transfer: the Regional Capacity and Patient Transfer Service (RCPS). By combining hospital capacity data and a new method of triage and transfer, the RCPS was able to effectively select patients for transfer to other hospitals within the region or, in close collaboration with the National Capacity and Patient Transfer Service (LCPS), transfer patients to hospitals in other regions within the Netherlands.
From March 2020 through December 2021 (22 months), the RCPS West-Netherlands was requested to transfer 2,434 COVID-19 patients. After adequate triage, 1,720 patients with a mean age of 62 (SD = 13) years were transferred with the help of the RCPS West-Netherlands. This concerned 1,166 ward patients (68%) and 554 ICU patients (32%). Overcrowded hospitals were relieved by transferring these patients to hospitals with higher capacity.
The health care system in the region West-Netherlands benefitted from the RCPS for both ward and ICU occupation. Due to the coordination by the RCPS, regional ICU occupation never exceeded the maximal ICU capacity, and therefore patients in need for acute direct care could always be admitted at the ICU. The presented method can be useful in reducing the waiting lists caused by the delayed care and for coordination and transfer of patients with new variants or other infectious diseases in the future.
Hyperkalemia (HK) is common and potentially a life-threatening condition. If untreated, HK can progress to ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac arrest. Early treatment reduces mortality in HK. This study evaluates a novel protocol for identification and empiric management of presumed HK in the prehospital setting.
This was a retrospective, observational chart review of a single, large, suburban Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system. Patients treated for presumed HK, with both a clinical concern for HK and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes consistent with HK, from February 2018 through February 2021 were eligible for inclusion. Patients were excluded if found to be in cardiac arrest on EMS arrival. Empiric treatment of HK included administration of calcium, sodium bicarbonate, and albuterol. Post-treatment, patients were placed on cardiac monitoring and adverse events recorded enroute to receiving hospital. Protocol compliance was assessed by two independent reviewers. Serum potassium (K) level was obtained from hospital medical records.
A total of 582 patients were treated for HK, of which 533 patients were excluded due to cardiac arrest prior to EMS arrival. The remaining 48 patients included in the analysis had a mean age of 56 (SD = 20) years and were 60.4% (n = 29) male with 77.1% (n = 37) Caucasian, 10.4% (n = 5) African American, and 12.5% (n = 6) Hispanic. Initial blood draw at the receiving facilities showed K >5.0mEq/L in 22 (45.8%), K of 3.5-5.0mEq/L in 23 (47.9%), and K <3.5mEq/L in three patients (6.3%). Independent review of the EMS ECG found the presence of hyperkalemic-related change in 43 (89.6%) cases, and five (10.4%) patients did not meet criteria for treatment due to lack of either appropriate ECG findings or clinical suspicion. No episodes of unstable tachyarrhythmia or cardiac arrest occurred during EMS treatment or transport.
The study evaluated a novel protocol for detecting and managing HK in the prehospital setting. It is feasible for EMS crews to administer this protocol, although a larger study is needed to make the results generalizable.
Given the evidence that drinking patterns and self-harm hospital presentations have changed during COVID-19, this study aimed to examine any change in self-harm and suicide-related ideation presentations, together with any possible contribution made by alcohol or substance misuse, to Irish Emergency Departments in 2020, compared with 2018 and 2019.
A population-based cohort with self-harm and suicide-related ideation presenting to Irish hospitals derived from the National Clinical Programme for Self-Harm was analysed. Descriptive analyses were conducted based on sociodemographic variables and types of presentation for the period January to August 2020 and compared with the same period in 2018 and 2019. Binomial regression analyses were performed to investigate the independent effect of demographic characteristics and pre/during COVID-19 periods on the use of substances as contributory factors in the self-harm and suicide-related ideation presentations.
12,075 presentations due to self-harm and suicide-related ideation were recorded for the periods January–August 2018–2020 across nine emergency departments. The COVID-19 year was significantly associated with substances contributing to self-harm and suicide-related ideation ED presentations (OR = 1.183; 95% CI, 1.075–1.301, p < 0.001). No changes in the demographic characteristics were found for those with self-harm or suicide-related ideation across the years. Suicide-related ideation seemed to be increased after May 2020 compared with previous years. In terms of self-harm episodes with comorbid drug and alcohol overdose and poisoning, these were significantly increased in January–August 2020, compared with previous timepoints (χ2 = 42.424, df = 6, p < 0.001).
An increase in suicide-related ideation and substance-related self-harm presentations may indicate longer term effects of the pandemic and its relevant restrictions. Future studies might explore whether those presenting with ideation will develop a risk of suicide in post-pandemic periods.
Global climate change (global warming) has been identified as the primary factor responsible for the observed increase in frequency and severity of wildfires (also known as bushfires in some countries) throughout the majority of the world’s vegetated environments. This trend is predicted to continue, causing significant adverse health effects to nearby residential populations and placing a potential strain on local emergency departments (EDs).
The aim of this literature review was to identify papers relating to wildfires and their impact on EDs, specifically patient presentation characteristics, resource utilization, and patient outcomes.
This integrative literature review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for data collection, and Whittemore and Knafl’s framework for data analysis. Data were collected from OvidSP, MEDLINE, DARE, CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Various Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords identified papers relevant to wildfires/bushfires and EDs.
Literature regarding the relationship between ED presentations and wildfire events, however, is primarily limited to studies from the United States and Australia and indicates particulate matter (PM) is principally linked to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes. Observable trends in the literature principally included a significant increase in respiratory presentations, primarily with a lag of one to two days from the initial event. Respiratory and cardiovascular studies that stratified results by age indicated individuals under five, over 65, or those with pre-existing conditions formed the majority of ED presentations.
Key learnings from this review included the need for effective and targeted community advisory programs/procedures, prior to and during wildfire events, as well as pre-event planning, development, and robust resilience strategies for EDs.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people around the globe and vaccines against the disease have started to develop. Side effects of the vaccine have been reported in the literature, including myocarditis, which has a very low incidence and with a good prognosis. This case report aims to present two medical students’ vaccine-induced myocarditis cases after the first doses of BNT162b2.
These patients were young males with no previous medical history and both of them had good recovery after the disease. Both of them had their vaccine very recently before the event. These cases show that myocarditis can be seen after the first dose as well.
Global vaccination is the most effective prevention method against COVID-19. Considering the fact that morbidities after the disease occur more than the side effects of the vaccine, they are still the best option against the current pandemic.
Emergencies and disasters occur in any society, and it is the hospitals and their emergency department staff who must be prepared in such cases. Therefore, 1 of the effective methods of training medical care staff is the use of simulators. However, when introducing new simulation approaches, we face many challenges. The aim of this study was to identify challenges of the simulation of the hospital emergency department during disasters and provide effective solutions.
This conventional content, thematic, analysis study was conducted in 2021. Participants were selected from Iranian experts using purposeful and snowball sampling methods. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by the content analysis.
After analyzing the data, the challenges of simulating the hospital emergency department during disasters were identified in 2 main components and 6 perspectives, which included organizational components (inappropriate and aimless training methods, lack of interaction and cooperation, lack of funding, and inadequate physical space) and technological components (weak information management and lack of interdisciplinary cooperation). Solutions included management (resource support) and data sharing and exchange (infrastructures, cooperation and coordination).
The simulation technology can be used as a method for training and improving the quality of health care services in emergencies. Considering that most of these challenges can be solved and need the full support of managers and policy makers, by examining these issues, supporting staff of health care centers are advised to make a significant contribution to the advancement of education and problem reduction in the event of disasters.